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PRACTICAL 



HOUSEKEEPING 



A CAREFUL COMPILATION OF 



TRIED AND APPROVED RECIPES. 



"Prove all things and hold fast that which is good." 



THREE HUNDREDTH THOUSAND 



DAYTON, OHIO: 
BUCKEYE PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

(Xorthwestern Office, Minneapolis, Minn.) 
1887. 



,_>(-, URRARV 

4<i50>. 

s^TO^- I FNOX Al^D 
,fn,-; FOUNDATIONS 



PUBLISHER'S NOTICE. 



This book is a revised and enlarged edition of "Buckeye Cookery and 
Practical Housekeeping," which has reached a sale of over ONE HUNDRED 
THOUSAND copies since its publication, three years ago. The first edition 
was published for a benevolent object, and necessarily had many purely 
local features. Since then the book has been four times revised and en- 
larged, and all its local features dropped, and with them now disappears 
that part of the title which identified the book with the state where it 
originated. 



. Press of Job Printing Dep't, 

B--*.ETHl.E.J PUBLISHING HoUSB, 
. 

Di ST i>y, ..OHIO. 



Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1881, by BUCKEYE PUBLISHING COMPANY 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



TO THOSS; 

PLUCKY HOUSEWIVES 

WHO MASTER THEIR WORK INSTEAD OF ALLOWING IT TO MASTER THEM, 

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



r$READ-MAKING . 

CAKE-MAKING . 

CREAMS AND CUSTARDS 

CONFECTIONERY . 

CANNING FRUITS. 

CATSUPS AND SAUCES. 

DRINKS. 

EGGS . 

FISH 

FRUITS . 

GAME . 

ICES AND ICE-CREAM . 

JELLIES AND JAMS 

MEATS . 

PASTRY . 

PUDDINGS AND SAUCES 

PRESERVES . 

PICKLES 

POULTRY 

SALADS . 

SHELL-FISH . 

SOUPS . 

VEGETABLES . 

ORNAMENTAL ICING, ILLUSTRATED 

BILLS OF FARE FOB EVERY DAY IN 

FRAGMENTS . 

BLANKS FOR ADDITIONAL RECIPES 

COOK'S TIME-TABLE 

TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

WHEN FOOD is IN SEASON 

COMPARATIVE VALUE OF FUEL 

HOUSEKEEPING .... 

DINING-ROOM .... 

KITCHEN 

KITCHEN LUXURIES, ILLUSTRATED 

HOUSEHOLD CONVENIENCES, ILLUSTRATED 

MANAGEMENT OF HELP 

MARKETING . 

CARVING, ILLUSTRATED 

How TO CUT AND CURE MEATS, ILLUSTRATED 

HINTS ON BUTTER-MAKING 

LAUNDRY .... 

CELLAR AND ICE-HOUSE . 

SOMETHING ABOUT BABIES 

HINTS FOR THE WELL 

HINT'S FOR THE SlCK-ROOM 

THE ARTS OF THE TOILET. 

ACCIDENTS AND SUDDEN SICKNESS 

FLORAL 

CHEMISTRY OF FOOD . 
DRESS-MAKING AT HOME . 
COLORING AND BLEACHING 
MEDICAL .... 
MISCELLANEOUS . 
ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



THE 

"RAT] 
LUST 




YE 

D 
RATE 

I 


&B 

D 



7-58 
59-101 
. 102-112 
. 113-118 
. 119-127 
. 128-136 
. 137-144 
. 145-150 
. 151-158 
. 159-166 
. 167-173 
. 174-180 
. 181-189 
. 190-209 
. 210-224 
. 225-242 
. 243-253 
. 254-270 
. 271-286 
. 287-294 
. 295-303 
. 304-319 
. 320-345 
. 346-378 
. 379-405 
. 406-416 
. 416-417 
417 
418 

. 419-420 
421 

. 422-444 
. 445-458 
. 459-476 
. 477-491 
. 492-498 
. 499-501 
. 502-510 
. 511-512 
. 513-518 
. 519-520 
. 521-535 
. 536-540 
. 541-555 
. 556-561 
. 5(52-573 
. 574-581 
. 582-583 
. 589-591 
. 592-597 
. 598-619 
. 620-628 
. 629-660 
. G61-C72 
. 673-G87 



PREFACE. 



FORTUNATELY it is becoming fashionable to economize, and 
housekeepers are really finding it a pleasant pastime to search out 
and stop wastes in household expenses, and to exercise the thou- 
sand little economies which thoughtful and careful women under- 
stand so readily and practice with such grace. Somebody has 
said that a well-to-do French family would live on what an Amer- 
ican household in the same condition of life wastes, and this may 
not be a great exaggeration. Here, the greatest source of waste is 
in the blunders and experiments of the inexperienced. Women are 
slow to learn by the experience of others. Every young house- 
keeper must begin at the beginning (unless her mother was wise 
enough to give her a careful training), and blunder into a know- 
ledge of the practical, duties of the household, wasting time, tem- 
per and money in mistakes, when such simple instructions as any 
skillful housewife might readily give would be an almost perfect 
guide. Lately there have been attempts to gather such instruc- 
tions as are needed into a book, but they have been partial fail- 
ures, because the authors have been good book-makers, but poor 
bread-makers, or because, while practically familiar with the sub- 
jects treated, they have failed to express clearly and concisely the 
full processes in detail. In compiling this new candidate for favor, 
the one aim has been to pack between its covers the greatest 
possible amount of practical information of real value to all, and 
especially to the inexperienced. It is not a hap-hazard collection 

of recipes, gathered at random from doubtful sources, but has 

(v) 



vi PREFACE. 

been made up, without sparing time, labor, or expense, from the 
choicest bits of the best experience of hundreds who have long 
traveled the daily round of household duties, not reluctantly like 
drudges, but lovingly, with heart and hand fully enlisted in the 
work. Those housewives, especially, whose purses are not over-pie- 
thoric will, it is believed, find its pages full of timely and helpful 
suggestions in their efforts to make the balance of the household 
ledger appear on the right side, without lessening the excellence 
of the table or robbing home of any comfort or attraction. 

The arrangement of subjects treated, whenever practicable, has 
been made in the simple order of the alphabet, and for the sake 
of still more ready reference a very full alphabetical index has 
been added. The instructions which precede the recipes of each 
department have been carefully made up, and are entirely trust- 
worthy, and the recipes themselves are new to print and well in- 
dorsed. Several suggestive articles have also been introduced, 
which, though not belonging strictly to cookery, bear such close 
relations to it that the fitness of their appearance in the connection 
is evident. 

There has been no attempt at display or effect, the only purpose 
being to express ideas as clearly and concisely as possible, and to 
make a thoroughly simple and practical work. In the effort to 
avoid the mistakes of others, greater errors may have been com- 
mitted; but the book is submitted just as it is to the generous judg- 
ment of those who consult it, with the hope that it may lessen 
their perplexities, and stimulate that just pride without which 
work is drudgery and great excellence impossible. 



BREAD-MAKING. 



THE old saying, "bread is the staff of life," has sound reason in 
it. Flour made from wheat, and meal from oats and Indian corn, 
are rich in the waste-repairing elements, starch and albumen, and 
head the list of articles of food for man. Good bread makes the 
homeliest meal acceptable, and the coarsest fare appetizing, while 
the most luxurious table is not even tolerable without it. Light, 
crisp rolls for breakfast, spongy, sweet bread for dinner, and flaky 
biscuit for supper, cover a multitude of culinary sins and there is 
no one thing on which the health and comfort of a family so much 
depends as the quality of its home-made loaves. 

Opinions as to what constitutes good bread differ, perhaps, as 
much as tastes and opinions concerning any thing else, but all will 
agree that bread, to be good, ought to be light, sweet that is, free 
from any perceptible acid or yeasty taste flaky, granular or not 
liable to become a doughy mass, and as white as the grade of flour 
used will allow. If members of the family have delicate digestive 
powers, they will not use new bread, and therefore must have such 
as will keep with little change of texture and none of quality or 
taste, for several days. To obtain these qualities in bread, use the 
best flour, as in families where no bread is wasted, the best is cheap- 
est. The good old Genesee Valley white winter wheat, of Western 
New York, makes a flour unsurpassed in quality. The Michigan, 
Ohio, Indiana and Missouri white winter wheat grades are much 
the same, but the Minnesota hard spring wheat "new process" 
flour is the equal of the best, and is so much superior in strength 
that one-eighth less is used in all recipes for bread and cake. The 
common or "straight" brands are used by the great majority of 
families, and from all of them good, uniform and palatable bread 
may be made. 

(7) 



8 BREAD-MAKING. 

Housekeepers seldom select flour by examination. They usually 
take some tried brand, or select on the recommendation of their fur- 
ni-her. No rule can be given by which an inexperienced person can 
determine the grade of flour with accuracy, but a few hints will 
enable any one to know what not to buy. Good flour adheres to 
the hand, and, when pressed, shows the imprint of the lines of the 
skin. Its tint is cream white. Never buy that which has a blue- 
white tinge. Poor flour is not adhesive, may be blown about easily, 
and sometimes has a dingy look, as though mixed with ashes. 

Flour should be bought in quantities corresponding to the num- 
ber in the family, that it may not become damaged by long keeping. 
In a family of five, a barrel, or even a half-barrel sack of flour, 
excellent when first bought, will become much deteriorated before 
being used up. A small family should always buy in twenty -five 
pound, or at largest, fifty pound sacks. Flour should be kept dry, 
cool and entirely beyond the reach of marauders, big or little, 
especially the latter, for the infinitesimal meal moth is far more to 
be dreaded than rats or mice. Therefore every receptacle of flour 
should be thoroughly and frequently cleansed, to guard against ani- 
mal as w r ell as vegetable parasites. A single speck of mold, coming 
from old or damp flour in an obscure corner of the flour-box, will 
leaven the whole as rapidly and strongly as ten times its weight in 
yeast. In no event should flour be used without being sifted. 

Bread-making seems u simple process enough, but it requires a 
delicate care and watchfulness, and a thorough knowledge of all 
the contingencies of the process, dependent on the different qualities 
of flour, and the varying kinds and conditions of yeast, and the 
change of seasons ; the process which raises bread successfully in 
winter making it sour in summer. There are many little things in 
bread-making which require accurate observation, and, w 7 hile valu- 
able recipes and well-defined methods in detail are invaluable aids, 
nothing but experience will secure the name merited by so few, 
though earnestly coveted by every practical, sensible housekeeper 
" an excellent bread-maker." Three things are indispensable to 
success: good flour, good yeast, and watchful care. Never use 
flour without sifting ; and a large tin or wooden pail with a tight- 
fitting cover, kept full of sifted flour, will be found a great conven- 



BREAD-MAKING. 9 

ience. All kinds of flour and meal, except buckwheat and Graham 
and Graham, too, when coarse need sifting, and all, like wheat 
flour, should be bought in small quantities, as they become damp 
and musty by long standing. 

THE YEAST. 

After the flour, the yeast or leaven is the next essential element 
in bread. For regular fare most, especially women, prefer "yeast 
bread," but men who can not forget " how their mother used to 
cook," have a liking for "salt-rising" bread, and the latter deserves 
the acquaintance of the housekeeper and a frequent welcome on 
the family table. The dry hop yeast, such as Twin Bros. , Stratton's, 
National, Eagle, Gillett's, and many others, are all good, if fresh, 
and always available, for they are found in every grocery. Many 
housekeepers use baker's yeast, and buy for a penny or two what 
will serve each baking, of bread. Potato yeast has two advantages 
over other kinds ; bread made from it keeps moist longer, and there 
is no danger that an excess of yeast will injure the flavor of the 

bread. 

THE SPONGE. 

This is made from warm water or milk, yeast and flour (some add 
mashed potatoes) mixed together in the proportion of one pint wet- 
ting (water or milk) to two pints of sifted flour. If milk is used 
it should be new, and must be first scalded, and then cooled to blood 
heat. '.The scaiaing tenas to prevent souring, in using water oring- 
it to blood heat. If the ' ' wetting " is too hot, the bread will be 
coarse. When water is used a tablespoon* of lard or butter makes 
the bread more tender. Bread made from milk is, of course, more 
tender and nutritious, but it has not the sweet taste of the wheat,, 
and will not keep as long as that made from water. When mixed 
with milk it requires less flour and less kneading. In summer, care 
must be taken not to set sponge too early, at least not before eight 
or nine o'clock in the evening. (Sponge mixed with bran water, 
warm in winter and cold in summer, makes sweeter bread. Boil 
bran in the proportion of one pint to a quart of water and strain.) 
In very hot weather, sponge may be made with cold water. In 
winter, mix the batter with water or milk, at blood warmth, testing 

* Whenever, in this book, the words cupful, coffee-cupful, tea-cupful, table-spoonful, 
occur, the termination " ful " is dropped, for the sake of brevity. 



10 BREAD-MAKING. 

it with the finger, and making it as warm as can be borne; stir in 
the flour, which will cool it sufficiently for the yeast ; cover closely 
and place in a warm and even temperature. A good plan is to fold 
a clean blanket several times, and cover with it, providing the 
sponge is set in a very large crock or jar, so that there is no danger 
of its running over. As a general rule, one small tea-cup of yeast 
and three pints of " wetting" will make sponge enough for four 
ordinary loaves. In all sponges add the yeast last, making sure that 
the sponge is not hot enough to scald it; when placed to rise, 
always cover closely. In cold weather the temperature runs down very 
quickly, in many kitchens, after the fire is out, and the bread should 
be set earlier in the evening, and in a warmer place ; a temperature 
of eighty or ninety degrees is right. When it rises well for the first 
two hours, it will go on rising unless the temperature falls below the 
freezing point. It is an improvement to beat the sponge thoroughly, 
like batter for a cake, for fifteen minutes. Never set sponge in tin, 
but always in stoneware, because a more steady and uniform heat 
can be maintained in a stone jar than in tin. 

TO MAKE GOOD BREAD, 

Always be 

" Up in the morning early, just at the peep of day," 

in summer time, to prevent the sponge becoming sour by too long 
standing, and in winter to be getting materials warmed and in readi- 
ness for use. A large, seamless tin dish-pan with handles and a 
tight-fitting cover, kept for this purpose alone, is better than a 
wooden bowl for bread. It should be thorou;hlv washed and 

o / 

scalded every time it is used. Measure and sift the flour. It is 
convenient to keep two quart cups, one for dry and the other for 
liquid measuring. In winter always warm the flour (by placing it in 
a pan in a warm oven for a few minutes or by setting it over night 
where it will be kept at the same temperature as the sponge) and also 
the sponge. Put the flour ki a bread pan, make a large well in the cen- 
ter, into which pour the sponge, adding t\ro level tea-spoons of salt (this 
is the quantity for four loaves of bread) ; mix well, being careful not 
to get the dough too stiff; turn out on the bread-board, rub the pan 
clean, and add the "rubbings" to the bread. Knead for from 
forty-five minutes to one hour, or until the dough ceases to stick to 



BREAD-MAKING. 11 

either the board or hands. Do not stop kneading until done. Any 
pause in the process injures the bread. The process of kneading is 
very important. Use just as little flour in kneading as will prevent 
sticking, and practice will enable ong to make a little flour go a 
great way. Some good bread-makers knead with the palm of the 
hands until the dough is a flat cake, then fold once, repeating this 
operation until the dough is perfectly smooth and elastic; others- 
close the hands and press hard and quickly into the dough with the 
fists, dipping them into the flour when the dough sticks; or, after 
kneading, chop with the chopping knife and then knead again; 
others still knead with a potato-masher, thinking it a great saving 
of strength. Another method, used by good bread-makers, is to 
raise the whole mass and drop or dash it with considerable force upon 
the mixing-board or table for several minutes. No exact directions 
can be given, but experience and practice will prove the best guides. 
After the bread is thoroughly kneaded, form into a round mass or 
large loaf, sprinkle the bread-pan well with flour, and, having 
placed the loaf in it, sprinkle flour lightly on the top (some grease 
the top with salted lard or butter instead of sprinkling with flour) ; 
coyer closely, and set to rise in a warm temperature ; let it rise to 
twice its original size this time, say from one to two hours, differing 
in time with the season of the year. Then knead down in the pan, 
cut into equal parts, place one at a time on the board, mold each 
into a smooth, oblong loaf, not too large, and put one alter anotner 
into a well-greased baking-pan ; grease the tops of the loaves with 
salted lard or butter, and set to rise. Or the loaves may be made 
by buttering the hands, and taking enough from the mass to form 
a loaf, molding it into shape in tJw luinds, without using flour. This 
insures a nice, brown, tender crust. Loaves made in the French 
style, long and narrow, are about half crust, and more easily di- 
gested, the action of heat anticipating part of the digestive process. 
In molding, do not leave any lumps or loose flour adhering to the 
outside, but mold until the loaves are perfectly smooth. No par- 
ticular directions can be given in regard to the time bread should 
stand after it is molded and placed in the pans, because here is the 
|>oint where observation and discretion are so indispensable. In hot 
weather, when the yeast is very good and the bread very light, it 



12 BREAD-MAKING. 

must not stand over fifteen minutes before placing to bake. If it is 
cold weather, and the yeast is less active, or the bread not perfectly 
raised, it may sometimes stand an hour in the pans without injury. 
When it is risen so as to seam or orack, it is ready for the oven ; if 
it stands after this it becomes sour, and even if it does not sour it 
loses its freshness and sweetness, and the bread becomes dry sooner 
after baking. Bread should undergo but two fermentations ; the 
saccharine or sweet fermentation, and the vinous, when it smells 
something like foaming beer. The housewife who would have good, 
sweet bread, must never let it pass this change, because the third 
or acetous fermentation then takes place. This last can be remedied 
by adding soda m the proportion of one tea-spoon to each quart of 
wetting ; or, which is the same thing, a tea-spoon to four quarts of 
flour; but the bread will be much less nutritious and healthful, and 
some of the best elements of the flour will be lost, Always add 
salt to all bread, biscuit, griddle-cakes, etc., but never salt sponge. 
A small quantity of white sugar is an improvement to all bread 
dough. Bread should always be mixed as soft as it can be handled, 
but in using the ' ' new process " flour, made from spring wheat, the 
dough requires to be much harder than is necessary when using that 
made from winter wheat. 

To BAKE BREAD. 

Here is the important point, for the bread may be perfect thus 
far and then be spoiled in baking. No definite rules can be given 
that apply equally well to every stove and range ; but one general 
rule must be observed, which is, to have a steady, moderate heat, 
such as is more minutely described in the directions for baking large 
cakes. The oven must be just hot enough ; if too hot, a firm crust 
is formed before the bread has expanded enough, and it will be 
heavy. To test the heat, place a teaspoon of flour on an old piece 
of crockery (to secure an even heat), and set in middle of the oven ; 
if it browns in one minute the heat is right. An oven in which the 
bare hand and arm can not be held longer than to count twenty 
moderately, is hot enough. The attention of stove-makers seems 
aever to have been directed to the fact that there is no accurate 
means of testing the heat of ovens, but it is to be hoped that in the 



BREAD-MAKING. 13 

near future some simple device may be found which will render 
unnecessary such inaccurate and untrustworthy tests as must now be 
used, and thus reduce baking to a science. To test whether the 
bread is done, break the loaves apart and press gently with 
the finger ; if elastic it is done, but if clammy, not done, and must 
be returned to the oven ; or, if the loaves are single, test with a 
straw plucked from a broom. Break off the branches and thrust 
the larger end into the loaf; if it is sticky when withdrawn, the 
bread is not done, but if free from dough it is ready to be removed 
from the oven. The little projections on the straw, where the 
branches have been broken off, catch and bring out the dough, 
when not thoroughly baked. 

The time required for baking is not less than three-quarters of an 
hour, and bread baked a full hour is more wholesome and is gen- 
erally considered more palatable. " The little fairy that hovers 
over successful bread-making is heat, not too little nor too much, 
but uniform." 

When removed from the oven, take the loaves out of the pan, 
grease the entire outer crust with melted butter, and tilt them on 
edge, so as to secure a free circulation of air. It is better not to 
cover bread while warm, unless with a light cloth to keep off flies. 
Thoroughly exposed to the air the surface cools first, insuring a crisp 
crust and the retention of the moisture in the loaf. There are 
those, however, who follow successfully the plan of wrapping the 
bread, as soon as it is removed from the oven, in a coarse towel or 
bread-cloth. Never put warm bread next to wood, as the part in 
contact will have a bad taste. Spread a cloth over the table before 
placing the bread on it. 

Good bread-makers differ widely as to the number of times bread 
should rise, some insisting that the rule of our good grandmothers, 
who only allowed it to rise once, insures the sweetest and most nutri- 
tious bread, and that in all subsequent fermentations, a decomposi- 
tion takes places that is damaging to the wholesome qualities of the 
''staff of life." 

If by accident or neglect the bread is baked too hard, rub the 
loaf over with butter, wet a towel and wrap it in it, and cover with 
another dry towel. In winter, bread dough may be kept sweet 



14 BREAD-MAKING. 

several days by placing it where it will be cold without freezing, or 
by putting it so deep into the flour barrel as to exclude it entirely 
from the air. When wanted for use, make into bread, or, by add- 
ing the proper ingredients, into cake, rusk, biscuit, apple dump- 
lings, chicken pie, etc. 

When the bread is cold, place in a stone jar or tin box, which 
must be thoroughly washed, scalded and dried each baking day. A 
gtill better receptacle for bread is a tin wash-boiler with a close 
cover, kept for this purpose alone. When small, single loaf pans 
are used, the bread may be removed to cool, the pans washed and 
dried, and the loaves afterwards replaced each in its pan, and then 
set away in a box or boiler. The pan helps to keep the bread 
moist and palatable for several days. 

The best pan for bread is made of Russia iron (which is but little 
more costly than tin and will last many times as long), about four 
by ten inches on the bottom, flaring to the top, and about four and 
one-half inches deep. The pan should be greased very lightly for 
bread. 

Attention to neatness, important in all cookery, is doubly im- 
portant in bread-making. Be sure that the hair is neatly combed 
and put up (which ought to be done before the dress is put on 
every morning), and that the hands, arms and finger-nails are 
scrupulously clean. A neat calico apron with bib, and sleeves of 
dress well-tucked up and fastened so that they will not come down, 
add much to the comfort of this the most important task of the 
kitchen queen. 

There are three critical points in the process of bread-making : 
the condition of the yeast, which must never be used if sour ; the 
temperature where the bread is set to rise, which must not be so hot 
as to scald ; and the temperature of the oven, which must be uni- 
form, neither too hot nor too cold. 

In cutting warm bread for the table, heat the knife, and, whether 
hot or cold, cut only as much as will be eaten. It is better to 
replenish the bread-plate once or even twice during a meal than to 
Lave slices left over to dry up and waste. 

When using coal, put into the fire-box enough to finish the baking; 
adding more during the process is apt to render the oven-heat 



BREAD-MAKING. 15 

irregular. When wood is used, make a good hot fire, see that the 
stove has a good, free draft, and let it cool to an even, steady heat 
before putting the bread in the oven. The finest bread may be com- 
pletely spoiled in baking, and a freshly-made fire can not be easily 
Regulated. 

The patent iron shelves, made to be attached to the pipes of 
stoves and ranges, are very convenient places for placing bread to, 
rise. They give the necessary warmth, and the height is conven- 
ient for watching. 

The proportion of gluten in wheat, and consequently in flour, 
varies greatly in different varieties. Flour in which gluten is 
abundant will absorb much more liquid than that which contains a 
greater proportion of starch, and consequently is stronger; that is, 
will make more bread to a given quantity. Gluten is a flesh-former, 
and starch a heat-giver, in the nutritive processes of the body. 
Flour containing a good proportion of gluten remains a compact 
mass when compressed in the hand, while starchy flour crumbles 
and lacks adhesive properties. Neither gluten or starch dissolve 
in cold water. The gluten is a grayish, tough, elastic substance. 
In yeast-bread, the yeast, in fermenting, combines with the sugar in 
the flour and the sugar which has been added to the flour, and car- 
bonic acid gas and alcohol are produced. The gas tries to escape, 
but is confined by the elastic, strong gluten which forms the walls 
of the cells in which it is held, its expansion changing the solid 
dough into a light, spongy mass. The kneading process distributes 
the yeast thoroughly through the bread, making the grain even. 
The water used in mixing the bread softens the gluten, and cements 
all the particles of flour together, ready for the action of the car- 
bonic acid gas. In baking, the loaf grows larger as the heat ex- 
pands the carbonic acid gas, and converts the water into steam and 
the alcohol into vapor, but it, meantime, loses one-sixth of its weight 
by the escape of these through the pores of the bread. Some of the 
starch changes into gum, the cells of the rest are broken by the 
heat, the gluten is softened and made tender, and the bread is in 
the condition most easily acted upon by the digestive fluids. 

There is a great difference of opinion as to the comparative mer- 
its of bread made from fine flour, and Graham, or whole wheat 



16 BREAD-MAKING. 

flour. The latter is undoubtedly best for persons who lead seden- 
tary lives, as the coarse particles stimulate the digestive organs, 
causing the fluids to flow more freely; while for those who follow 
active, out-of-door pursuits, the fine flour bread is probably best, as 
being more nutritious and economical, because wholly digested. 

There is an old and true saying, that ' ' she who has baked a good 
batch of bread has done a good days work." Bread-making should 
stand at the head of domestic accomplishments, since the health 
and happiness of the family depends immeasurably upon good 
bread ; and there is certain to come a time in the experience of 
every true, thoughtful woman when she is glad and proud of her 
ability to make nice, sweet loaves, free from soda, alum, and other 
injurious ingredients, or bitter regret that she neglected to learn, 
or was so unfortunate as not to have been taught, at least the first 
requisites of good bread-making. 

GRAHAM AND CORN BREAD. 

It is very desirable that every family should have a constant 
supply of bread made of unbolted flour, or rye and Indian corn. 
Most persons find it palatable, and it promotes health. For these 
coarse breads, always add a little brown sugar or molasses, and the 
amount given in the recipes may be increased according to taste. 
They rise quicker and in a less warm atmosphere than without 
sweetening. A little lard or butter improves Dread or cakes made 
of Graham or Indian meal, rendering them light and tender. 
Graham rises rather more quickly than fine flour (as the whole 
wheat flour contains a larger proportion of gluten, and fermentation 
is more rapid), and should not be allowed to rise quite as light. 
The pans should be greased more thoroughly for Graham and corn 
bread than for that made from fine flour. The fire should be steady 
and sufficient to complete the baking, and the oven hot when the 
bread is put in. A fresh blaze will burn the crust, while a steady 
fire will sweeten it. Graham bread bakes more slowly than fine- 
flour bread, and corn bread requires more time and a hotter oven 
than either. Use either yellow or white corn, ground coarse, for 
mush, and white, ground fine, for bread, etc. In cutting the latter 
while warm, heat the knife, and hold it perpendicularly. Eye is 



BREAD-MAKING. 17 

said to absorb more moisture from the air than any other grain; 
hence, all bread from this meal needs a longer application of heat, 
and keeps moister after being baked than that made from other 

grain. 

SPONGE FOR WINTER USE. 

% 

Peel and boil four or five medium -sized potatoes in two quarts of 
water (which will boil down to one quart by thet ime the potatoes 
are cooked) : when done, take out and press through a colander, or 
mash very fine in the crock in which the sponge is to be made ; 
make a well in the center, into which put one cup of flour, and pour 
over it the boiling water from the potatoes ; stir thoroughly, and 
when cool add a pint of tepid water, flour enough to make a thin 
batter, and a cup of yeast. This sponge makes very moist bread. 

BREAD SPONGE. 

Six potatoes boiled and mashed while hot, two table-spoons of 
white sugar, two of butter, one quart tepid water; into this stir 
three cups flour ; beat to a smooth batter, add six table-spoons 
yeast ; set over night, and, in the morning, knead in sufficient flour 
to make a stiff, spongy dough ; knead vigorously for fifteen min- 
utes, set away to rise, and, when light, knead for ten minutes; mold 
out into moderate-sized loaves, and let rise until they are like deli- 
cate or light sponge-cake. Mrs. George H. Rust 

BREAD SPONGE AND BREAD. 

Five pints warm water, five quarts sifted flour, one coffee-cup 
yeast ; mix in a' two-gallon stone jar, cover closely, and set in a large 
tin pan, so that if the sponge rises over the top of the jar, the 
drippings may fall into the pan. Set to rise the evening before 
baking. In winter be careful to set in a warm place. In the morn- 
ing sift six quarts flour into a pail, pour the sponge into a bread- 
pan or bowl, add two table-spoons of salt, then the flour gradually ; 
mix and knead well, using up nearly all the flour. This first 
kneading is the most important, and should occupy at least twenty 
minutes. Make the bread in one large loaf, set away in a warm 
place, and cover with a cloth. It ought to rise in half an hour, 
when it should be kneaded thoroughly again for ten minutes. Then 
2 



18 BREAD-MAKIXG. 

take enough dough for three good-sun I loaves (a quart howl of dough 
to each), give five minutes kneading to each loaf, and place to rise 
in a dripping-pan well greased with lard. The loaves will be light 
in five or ten minutes, and will bake in a properly heated oven in 
half an hour. Make a well in the center of the remaining dough, 
and into it put a half tea-cup of white sugar, one tea-cup of lard, 
and two eggs, which mix thoroughly with the dough, knead into 
one large loaf, set in a warm place about fifteen minutes to rise, and, 
when light, knead five minutes and let rise again for about ten 
minutes, when it should be light. Take out of pan, and knead on 
bread-board, roll about an inch in thickness, cut out with a biscuit- 
cutter, and place in dripping-pan ; let rise five minutes and bake 
twenty minutes. In winter more time must be allowed for rising. 
This makes three loaves and ninety biscuit. 

BKEAD WITH BUTTERMILK. 

The evening before baking, bring to the boiling point two quarts 
of buttermilk (or boil sour milk and take the same quantity of the 
whey), and pour into a crock in which a scant tea-cup of sifted flour 
has been placed. Let stand till sufficiently cool, then add half a 
cup of yeast, and flour to make a thick batter ; the better and 
longer the sponge is stirred the whiter will be the bread. In the 
morning sift the flour into the bread-pan, pour the sponge in the 
center, stir in some of the flour, and let stand until after break- 
fast ; then mix, kneading for about half an hour, the longer the 
better ; when light, mold into loaves, this time kneading as little as 
possible. The secret of good bread is having good yeast, and not 
baking too hard. This makes four loaves and forty biscuit. Mrs. 
M. G. Moore, 

GOOD BREAD. 

For four small loaves boil four large potatoes ; when done, pour 
off the water, and when it cools add to it a yeast cake ; mash the 
potato very fine, put through a sieve, pour boiling milk on as much 
flour as is needed, let stand until cool, add the potato and yeast, a 
large tea-spoon of salt and one table-spoon of sugar ; stir very stiff, 
adding flour as is needed. Let stand in a warm place until light, 



BREAD-MAKING. 19 

dissolve one tea-spoon of soda in a little hot water, mix well through 
with the hands, mold into loaves, and let rise again. When suffi- 
ciently raised place in a moderately hot oven, keeping up a steady 
fire. Mrs. Governor Hardin, Missouri. 

HOP-YEAST BREAD. 

One tea-cup yeast, three pints warm water ; make a thin sponge 
at tea time, cover and let it remain two hours or until very light. 
By adding the water to the flour first and having the sponge quite 
warm, it is never necessary to put the sponge over hot water or in 
an oven to make it rise. Knead into a loaf before going to bed ; in 
the morning mold into three loaves, spreading a little lard between 
as they are put in the pan. When light, bake one hour, having 
oven quite hot when the bread is put in, and very moderate when 
it is done. (Bread made in this way is never sour or heavy.) To 
have fine, light biscuit, add shortening at night, and in the morning 
make into biscuit and bake for breakfast. By this recipe bread is 
baked before the stove is cold from breakfast, and out of the way 
for other baking. 

To cool bread there should be a board for the purpose. An oaken 
board, covered with heavy white flannel, is the best ; over this spread 
a fresh linen bread-cloth, and lay the bread on it right side up, with 
nothing over it except a very thin cover to keep off the flies. It 
should be placed immediately in the fresh air or wind to cool ; when 
cool, place immediately in a tin box or stone jar, and cover closely. 
Bread cooled in this way will have a soft crust, and be filled with 
pure air. Mrs J. T. Liggett, Detroit, 

BREAD WITH POTATO SPONGE. 

Pare and boil four or five potatoes, mash fine, and add one pint 
of flour ; pour on the mixture first boiling water enough to moisten 
well, then about one quart of cold water, after which add flour 
enough to make a stiff batter. When cooled to "scarcely milk 
warm," put in one-half pint (or more will do no harm) of yeast, 
and let it stand in a warm place over night ; in the morning add to 
this sponge one cup of lard, stir in flour, and knead well. The 
more kneading the finer and whiter the bread will be ; pounding 
also with a potato-masher improves the bread greatly, and is rather 



20 BRKAD-MAKIXG. 

easier than so much kneading. When quite stiff and well worked 
and pounded, let it rise again, and when light, make into loaves or 
biseuit, adding no more flour except to flour the hands and board- 
merely enough to prevent the bread from sticking. Let it rise 
arrain, then bake; and immediately after taking from the oven, 

o o 

wrap in a wet towel until partly cold, in order to soften the crust. 
If yeast and flour are good (essentials in all cases), the above process 
will make good bread. J//x Clara Morey 

POOR-MAN'S BREAD. 

One pint of buttermilk or sour milk, one level tea-spoon soda, a 
pinch of salt, and flour enough to make as stiff as soda-biscuit dough ; 
cut into three pieces, handle as little as possible, roll an inch thick, 
place in dripping-pan, bake twenty or thirty minutes in a hot oven, 
and, when done, wrap in a bread cloth. Eat while warm, breaking 
open like a biscuit. Each cake will be about the size of a pie. 

Mrs. D. B. 

BREAD WITH POTATOES. 

To one quart of blood-warm water or milk (if milk is used, it 
must first be scalded and then cooled to blood heat) , take two quarts 
sifted flour and one teacup fresh potato yeast. Put the milk or 
water into a one-gallon stone crock and stir the flour gradually into 
it, then add the yeast, beating it vigorously for fifteen minutes; set 
to rise in a warm place, putting the crock in a pan (to catch the 
drippings if it should run over). If in winter, mix it as early as 
six or seven o'clock m tne evening. Cover very closely with a 
clean white cloth, with a blanket over it, kept purposely for this 
(the cloths used for bread should not be taken for any thing else). 
In the morning, sift three quarts of flour into the bread-pan, setting 
it in the oven for a few minutes to bring it to the same temperature 
as the sponge. Pare six medium-sized potatoes, and boil them in 
three pints of water ; when thoroughly cooked, remove the potatoes 
and pour the boiling hot water (which will now be about one quart) 
over the flour, stirring it with a spoon. Mash the potatoes very 
fine, and beat them as if for the table ; mix them in the flour, and 
when cooled to blood heat, pour in the sponge, and mix well. Add 
more wetting or flour if needed, rub off all that adheres to the sides 



BREAD-MAKING. 21 

of the pan, and mix with the dough, kneading it from forty-five 
minutes to one hour ; then place the pan to rise, cover closely with 
the cloth and blanket, setting it where there is no draft (this is im- 
perative). When it has risen to twice its size, knead down in the 
pan, take one quart of dough for each loaf, knead each five min- 
utes with quick, elastic movements, grease the sides of the loaves 
with sweet, melted butter if two or more are placed in the same 
pan ; or the loaves may be greased all over lightly before placing in 
the pan, a process Avhich adds much to the sweetness of the crust. 
The pan should be thoroughly but lightly greased. Let rise until 
as large again as when molded, then bake. Have your oven mod- 
erately heated at first, with a fire in the stove that will keep it of a 
uniform temperature. (For manner of testing oven, see geneual 
instructions for bread-making.) Bake from three-quarters of an 
hour to one hour and a quarter, according to the size of the loaves, 
during which time the bread should be carefully watched to see that 
the proper degree of heat is steadily kept up. Before brow r ning 
they will have risen to double their size when placed in the oven. 
The heat of the oven is all important, for if too hot the loaves will 
not rise sufficiently; if too cold they will rise too much, and the 
bread will be coarse and porous. When done, place on side, and 
cool without covering. Never use flour without sifting, as sifting 
enlivens and aerates the flour, and makes both mixing and rising 
easier and quicker. Quick rising makes whiter bread, and it is very 
necessary that -in all its different risings, bread should be mixed as 
eoon as ready. HulcLali, iSlieboygan, Me. 

BREAD RAISED ONCE. 

No other yeast is made with so little trouble as potato yeast. 
Bread made from it keeps moist longer, and there is no danger of 
injuring the flavor of the bread by using too much. When plen- 
tifully used, a beautiful, light, sweet, fine-grained bread is produced 
by only one rising, thus saving not only time and trouble, but also, 
what is more important, the sweet flavor and nutritious qualities 
which greatly suffer by the second fermentation, almost universally 
practiced. When this fact is thoroughly understood, every one will 
Appreciate the importance of checking excessive fermentation^ dur- 



22 BREAD-MAKING. 

ing which decomposition actually takes place, and the delicate, 
foamy loaves, " yeasted to death," which so many families now use 
and call the " staff of life," will give place to the sweet, substantial 
home-made loaves, such as our good mothers and grandmothers 
kneaded with their own skilled hands. 

Take care that the yeast is good and " lively," for, without this, 
failure is certain. To make three loaves of bread, warm and lightly 
grease the baking-pans, sift three quarts or more of flour into the 
bread-pan, press down the middle, and into it put two small table- 
spoons of fine salt ; pour in slowly one quart of milk- warm water, 
constantly stirring with one hand in the flour, until a thin batter is 
formed; add a pint or more of potato yeast or one tea-cup of hop 
yeast. (If compressed yeast is used, a yeast cake, dissolved in 
warm water, or a piece of compressed yeast as large as a walnut, 
dissolved in the same manner, is sufficient.) Mix thoroughly, add- 
ing more and more flour, until a stiff dough is formed; place on 
the bread-board, knead vigorously for twenty minutes or more, 
flouring the board frequently to prevent the dough from sticking to 
it, divide into loaves of a size to suit pans, mold into a comely 
shape, place in pans, rub over the top a light coating of sweet, 
drawn butter, set in a warm, not too hot place to rise, cover lightly 
to keep off dust and air, watch and occasionally turn the pans 
around when necessary to make the loaves rise evenly ; when risen 
to about double the original size, draw across the top of each length- 
wise with a sharp knife, making a slit half an inch deep, place 
them in a moderately heated oven, and bake one hour, watching 
carefully from time to time to make certain that a proper degree of 
laeat is kept up. Before browning they will rise to double the size 
of loaf which was placed in the oven, and pans must be provided 
deep enough to retain them in shape. Bake until well done and 
nicely browned. Nothing adds more to the sweetness and digesti- 
bility of wheaten bread than thorough baking. When done, re- 
move from pans immediately, to prevent the sweating and softening 
of the crust. Mrs. L. B. Lyman, Antiock, Ccd. 



BREAD-MAKING. 23 

BREAD RAISED TWICE. 

Measure out four quarts of sifted flour, take out a pint in a cup, 
and place remainder in a bread-pan. Make a well in the middle, 
into which turn one table-spoon sugar, one of salt, and one cup of 
yeast; then mix in one pint of milk which has been made blood- 
warm by adding one pint of boiling water ; beat well with a strong 
spoon, add one table-spoon lard, knead for twenty to thirty minutes, 
and let rise over night; in the morning knead again, make into 
loaves, let them rise one^hour, and bake fifty minutes. Water may 
be used instead of the pint of milk, in which case use twice as much 
lard. 

BREAD RAISED THREE TIMES. 

Begin about 5 P. M., plan for six loaves, somewhat larger than 
bakers' loaves; take two little cakes of yeast, put them into a pint 
of tepid water, and, when soft, beat in thoroughly enough flour to 
make a thick batter, and put in a warm place. If the excellent 
"Farmer's Yeast," the recipe for which is given hereafter, is used, 
take half a tea-cup and stir into the batter. A good dish for this 
purpose is a large bowl, a broad open pitcher, or a bright three- 
quart tin pail, and it should be clean in the strictest sense. This 
should rise in about two hours ; and when nearly light, take six or 
eight medium-sized potatoes, pare neatly, rinse clean, and boil in 
three pints of water till well done, mash very fine in the water 
while hot. Have ready a bread-pan of sifted flour, into which put 
a tea-spoon of salt, half a cup of white sugar, and a bit of lard as 
large as an egg ; then riddle the potato mash, hot as it is, through 
a sieve or fine colander into the flour, and stir with a kitchen spoon 
into a stiff dough. This scalds about half the flour used in the 
batch f bread. This mass must cool till it will not scald the yeast, 
which may now be mixed in and put in a warm, not hot, place for 
second rising, which will be accomplished by morning, when the 
kneading may be done. Kneading is the finest point of bread-mak- 
ing, and contains more of the art than any other; it requires skill, 
time, patience, and hard work. Work in flour no faster than is re- 
quired to allow thorough kneading, which can not be done in less 
than forty-five minutes, but should not be worked much over an 



24 BREAD-MAKING. 

hour; one hour is a good uniform rule. The mechanical bakers 
use sets of rollers driven by steam power, between which the dough 
is passed, coming out a sheet an inch thick; it is folded together 
several times and rolled again and again. This process should be 
imitated somewhat by the hands in the family kitchen. The work- 
ing of the dough gives grain and flakiness to the bread. The dough 
when kneaded should be soft, but not sticky stiff enough to retain 
its roundness on the board. Put back into the pan for the third 
rising, which will require but little time, and when light, cut off 
enough for each loaf by itself. Knead but little, and put into the 
baking-pans. If the first kneading has been well done, no more 
flour will be needed in molding into loaves. These must remain in 
the baking-pans till nearly as large as the loaves ought to be, when 
they may be put into a well-heated oven. If the oven is a trifle 
too hot, or if it tends to bake hard on the top, a piece of brown 
paper may be put over the loaves (save some clean grocer's paper 
for this purpose), and fvom forty to sixty minutes will cook it thor- 
oughly. After the loaves are put into the baking-pans, avoid jar- 
ring them, as it will make portions of them heavy. 

If the yeast is "set" at 5 P. M., the bread will be ready for 
dinner next day; if in the morning, the baking will be done early 
in the evening, or twelve hours after, with fair temperature and 
good yeast. Bread raade in this way will be good for a week, and, 
with fair weather t^d careful keeping, even two weeks. When 
dry, a slice toasted will be as crisp, sweet, and granular as Yan- 
kee ginger-bread. Mrs. H. Young, 



, IN SUMMER OR WINTEP. 

In summer take three pints of cold or tepid water, four table- 
spoons of yeast, one tea-spoon of salt; stir in flour enough to make 
a thick sponge (rather thicker than griddle-cakes). Let stand until 
morning, then add more flour, mix stiff, and knead ten minutes; 
place in a pan, let rise until light, knead for another ten minutes; 
mold into four loaves, and set to rise, but do not let it get too light; 
bake in a moderate oven one hour. If bread is mixed at six o'clock 
in the morning, the baking ought to be done by ten o'clock. 

In winter take one pint of buttermilk or clabbered milk ; let it 



BREAD-MAKING. 25 

scald (not boil) ; make a well in the center of the flour, into it turn 
the hot milk, add one tea-spoon of salt, enough flour and water to 
make sufficient sponge, and one tea-cup of yeast; let stand until 
morning, and then prepare the bread as in summer. This is more 
convenient to make in winter, since a hot fire is needed to heat the 
milk. Mrs. D. Buxton, 

SALT -RISING BREAD. 

The leaven for this bread is prepared thus : Take a pint of warm 
water about 90 (if a little too hot defeat is certain) in a per- 
fectly clean bowl and stir up a thick batter, adding only a tea-spoon 
of salt ; a thorough beating of the batter is important. Set in a 
pan of warm water to secure uniformity of temperature, and in 
two to four hours it will begin to rise. The rising is much more 
sure if coarse flour or "shorts" is used instead of fine flour. 

When your * ' rising " is nearly light enough, take a pint of milk 
and a pint of boiling water, (a table-spoon of lime water added is 
good, and often prevents souring), mix the sponge in the bread-pan, 
and when cooled to about milk-warm, stir in the rising. The 
sponge thus made will be light in two to four hours, with good 
warmth. The dough requires less kneading than yeast-raised dough. 
The bread is simpler, but not so certain of rising, and you leave 
out all the ingredients save the flour, water (milk is not essential), 
and a pinch of salt. It should be made more frequently as it dries 
faster than bread containing potatoes. Some object to it because of 
the odor in rising, which is the result of acetous fermentation, but 
the more of that the more sure you are of having sweet bread when 
baked. Mrs. H. Young, 

ANOTHER SALT-RISING BREAD. 

In summer take at night one (scant) pint of new milk, half as 
much hot water, a tea-spoon salt, one of sugar, and a very little soda. 
Mix all in a nice, sweet pitcher (it must be perfectly clean and 
sweet), stir in one table-spoon of corn meal, and add flour enough 
to make a medium batter ; stir well, place the pitcher in an iron 
kettle with quite warm water, using so much water that the pitcher 
will barely rest on the bottom of the kettle ; cover closely and leave 
all night (on the stove if the fire is nearly out) where it will be 



26 BREAD-MAKING. 

kept warm, not hot, for an hour or two. If the pitcher is not too 
large, it will probably be full in the morning; if not, add a spoon 
of flour, stir well, warm the water in the kettle, replace the 
pitcher, cover, and keep it warm until light. Have ready two 
quarts of sifted flour in a pan, make a hole in the center, put in an 
even tea-spoon of salt, a tea-cup of nearly boiling water ; add one 
pint of new milk, and stir a batter there in the center of the flour, 
add the "emptyings "from the pitcher, and stir well (there will be a 
good deal of flour all round the batter ; this is right) ; cover with 
another pan, keep warm until light it will rise in an hour or even 
less when it is ready to be well kneaded, and made directly into 
loaves, which place in the baking-pans, keep well covered and warm 
until light, when it is ready to bake. The secret of success is to 
keep it warm.but not at all hot. This bread is good if no milk is 
used ; indeed, some prefer it made with water alone instead of milk 
and water. In cold weather, if kitchen is cold at night, do not set 
" emptyings" over night, but make early in the morning. Havillah, 
Farina, 

BOSTON BROWN BREAD. 

One heaping coffee-cup each of corn, rye and Graham meal. 
The rye meal should be as fine as the Graham, or rye flour may be 
used. Sift the three kinds together as closely as possible, and beat 
together thoroughly with two cups New Orleans or Porto Rico mo- 
lasses, two cups sweet milk, one cup sour milk, one dessert-spoon 
soda, one tea-spoon salt; pour into a tin form, place in a kettle of 
cold water, put on and boil four hours. Put on to cook as soon as 
mixed. It may appear to be too thin, but it is not, as this recipe 
has never been known to fail. Serve warm, with baked beans or 
Thanksgiving turkey. The bread should not quite fill the form 
(or a tin pail with cover will answer), as it must have room to swell. 
See that .the water does not boil up to the top of the form; also 
take care it does not boil entirely away or stop boiling. To serve 
it, remove the lid and set it a few moments into the open oven to 
dry the top, and it will then turn out in perfect shape. This bread 
can be used as a pudding, and served with a sauce made of thick 
sour cream, well sweetened and seasoned with nutmeg ; or it is good 
toasted the next day. Mrs. H. S. Stevens, Minneapolis, Minn. 



BREAD-MAKING. 27 

EASTERN BROWN BREAD. 

One pint each of rye or Graham and Indian meal, one cup mo- 
lasses, three-fourths cup sour milk, one and one-half tea-spoons soda, 
one and one-half pints cold water. Put on stove over cold watei 
(all brown breads are better when put on to steam over cold water, 
which is afterwards brought to the boiling point and kept con- 
stantly boiling until bread is done); steam four hours, and brown 
over in the oven. 

BROWN BREAD. 

Two and one-half cups sour milk, and one-half cup molasses; into 
these put one heaping tea-spoon soda, two cups corn meal, one cup 
Graham flour and one tea-spoon salt. Use coffee cups. Steam 
three hours, and afterwards brown in oven. Mrs. D. Bassett, Min* 
"leapolis, Minn. 

BROWN BREAD WITH HORSFORD'S BREAD PREPARATION. 

One and a fourth cups sweet milk, one cup each corn meal and 
Graham, one-half cup molasses, and one measure (measures are 
furnished with the Horsford) each of Horsford's Bread Preparation. 
Use coffee cups. 

BREAD WITH MUSH. 

Pour two quarts hot corn-meal mush, made as for eating, over 
two quarts flour (wheat or Graham); when cool, add one quart 
sponge, one coffee cup molasses, one tea-spoon salt, half tea-spoon 
soda; mix well together; add more flour if needed, and knead 
thoroughly ; mold into small loaves ; let rise and bake in small 
dripping pans (a loaf in a pan), or pie-tins, in a moderate oven; 
when done, rub over with butter, place on the side, wrap in a cloth, 
and when cold put in a jar or box. This recipe makes three good- 
sized loaves and keeps moist longer than all Graham bread. Mrs. 
W. W. Woods, Marysville, Ohio. 

BOSTON CORN BREAD. 

One cup sweet milk, two cups sour milk, two- thirds cup molas* 
ses, one cup flour, four cups corn meal, two tea-spoons soda; steam 
three hours, and brown a few minutes in the oven. Mrs. Canby f 
Bellefontaine, Ohio. 



28 BREAD-MAKING. 

MRS. B.'s CORN BREAD. 

One quart sour milk, three eggs, two table-spoons lard or butter 
(or half and half), one table-spoon sugar, a pinch of salt, handful 
of wheat flour, and enough corn meal (sifted) to make a good bat- 
ter ; add one heaping tea-spoon soda, stir thoroughly, and bake in 

long dripping pan. 

BOILED CORN BREAD. 

One and one-fourth pints each of sweet milk and buttermilk or 
sour cream, half a pint molasses, one tea-spoon soda, three tea- 
spoons cream tartar, one even table-spoon salt, one and a fourth 
pints each of corn meal and flour ; sift the soda and cream tartar in 
the flour ; mix all the ingredients thoroughly together and put in a 
buttered tin pail ; cover closely, place in a kettle two-thirds full of 
boiling water ; cover, and boil steadily for three hours, replenish- 
ing when needful with boiling water. To be eaten hot with butter. 
Mrs. 1. N. Burritt in "In the Kitchen." 

CORN BREAD. 

One pint corn meal sifted, one pint flour, one pint sour milk, 
two eggs beaten light, one-half cup sugar, piece of butter size of an 
egg ; add, the last thing, one tea-spoon soda in a little milk ; add to 
the beaten egg the milk and meal alternately, then the butter and 
sugar. If sweet milk is used, add one tea-spoon cream tartar ; bake 
twenty minutes in a hot oven. Mrs. H. B. Sherman, Mihvaukee, 

Wisconsin. 

CORN BREAD. 

Take one quart buttermilk, and one heaping pint corn meal, one 
tea-spoon soda, one of salt, one table-spoon sugar and three eggs ; 
have the stove very hot, and do not bake in too deep a pan. The 
batter seems too thin, but bakes very nicely. Mrs. J. H. Shearer., 
Marysville, Ohio. 

THE BREAD OF OUR FOREFATHERS. 

Put in a pan two quarts of meal, a half-pint of flour, stir up well ; 
pour in the center a pint of boiling water, stir up enough of the 
meal to make a thin batter; when cool, put in a cup of yeast, a 
tea-spoon of salt and enough warm water to make a thick batter ; 
let rise, then place in a deep, well-greased pan, cover with another 



BREAD-MAKING. 29 

pan, and place in a moderate oven. When nearly done, remove the 
cover, and bake slowly until done. Excellent when cold. 

All baking-pans for bread should be made with covers, made of 
the same material, and high enough to permit the bread to rise to 
its full size. If pan is deep enough to permit the bread to rise 
without touching it, a flat piece of tin or sheet-iron will answer for 
the cover, or a cover may be made of paper, or another pan may; 
be inverted over the bread. The office of the cover is to prevent 
the crust from browning hard before the expansion of the gases has 
made the bread light and porous. Mrs. C. V. Collier, Litchfield, 

Minnesota. 

PLAIN CORN BREAD. 

One well-heaped pint corn meal, one pint sour or buttermilk, one 
egg, one tea-spoon soda, one of salt ; bake in dripping or gem pans. 
If preferred, one heaping table-spoon of sugar may be added. 

STEAMED CORN BREAD. 

Two cups each corn meal, Graham flour and sour milk, two- 
thirds cup molasses, one tea-spoon soda; steam two hours and a 
half. Mrs. Jennie Gutkrie Cherry, Newark. 

GRAHAM BREAD. 

Take a little over a quart of warm water, one-half cup brown 
sugar or molasses, one-fourth cup hop yeast, and one and one-half 
tea-spoons salt; thicken the water with unbolted flour to a thin bat- 
ter ; add sugar, salt and yeast, and stir in more flour until quite 
stiff. In the morning add a small tea-spoon soda, and flour enough 
to make the batter stiff as can be stirred with a spoon ; put it into 
pans and let rise again; then bake in even oven,, not too hot at 
first ; keep warm while rising ; smooth over the loaves with a spoon 
or knife dipped in water. Mrs. H. B. Sherman, Plankinton House, 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

GRAHAM BREAD. 

Mix three quarts Graham flour, one quart warm water, half pint 
yeast, a quarter-pint molasses, and one table-spoon salt, thoroughly; 
put in well-buttered pans, and leave in a warm place to rise, or let 
it rise over night at 60. If left to rise slowly, let it remain in the 
bowl in which it was mixed, and unless very light when put in 



30 BREAD-MAKING. 

% 

pans, let it stand fifteen jor twenty minutes before putting in 

the oven. 

GRAHAM BREAD. 

To one and a half pints of tepid water add one heaping tea-spooa 
of salt and one-half cup of sugar ; stir in one-half pint or more of 
the sponge made of white flour, as in recipe for " Bread with Potato 
Yeast;" add Graham flour until almost too stiff to stir-, put in the 
baking-pan and let rise well, which will take about two hours, bake 
in a moderate oven, and when done, wrap in a wet towel until cool. 
Mrs. Clara Woods Morey. 

QUICK GRAHAM BREAD. 

One and a half pints sour milk, half cup New Orleans molasses, 
a little salt, two tea-spoons soda dissolved in a little hot water, and 
as much Graham flour as can be stirred in with a spoon ; pour in 
well-greased pan, put in oven as soon as mixed, and bake two 
hours. Mrs. E. J. W. 

t 

RYE AND INDIAN BREAD. 

One quart of rye meal or rye flour, two quarts of Indian meal, 
scalded (by placing in a pan and pouring just enough boiling water 
over it, stirring constantly with a spoon, to merely wet it, but not 
enough to make it into a batter), one-half tea-cup molasses, two tea- 
spoons salt, one of soda, one tea-cup yeast ; make as stiff as can be 
stirred with a spoon, mixing with warm water, and let rise all 
night; then put in a large pan, smooth the top with the hand 
dipped in cold water, let it stand a short time, and bake five or six 
hours. If put in the oven late in the day, let it remain all night. 
Graham may be used instead of rye, and baked as above. In 
olden time it was placed in kettle, allowed to rise, then placed 
the hearth before the fire, with coals on top of lid, and baked. 
Mrs. Charles FuUington, Marysville, Ohio. 

RYE BREAD. 

Make a sponge of one quart warm water, one tea cup yeast, 
thickened with rye flour ; put in warm place to rise over night ; 
scald one pint corn meal ; when cool add it to sponge, and add rye 
flour till thick enough to knead, knead but little, let rise, meld into 



BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 31 



]oaves, place in deep pie-tins or small pudding-pans, let rise and 
bake ; or, thicken the sponge with rye flour, and proceed as above. 
Wheat sponge may be used instead of rye. Mrs. Eliza T. Carson, 
Delaware, Ohio. 

EYE BREAD. 

Make sponge as for wheat bread, let rise over night, then mix it 
up with the rye flour (not so stiff as wheat bread), and bake. 



BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 



To make biscuit, take a part of the dough left from bread-making 
when it is ready to mold into loaves, work in the lard and any other 
ingredients desired, such as butter, eggs, sugar, spice, etc., also 
using a little more flour ; let rise once, then mix down and let rise 
again, turn out on A ,he bread-board, knead a few minutes, roll, and 
cut out with a biscuit-cutter or mold with the hand. Place in a 
well-greased dripping-pan, and when light bake in a quick oven 
from fifteen to twenty minutes. To make them a nice color, wet 
the top with warm water just before placing in the oven. To glaze, 
brush lightly with milk and sugar, or the well-beaten yolk of an egg 
sweetened, and a little milk added. 

Biscuit may be baked in eight minutes by making the oven as 
hot as can be without burning, and allowing it to cool off gradually 
as they bake ; this makes them very light, but one has to watch 
closely to keep them from being scorched. Any kind of bread or 
pastry mixed with water requires a hotter fire than that mixed with 
milk. 

Biscuit and rolls should be allowed to rise one-half longer than 
bread loaves, because the loaves of the former, being smaller, are 
penetrated sooner by the heat, and, of course, the fermentation is 
stopped sooner, and the rolls do not rise so much in the oven. 

Biscuit for tea at six must be molded two hours before, which 
will give ample time for rising and baking. Parker House rolls for 
breakfast at eight must be made ready at five. Many think it 



32 BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 

unnecessary to knead down either bread or biscuit as often as here 
directed ; but if attention is given to the dough at the right time, 
and it is not suffered to become too light, it will be much nicer, 
whiter, and of a finer texture if these directions are followed. 

The almost universal custom is to set the sponge at night, but 
many excellent bread-makers differ widely from this in practice, and 
their objections deserve candid consideration in this nineteenth cen- 
tury, when so much is written of dyspepsia and its causes. Some 
medical authorities assert that cancer in the stomach has its origin 
in dyspepsia, which, in the beginning, is caused by the use of indi- 
gestible yeast bread, in which the process of fermentation has been 
allowed to go so far that a certain amount of actual decomposition 
has taken place. This is not the fault of such recipes as are given 
in this volume, but from failure to mix the bread at each suc- 
cessive rising at the proper time. The objection to setting sponge 
at night is, that it stands too long. Bread, to be white, sweet, and 
digestible, must be mixed immediately after the sponge has risen to 
the proper point, which may be known by its puffy appearance, usually 
rising higher in the middle titan at the sides of the crock ; if it sinks in 
the center, it has stood too long. 

The process of bread-making discovered by Prof. Horsford, of 
Harvard College, deserves the attention of all housekeepers. It is 
claimed, and with good reason, that the Horsford process prevents 
all decomposition, saves all the nutritious properties of the bread, 
and, by the addition of acid phosphate, renders it more easy of 
digestion. Besides this, the use of Horsford's Bread Preparation 
saves times, simplifies the whole process of bread-making, saves 
labor, and reduces the chances of failure to the minimum. These 
are considerations of great moment, especially to inexperienced 
housekeepers, leaving entirely out of consideration the fact that this 
bread may be eaten with impunity by persons whose delicate di- 
gestive organs are impaired by the use of ordinary yeast bread. It 
is certain that for rolls, biscuits, griddle-cakes, and the whole list 
of "Breakfast and Tea Cakes," the "Bread Preparation" is supe- 
rior to yeast or soda, or any of the baking-powders in common use. 

Soda biscuit must be handled as little and made as rapidly as 
possible ; mix soda and cream tartar or baking-powder in the flour 



BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 

(with sweet milk use baking-powder or soda and cream tartar, with 
sour milk soda alone), so that the effervescence takes place in the 
mixture. One tea-spoon soda and two of cream tartar, or three 
tea-spoons baking-powder, to every two pints of flour, is about the 
right proportion. Bake in a quick oven as soon as made, and they 
rise more quickly if put into hot pans. Gems of all kinds require 
a hot oven, but the fire should be built some time before they are 
put into the oven, and allowed to go down by the time they are 
light, as the heat necessary to raise them will burn them in baking 
4f kept up. 

All biscuit and bread, except brown and Graham bread, should 
foe pricked with a fork before putting them in the oven. 

Soda and raised biscuit and bread or cake, when stale, can be 
inade almost as nice as fresh by plunging for an instant into cold 
water, and then placing in a pan in the oven ten or fifteen minutes ; 
thus treated they should be used immediately. 

Waffle-irons should be heated, then buttered or greased with 
lard, and one side filled with batter, closed and laid on the fire or 
.placed on the stove, and after a few minutes turned on the other 
side. They take about twice as long to bake as griddle-cakes, and 
are delicious with a dressing of ground cinnamon. Muffins are 
baked in muffin-rings. In eating them, do not cut but break them 
open. 

The success of these recipes, and all others in this book in which 
*oda and cream tartar are used, will depend on the purity of these 
ingredients. Always buy the pure English bicarbonate of soda, and 
the pure cream tartar. They are higher-priced, but cheaper in the 
end, and are free from injurious substances. When not found at 
the grocer's, they may generally be had at the druggist's. 



BAKING POWDEE. 

Sixteen ounces corn starch, eight of bicarbonate of soda, five of 
tartaric acid ; mix thoroughly. Mrs. Dr. Allen, Oberlin, Ohio. 

Eight ounces flour, eight of English bicarbonate of soda, seven 
of tartaric acid ; mix thoroughly by passing several times through 

a sieve. Mrs. Trimble, Mt. GHead, Ohio. 
3 



34 BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 

BREAKFAST CAKE. 

Two table-spoons sugar, two of butter, two eggs, one cup milk, 
one (scanty) quart flour, one tea-spoon soda, two of cream tartar; 
bake twenty minutes in a quick oven. Mrs. Emily L. Burnham, 

South Norwalk, Conn. 

CINNAMON CAKE. 

When yeast bread is ready to knead from the sponge, knead and 
roll out three-fourths of an inch thick, put thin slices of butter on 
the top, sprinkle with cinnamon, and then with sugar; let rise well 
and bake. Mix M. E. Wilcox, Seima, Alabama. 

BUNS. 

Break one egg into a cup and fill with sweet milk ; mix with it 
half cup yeast, half cup butter, one cup sugar, enough flour to 
make a soft dough ; flavor with nutmeg. Let rise till very light, 
then mold into biscuit with a few currants. Let rise a second time 
in pan; bake, and, when nearly done, glaze with a little molassea 
and milk. Use the same cup, no matter about the size, for each 
measure. Mrs. W. A. James. 

BUTTERED TOAST. 

Although toast is commonly used, few know how to prepare it 
nicely. Take bread not too fresh, cut thin and evenly, trim off the 
crust-edges for the crumb-jar; first warm each side of the bread, 
then present the first side again to the fire until it takes on a rich, 
even, brown color ; treat the other side in the same way ; butter 
and serve immediately. The coals should be bright and hot. Toast 
properly made is very digestible, because all the moisture is ex- 
tracted, and the bread has become pure farina of wheat; but when 
it is exposed to a hot fire and the outside charred, the inside remains 
as moist as ever, and butter applied to it while warm does not pene- 
trate, but floats on the surface in the form of rancid oil. Or, beat 
one cup of butter and three table-spoons flour to a cream, pour over 
this one and a half pints boiling water ; place over a kettle of boil- 
ing water for ten minutes, dip into it the toast, and serve hot, 

Or, dip each slice of toast in boiling hot water (slightly salted), 
spread with butter, cover and keep hot. 



BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 35 

EXCELLENT TOAST. 

Cut slices of a uniform thickness, of half an inch ; move around 
over a brisk fire, to have all parts toasted alike ; keep only so near 
the coals that the pieces will be heated through when both sides are 
well browned. If the slightest point is blackened or charred, scrape 
it off, or it will spoil the flavor of the whole. If covered with an 
earthen bowl, it will keep both warm and moist. A clean towel or 
napkin will answer if it is to go at once to the table. Stale bread 
may be used for milk-toast ; sour bread may be improved by toast- 
ing it through, but sweet, light bread, only a day old or less, makes 

the best toast. 

BREAKFAST TOAST. 

Add to one-half pint of sweet milk two table-spoons sugar, a 
little salt and a well-beaten egg ; dip in this slices of bread (if dry, 
let it soak a minute), and fry on a buttered griddle until it is a 
light brown on each side. This is a good way to use dry bread. 
Mrs. Dr. Morey, 

MENNONITE TOAST. 

Beat up three eggs well, add a pint of sweet milk and a pinch of 
salt; cut slices an inch thick from a loaf of baker's bread, remove 
crust, dip slices into the eggs and rnfik, fry like doughnuts in very 
hot lard or drippings, till a delicate brown, butter and sprinkle with 
powdered sugar, and serve hot. Mrs. J. P. Rea, 

BREAD PUFFS. 

If the wheat bread is light enough for the oven at breakfast time, 
have ready some hot lard in a deep kettle ; with the thumb and two 
fingers pull up some of the dough quite thin, and cut it some two 
or three inches in length ; as these pieces are cut, drop them in the 
lard and fry like doughnuts. At table they are eaten like biscuit ; 
they may also be served in a vegetable dish with a dressing of hot 
cream, seasoned with pepper and salt. In the Kitchen. 

LUCY'S POP-OVERS. 

Two tea-cups sweet milk, two tea-cups sifted flour, heaped a little, 
butter size of a walnut, two eggs, and one table-spoon sugar, a little 
salt ; bake in hot gem-pans, filled half full, for twenty minutes, and 
eerve immediately. Mrs. W. A. James, Marshall, 



36 BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 

POCKET-BOOKS. 

Warm one quart new milk, add one cup butter or lard, four table- 
spoons sugar, and two well-beaten eggs ; stir in flour enough to make 
a moderately stiff sponge, add a small cup of yeast, and set in a 
warm place to rise, which will take three or four hours; then mix 
in flour enough to make a soft dough and let rise again. When well 
risen, dissolve a lump of soda size of a bean in a spoon of milk, 
work it into the dough and roll into sheets one-half inch in thick- 
ness; spread with thin layer of butter, cut into squares, and fold 
over, pocket-book shape; put on tins or in pans to rise for a little 
while, when they will be fit for the oven. In summer the sponge 
can be made up in the morning, and rise in time to make for tea, 
In cool weather it is best to set it over night. Mrs. J. H. Shearer. 

KUSK. 

Two tea-cups raised dough, one tea-cup sugar, Imlf cup butter, 
two well-beaten eggs, flour enough to make a stiff dough ; set to rise, 
and when light, mold into high biscuit, and let rise again ; sift sugar 
and cinnamon over the top, and place in oven. Mrs. Mary Lee Gere, 

Champaign, 

RUSK. 

One pint milk, three eggs, one tea-cup each af butter and sugar, 
and one coffee-cup potato yeast; thicken with Hour, and sponge over 
night ; in the morning stir down, let rise, and stir down again ; when 
it rises make into a loaf, and let rise again ; then roll out like soda 
biscuit, cut and put in pans, and, when light, bake carefully. Or 
when baking take four cups dough, one-half cup butter, one cup 
sugar, three eggs; mix thoroughly, adding enough flour to mold 
easily ; let rise, make into rather high and narrow biscuit, let rise 
again, rub the tops with a little sugar and water, then sprinkle over 
them dry sugar. Bake twenty minutes. 

LEBANON RUSK. 

One cup mashed potatoes, one of sugar, one of home-made yeast, 
three eggs ; mix together; when raised light, add half cup butter or 
lard, and flour to make a soft dough, and, when quite light, mold 
into small cakes, and let them rise again before baking. If wanted 
for tea, set about nine A. M. Mrs. J. S. Stahr, 



BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 37 

BISCUIT. 

Dissolve one rounded table-spoon of butter in a pint of hot milk ; 
when lukewarm stir in one quart of flour, add one beaten egg, a 
little salt, and a tea-cup of yeast ; work into dough until smooth. 
If winter, set in a warm place ; if summer, in a cool one to rise. In 
the morning work softly and roll out one-half inch and cut into 
biscuit and set to rise for thirty minutes, when they will be ready 
to bake. These are delicious. 

BISCUIT. 

Take one quart sifted flour (loosely put in), one measure each of 
the acid and soda (or two heaping teaspoons acid and one moder- 
ately heaping teaspoon soda) of Horsford's Bread Preparation, one 
teaspoon salt, three gills of water; shape with a spoon and the 
floured hand. 

HARD TEA BISCUIT. 

Two pounds of flour, one-fourth pound butter, one salt-spoon salt, 
three gills milk ; cut up the butter and rub it in the flour, add the 
salt and milk, knead dough for half an hour, cut cakes about as 
large as a small tea-cup, and half an inch thick, prick with a fork, 
and bake in a moderate oven until they are a delicate brown. Mrs. 
Denmead, Columbus, 

HIGH BISCUIT. 

On baking days, reserve one small loaf and mix a rounded table- 
spoon butter, a level table-spoon sugar and one egg into it by pull- 
ing it to pieces with the hands ; knead into a loaf, let it rise, then, 
by rolling between the hands, make into balls the size of a small 
hen's egg, place in rows in very well greased dripping-pan ; when 
half full raise the end that is empty almost perpendicular, and shake 
gently until the balls slide compactly together, then add more, and 
continue doing so until the pan is full; rub over the top with melted 
butter, let rise until very light, and bake. Mildred. 

MAPLE BISCUIT. 

To the well-beaten yolks of twelve eggs, add half pound of powdered 
or granulated sugar and half a cup of sweet milk ; mix one tea-spoon 
baking-powder in a (scant) half pound of sifted flour, then sift the 



38 BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES, 

flour gently into the batter and add flavoring, bake in biscuit pans, 
spreading the batter one and a half to two inches thick in the pan. 
If rightly made it will be very light. Do not bake too fast, and 
have the oven about as for sponge cake. When cold, cut into 
slices three inches long and one inch wide. Ice the sides, ends and 
top with white, pink and chocolate icing. Dry in oven, and then, 
if desired, the bottom may be iced. Build in square blocks and 
place on table. Serve a plate of the white, one of the pink, and 
one of the brown, or they may be mixed in building. Mrs. J. S. 
Sperry, Nashville, Tenn. 

SOUTH CAROLINA BISCUIT. 

One quart sweet cream or milk, one and a half cups butter or 
fresh lard, two table-spoons white sugar, one good tea-spoon salt; 
add flour sufficient to make a stiff dough, knead well and mold 
into neat, small biscuit with the hands, as our grandmothers used 
to do ; add one good tea-spoon cream tartar if preferred ; bake well, 
and you have good sweet biscuit that will keep for weeks in a dry 
place, and are very nice for traveling lunch. They are such as we 
used to send to the army, and the " boys " relished them " hugely." 
Mrs. Colonel Moore, 

SODA BISCUIT. 

Put one quart of flour, before sifting, into sieve, with one tea- 
spoon soda and two of cream tartar (or three of baking powder), 
6ne of salt, and one table-spoon white sugar; mix all thoroughly 
with the flour, run through sieve, rub in one level table-spoon of 
lard or butter (or half and half), wet with half pint sweet milk, 
roll on board about an inch thick, cut with biscuit cutter, and 
bake in a quick oven fifteen minutes. If you have not milk, use 
a little more butter, and wet with water. Handle as little and 
make as rapidly as possible. M. Parloa. 

SPOON-BISCUIT. 

One quart sour milk or buttermilk, one tea-spoon soda, a little 
salt, two table-spoons melted lard, and flour enough for a stiff bat- 
ter ; drop in a hot gem-pan and bake in a quick oven. Mrs. A. B. 

Morey. 



BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 39 

SALLY LUNN. 

Sift into a pan a pound and a half of flour, put in two ounces of 
butter warmed in a pint of new milk, one salt-spoon salt, three eggs 
well beaten, and two table-spoons of good yeast. Mix well to- 
gether, and put the whole into a tin pan well greased, and set to rise 
all night. Bake a little brown in a quick oven. Warm the milk 
and butter over water until the butter is melted ; beat the eggs in 
a two-quart !in-pail, and if the milk is not hot pour it over them. 
Stir in half the flour, then add the yeast, stirring thoroughly with 
the rest of the flour. Let rise over night. Some add two table- 
spoons sugar and use a tea-spoon soda and two of cream tartar 
instead of the yeast. Rhoda, Ballsville, 



TEA CAKE. 

One quart flour, one cup sour milk, one tea-spoon soda, one-half 
pound lard, one-half pound chopped raisins or currants ; roll two 
inches thick and bake in a quick oven; split open, butter, and eat 
while hot. Mrs. Canby 

BREAKFAST ROLLS. 

Mix the dough in the evening, according to directions in the recipe 
for " Bread Raised Once;" add a table-spoon of butter, and set where 
it will be a little warm until morning ; cut off pieces, and carefully 
shape them into rolls of the desired size by rolling them between the 
hands, but do not knead them; dip the sides of each into drawn 
butter when they are shaped, and place them in the baking-pan 
(the butter prevents their sticking together when baked, and they 
will be smooth and perfect when separated). Rub them over the 
top with drawn butter, and dust a little fine salt over the top ; set 
in a warm place, and they will quickly rise ready for baking. These 
are delicious. 

LONG BREAKFAST ROLLS. 

Three and one-half cups sweet milk, one cup butter and lard 
mixed in equal proportions, one cup potato yeast, flour enough to 
make into dough. Let rise over night ; in the morning add one 
beaten egg. Knead thoroughly, and let rise again. With the 
hands, make into balls as large as a small hen's egg ; then roll 



40 BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 

between the hands to make long rolls (about three inches), place 
close together in even rows in the pans. Let rise until light, and 

bake delicately. 

COFFEE KOLLS. 

Work into a quart of bread dough a rounded table-spoon of but- 
ter, and a half tea-cup of white sugar; add some dried currants 
(well washed and dried in the oven), sift some flour and sugar over 
them, work into the other ingredients, make into small rolls, dip 
into melted butter, place in tins, let rise a short time, and bake. 

DINNER OR FRENCH ROLLS. 

Make dough as directed in recipe for "Long Breakfast Rolls," 
make into balls as large as a medium-sized hen's egg, place on a 
well-floured board, flour a small rolling-pin (three-quarters of an 
inch in diameter), press down so as nearly to divide each ball of 
dough in the center, place in baking-pans so as not to touch each 
other, grease the space made by the rolling pin with melted butter, 
let rise until light, and bake. These rolls are so small and bake so 
quickly, that they have the delicious sweet taste of the wheat. 
Some grease the hands with butter while making the rolls. Bread 
dough, by adding the other ingredients, may be used for these rolls. 

EGG ROLLS. 

Two tea-cups sweet milk, two eggs, a little salt, three and a half 
scant cups of sifted flour. Bake in hot gem-pans.- Mrs. L. S. W., 

Jamestown, N. Y. 

EVERY-DAY ROLLS. 

Take a piece of bread dough on baking day, when molded out 
the last time, about enough for a small loaf, spread out a little, add 
one egg, two table-spoons of sugar, and three-fourths cup of lard; 
add a little flour and a small tea-spoon soda if the least bit sour; 
mix well, let rise, mold into rolls or biscuits, set to rise again, and 
they will be ready for the oven in twenty or thirty minutes. 

FRENCH ROLLS. 

Peel six medium-sized mealy potatoes, boil in two quarts of 
water, press and drain both potatoes and water through a colander; 
when cool enough so as not to scald, add flour to make a thick 



BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 41 

batter, beat well, and when lukewarm, add one-half cup potato 
yeast. Make this sponge early in the morning, and when light turn 
into a bread pan, add a tea-spoon salt, half cup lard, and flour 
enough for a soft dough; mix up, and set in a warm, even tempera- 
ture; when risen, knead down and place again to rise, repeating 
this process five or six times ; cut in small pieces and mold on the 
bread-board in rolls about one inch thick by five long; roll in 
melted butter or sweet lard, and place in well-greased baking pans 
(nine inches long by five wide and two and a half in depth, makes a 
convenient-sized pan, which holds fifteen of these rolls; or, if twice 
the width, put in two rows); press the rolls closely together, so that 
they will only be about half an inch in width. Let rise a short 
time and bake twenty minutes in a hot oven ; if the top browns too 
rapidly, cover with paper. These rolls, if properly made, are very 
white, light and tender. 

Or, make rolls larger, and just before putting them in the oven, 
cut deeply across each one with a sharp knife. This will make the 
cleft roll, so famous among French cooks. 

ITALIAN ROLLS. 

A pound of bread dough, quarter-pound softened butter: work 
the butter well into the dough, and roll out about half an inch 
thick; cut into strips nearly an inch wide and seven or eight 
incnes long ; sin over tnem nne corn meal, place tnem aparx on a 
buttered pan, and when light bake in a quick oven. Li the Kitchen. 

MARYLAND ROLLS. 

Rub one-half table-spoon of lard into one quart of flour, make a 
well in the middle, put in one-half cup baker's yeast or one cup 
of home-made two tea-spoons sugar, one-half pint cold boiled milk * 
do not stir, but let stand over night ; in the morning knead well, 
after dinner knead again, cut out, put in pans, and let rise until tea 
time. Bake in a quick oven. Mrs. Judge 



PAEKER HOUSE ROLLS. 

Rub one-half table-spoon of butter, and one-half table-spoon of 
lard into two quarts of sifted flour ; into a well in the middle pour 
one pint of cold boiled milk, and add one-half cup of yeast, one-half 



42 BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 

cup of sugar, and a little salt. If wanted for tea, rub the flour and 
butter, and boil the milk, and cool it the night before ; add sugar, 
yeast and salt, and turn all into the flour, but do not stir. Let 
stand over night; in the morning stir up, knead, and let rise till 
near tea-time; mold and let rise again, and bake quickly. To 
mold, cut with cake-cutter ; put a little melted butter on one-half 
and lap nearly over on the other half. Place them in the pan 
about three-quarters of an inch apart. Mrs. V. G. Hush, Minne- 
apolis t Minn. 

WEDDING SANDWICH ROLLS. 

Late in the evening make a rather stiff potato sponge (see direc- 
tions under " Bread-Making"), and hi the morning mix in as much 
flour as will make a soft dough, knead well, and place to rise ; 
when sufficiently light, knead down again, repeating the operation 
two or three times, remembering not to let the dough become sour 
by rising too light ; mold into common-sized loaves, place in your 
dripping-pan to rise, and bake very carefully, so as to secure the 
very slightest brown crust possible. On taking out of the oven, roll 
in a cloth tightly wrung out of water, with a large bread-blanket 
folded and wrapped around all. Let cool three or four hours, cut 
lengthwise of the loaf (not using the outside piece), first spreading 
lightly with good sweet butter, then cutting in slices not more than 
a quarter of an inch, or just as thin as possible, using for this pur- 
pose a very thin, sharp knife; lay on cold boiled ham cut in very 
thin shavings (no matter if in small pieces), roll up very slowly and 
carefully, and place where it will not unroll. Treat each sandwich 
in the same manner, always spreading the bread with butter before 
cutting. If by chance the bread is baked with too hard a crust, cut 
off a thin shaving of the brownest part very smoothly before making 
into sandwiches. These sandwiches are truly delicious if properly 
made, but they require great care, experience, and good judgment. 
Served on an oblong platter, piled in pyramid style, row upon row, 
they will resemble nicely rolled dinner napkins. They must be 
made and served the same day. Mrs. James W. Robinson. 

WINTER ROLLS. 

Put three quarts of flour into a large crock or jar, scald one quart 
of buttermilk, add one cup of lard, and pour all over the flour, 






BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 43 

beating it up well ; then add one quart of cold water, stir and add 
one-half cup of potato yeast, or one cup of brewer's ; beat in well 
and set in a warm place to rise over night. In the morning add 
salt and flour enough to make a moderately stiff dough ; set in a 
warm place to rise, and, when risen, knead down and set to rise 
again. This time knead down and place in a large stone crock or 
bowl, covered tightly with a tin pan to prevent the surface from 
drying, and set away in a cool place. When needed, turn out on a 
bread-board, cut off a piece as large as you wish to use, roll out to 
the thickness of ordinary soda biscuit, cut, and put in the oven to bake 
immediately. Set away the rest of the dough as before, and it will 
keep a week in winter, and is very convenient for hot breakfast-rolls. 

Mrs. D. Bvxton. 

VIENNA ROLLS. 

Have ready in a bowl a table-spoon of butter or lard, made soft 
by warming a little, and stirring with a spoon. Add to one quart 
of unsifted flour two heaping tea-spoons baking powder ; mix and 
sift thoroughly together, and place in a bowl with butter. Take 
more or less sweet milk as may be necessary to form a dough of 
usual stiffness, according to the flour (about three-fourths of a pint), 
put into the milk half a tea-spoon of salt, and then stir it into the 
flour, etc., with a spoon, forming the dough, which turn out on a 
board and knead sufficiently to make smooth. Roll out half an inch 
thick, ana cut with a large round cutter ; loia eacn one over TO lorm 
a half round, wetting a little between the folds to make them stick 
together ; place on buttered pans, so as not to touch, wash over on 
top with milk to give them a gloss, and bake immediately in a hot 
oven about twenty minutes. It will do them no harm to stand half 
an hour before baking, if it is desired. 

CRACKNELLS. 

To one pint of rich milk put two ounces butter and spoon of 
yeast. Make it warm, and mix enough fine flour to make a light 
dough ; roll thin and cut in long pieces, two inches broad. Prick 
well, and bake in slow oven. Effie A. Adams, Quiney, IUs. 

ENGLISH CRUMPETS. 

One quart warm milk, one teaspoon salt, half cup yeast, flour 
enough for a not very stiff batter. When light add half a cup 



44 BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 

melted butter, let stand twenty minutes, and bake in muffin rings 
or cups. Mrs. G. W. M. 

WHEATEN GEMS. 

Mix one tea-spoon baking-powder and a little salt into one pint 
flour ; add to the beaten yolks of two eggs one tea-cup sweet milk 
or cream, a piece of butter (melted) half the size of an egg, the 
flour with baking-powder and salt mixed, and the well-beaten whites 
of the two eggs. Beat well, bake immediately in gem-pans in a hot 
oven, and take out and send to the table immediately. Mrs. Gib 
Hillock, 

WHEAT MUFFINS. 

Mix one pint milk, two eggs, three table-spoons yeast, and salt- 
spoon of salt, with flour enough to make a stiff batter ; let rise four 
or five hours and bake in muffin-rings in a hot oven, for about ten 
minutes. This recipe may be made with Graham flour, by adding 
two table-spoons of molasses, and is excellent. Mrs. G. W. Marchant. 

WAFFLES. 

Take one quart of flour, a tea-spoon of salt, a table-spoon of 
melted butter, and milk enough to make a thick batter. Mix thor- 
oughly. Add two well-beaten eggs, and one measure each of acid 
and soda (or two heaping tea-spoons acid and one moderately heap- 
ing tea-spoon soda) of Horsford's Bread Preparation ; stir well, and 
bake at once in waffle-irons. 

QUICK WAFFLES. 

Two pints sweet milk, one cup butter (melted), sifted flour to 
make a soft batter; add the well-beaten yolks of six eggs, then the 
beaten whites, and lastly (just before baking) four tea-spoons baking- 
powder, beating very hard and fast for a few minutes. These are 
very good with four or five eggs, but much better with more. Mrs. 

C. W. Morey. 

RAISED WAFFLES. 

One quart flour, one pint sweet, luke-warm milk, two eggs, a 
able-spoon melted butter, tea-spoon salt, half tea-cup good yeast 
Mrs. L. S. Willidon^ Heidelburg, Germany* 



BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 45. 

RICE WAFFLES. 

Boil half a pint of rice and let it get cold, mix with it one-fourth 
pound butter and a little salt. Sift in it one and a half pints flour, 
beat five eggs separately, stir the yolks together with one quart 
milk, add whites beaten to a stiff froth, beat hard, and bake at once 
in waffle-iron. Mrs. S. C. Lee, Baltimore, Md. 

SWEET WAFERS. 

One pint flour, one tea-cup sugar, three eggs, one table-spoon 
butter, flavor with lemon, mix into a batter same as for cake, and 
bake in wafer-irons. 

FRENCH CRACKERS. 

One and a half pounds each of flour and sugar, three-fourths 
pound butter, whites of five eggs ; before cooking wash over with 
egg and dip in sugar. 

EGG CRACKERS. 

Six eggs, twelve table-spoons sweet milk, six table-spoons butter, 
half tea-spoon soda; mold with flour half an hour, and roll thin. 
Mrs. J. S. Robimon. 

CORN DODGERS. 

To one quart corn meal add a little salt and a small table-spoon 
lard ; scald with boiling water and beat hard for a few minutes ; 
drop a large spoonful in a well-greased pan. The batter should be 
thick enough to just flatten on the bottom, leaving them quite high 
in the center. Bake in a hot oven. 

CORN MUFFINS. 

One quart sifted Indian meal, a heaping tea-spoon butter, one 
quart milk, a salt-spoon salt, a third cup yeast, a table-spoon of 
molasses; let it rise four or five hours, and bake in muffin-rings. 
Mrs. G. W. Mardiant, Buffalo, N. Y. 

CORN ROLLS. 

One pint of corn meal, two table-spoons sugar, one tea-spoon 
salt, one pint boiling milk ; stir all together and let stand till cool. 
Add three eggs well beaten, and bake in gem-pans. Mrs. Ccupi. J. P. 
Rea, Minneapolis, Minn. 



>46 BREAKFAST XL TEA CAKES. 

CORN MUSH. 

Put four quarts fresh water in a kettle to boil, salt to suit the 
taste; when it begins to boil stir in one and one-half quarts meal, 
Jetting it sift through the fingers slowly to prevent lumps, adding 
it a little faster at the last, until as thick as can be conveniently 
stirred with one hand ; set in the oven in the kettle (or take out into 
a pan), bake an hour, and it will be thoroughly cooked. It takes 
corn meal so long to cook thoroughly that it is very difficult to boil 
it until done without burning. Excellent for frying when cold. 
Use a hard wood paddle, two feet long, with a blade two inches 
wide and seven inches long, to stir with. The thorough cooking and 
baking in oven afterwards, takes away all the raw taste that mush 
is apt to have, and adds much to its sweetness and delicious flavor. 

Mrs. W. W. Woods. 

FRIED MUSH. 

A delicious breakfast relish is made by slicing cold mush thin and 
frying in a little hot lard. Or dip in beaten eggs salted to taste, 
then in bread or cracker crumbs, and drop in hot lard, like dough- 
nuts. Miss A. W. S., Nashvilk, Tenn. 

ALABAMA JOHNNY-CAKE. 

Cook a pint of rice till tender, add a table-spoon butter; when 
cold add two beaten eggs and one pint meal, and when mixed spread 
on an oaken board and bake by tipping the board up before the fire- 
place. When done on one side turn over. The dough should be 

spread half an inch thick. 

JOHNNY-CAKE. 

Two-thirds tea-spoon soda, three table-spoons sugar, one tea-spoon 
cream of tartar, one egg, one cup sweet milk, six table-spoons Indian 
meal, three table-spoons flour, and a little salt. This makes a thin 

batter. 

COLD-WATER GEMS. 

With very cold or ice-water and Graham flour, and a little salt, 

J 

make a rather stiff batter ; heat and grease the irons, and bake 
twenty minutes in a hot oven. Mrs. 0. M. Scott. 

GOOD GRAHAM GEMS. 

Three cups sour milk, one tea-spoon soda, one of salt, one table- 
spoon brown sugar, one of melted lard, one beaten egg ; to the egg 



BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 47 

add the milk, then the sugar and salt, then the Graham flour (with 
the soda mixed in), together with the lard; make a stiff batter, so 
that it will drop, not pour, from the spoon. Have gem-pans very 
hot, grease, till, and bake fifteen minutes in a hot oven. Mrs. J. H. S. 

MRS. BUXTON'S GRAHAM GEMS. 

Take one egg and beat well, add pinch of salt, one quart butter- 
milk or sour milk, and Graham flour enough to make a stiff batter; 
add one heaping tea-spoon soda and stir thoroughly with a spoon ; 
heat and grease gem-irons, and after dipping the spoon in cold 
water, drop a spoonful of batter in each pan, repeating until all 
are filled ; bake in a quick oven half an hour. This measure will 

make a dozen. 

SWEET-MILK GEMS. 

Beat one egg well, add a pint new milk, a little salt, and Graham 
flour until it will drop^off the spoon nicely; heat and butter the 
gem-pans before dropping in the dough ; bake in a hot oven twenty 
minutes. Mrs. JR. L. Partridge. 

GRAHAM MUFFINS. 

Two cups of sour milk, two table-spoons brown sugar, a little salt, 
one tea-spoon soda, sufficient Graham flour to make moderately stiff. 
If not convenient to use sour milk, use sweet, adding cream of 
tartar. Mrs. H. B. Sherman. 

GRAHAM MUSH. 

Sift meal slowly into boiling salted water, stirring briskly until 
it is as thick as can be stirred with one hand ; serve with milk or 
cream and sugar, or butter and syrup. It is much improved by 
removing from the kettle to a pan as soon as thoroughly mixed, 
and steaming for three or four hours. It may also be eaten cold, 
or sliced and fried like corn mush. 

OAT-MEAL MUSH. 

To two quarts boiling water, well salted, add one and a half cups 
best oat meal (Irish, Scotch, Canadian or Akron are best) ; stir in 
meal by degrees, and after stirring up a few times to prevent ita 
settling down in a mass at the bottom, leave it to cook three hours 
without stirring. While stirring in meal put inner kettle directly on 



BREAKFAST AND TEA CAKES. 

stove. (Cook iu a custard-kettle with water in outer kettle). To 
cook for breakfast it may be put on over night, allowing it to boil 
an hour or two in the evening, but it is better when freshly cooked. 
Serve with cream and sugar. This is unsurpassed as a breakfast- 
dish, especially for growing children, who need bone and muscle- 
producing food. To be wholesome it must be well cooked, and not 
the pasty, half-cooked mass usually served at boarding-houses. 
There are a few persons with very deh'cate digestive powers,, who 
should eat oat-meal only when thoroughly pearled, as the outer 
husks of the grain irritate the coatings of the stomach. In lieu 
of a custard-kettle the mush may be made in a pan or small tin 
bucket, and then placed in a steamer and steamed two hours. 

STEAMED OAT-MEAL. 

To one tea-cup oat-meal add one quart cold water, tea-spoon salt, 
put in steamer over a kettle of cold water, and steam one hour and 
a half after meal begins to cook. 

CRACKED WHEAT. 

Two quarts salted water to two cups best white winter wheat; 
boil two or three hours in a custard-kettle : Or, soak over night and 
boil at least three-fourths of an hour : Or, put boiling water in a pan 
or small tin bucket, set on stove, stir in wheat, set in steamer and 
steam four hours: Or, make a strong sack of thick muslin or drilling, 
moisten wneat with cold water, add a little salt, place in sack, leav- 
ing half the space for wheat to swell in. Fit a round sheet of tin, 
perforated with holes half an inch in diameter, to the inside of 
ordinary kettle, so that it will rest two or three inches from the 
bottom; lay sack on the tin, put in water enough to reach tin, and 
boil from three to four hours, supplying water as -it evaporates. 
Serve with butter and syrup, or cream and sugar. When cold, slice 
and fry ; or warm with a little milk and salt in a pan greased with 
a little butter; or make in griddle-cakes with a batter of eggs, milk, 
and a little flour, and pinch of salt. 

FINE WHITE HOMINY OR GRITS. 

Take two cups to two quarts salted water, soak over night, and 
boil three quarters of an hour in a custard kettle; serve with milk 
and sugar, or when cold slice and fry. 



FRITTERS. 49 



FRITTERS. 



Make fritters quickly and beat thoroughly. A good rule for 
them is two eggs, one half-pint milk, one tea-spoon salt, and two 
cups flour; have the lard in which to cook them nice and sweet and 
hot. Clarified fat boils at about five hundred degrees more than 
double the heat of boiling water and fat actually boiling will burn 
to a cinder any thing that is dropped into it. The proper cooking 
heat is three hundred and seventy-five degrees, and is indicated by 
a blue smoke arising from the surface of the fat. When this point 
is reached, the fat may be held at that degree of heat, and pre- 
vented from burning by dropping into it a peeled potato or a piece 
of hard bread, which furnishes something for the fat to act on. 
The heat may also be tested by dropping in a tea-spoon of the bat- 
ter ; if the temperature is right it will quickly rise in a light ball 
with a splutter, and soon brown; take up carefully the moment they 
are done, with a wire spoon ; drain in a hot colander, and sift pow- 
dered sugar over them; serve hot. Pork fritters are made by 
dipping thin bits of breakfast-bacon or fat pork in the batter: fruit 
fritters by chopping any kind of fresh or canned fruit fine and mix- 
ing it with batter, or by dipping quarters or halves in batter. The 
fruit may be improved in flavor by sprinkling sugar and grated 
lemon peel over it, and allowing it to remain two or three hours, 
after which drain and dip as above. Batters for fritters should be 
made an hour before using, as the grains of flour swell by standing 
after being moistened, and thus become lighter. Add the whites 
of eggs j ust before frying. It is better not to use sugar in batter, 
as it tends to make it heavy. Sprinkle over them in the dish when 

just ready to serve. 

ALABAMA KICE FRITTERS. 

Four eggs beaten very light, one pint milk, one cup boiled rice, 
three tea-spoons baking-powder in one quart flour ; make into a 
batter ; drop by spoonfuls into boiling lard. Sauce : One pound 
of sugar, one and a half cups water, stick of cinnamon ; boil until 
clear. "Ruth Royal," Atlanta, Ga. 



50 FRITTERS. 

APPLE FRITTERS. 

Make a batter in proportion of one cup sweet milk to two cups 
flour, a heaping tea-spoon baking powder, two eggs beaten sep- 
arately, one table-spoon sugar, and salt-spoon salt ; heat the milk 
a little more than milk-warm, add slowly to the beaten yolks and 
sugar, then add flour and whites of eggs; stir all together, and 
throw in thin slices of good sour apples, dipping the batter up 
over them; drop in boiling lard in large spoonfuls with piece of 
apple in each, and fry to a light brown. Serve with maple syrup 
or a nice syrup made of sugar. Mrs. James Henderson. 

CLAM FRITTERS. 

Take raw clams, chopped fine, and make a batter with juice, an 
equal quantity of sweet milk, four eggs to each pint of liquid, and 
flour sufficient to stiffen ; fry like other fritters. Mrs. H. B. S. 

CORN OYSTERS. 

To one quart grated corn add three eggs and three or four grated 
crackers, beat well and season with pepper and salt; have ready in 
skillet butter and lard or beef-drippings in equal proportions, hot 
but not scorching ; drop in little cakes about the size of an oyster 
{for this purpose using a tea-spoon); when brown turn and fry 
on the other side, watching constantly for fear of burning. If the 
fat is just the right heat, the oysters will be light and delicious, 
but if not, heavy and "soggy." Serve hot and keep dish well cov- 
ered. It is better to beat whites of eggs to a stiff froth and add 
just before frying. Mrs. V. G. Husk, Minneapolis, Minn. 

CREAM FRITTERS. 

One and a half pints flour, one pint milk, six well-beaten eggs, 
one-half nutmeg, two tea-spoons salt, one pint cream ; stir the 
whole enough to mix the cream ; fry in small cakes. Mrs. M. K. P. 

LEMON FRITTERS. 

One-fourth pound of eggs, one-half pound flour, one-fourth 
pound sugar (pulverized) ; beat the yolks well, add the flour and 
enough fresh milk to make a stiff batter (about a gill of milk) ; 
beat the whites stiff with the sugar, the juice of a lemon and some 
of the yellow peel grated off, or a spoon of extract of lemon. 



GRIDDLE-CAKES. 51 

When ready to cook beat the whites well into the batter and pro- 
ceed to cook. Have plenty of good lard, heated slowly ; just as it 
begins to smoke, after bubbling, drop in by spoonfuls enough fritters 
to fill the vessel without crowding. The cold batter will lower the 
temperature of the fat sufficiently to keep it at proper cooking 
heat. The fritters will begin to brown very quickly, and should be 
turned with a wire spoon. If they begin to color dark brown 
check the heat immediately. If these directions are followed ac- 
curately, they may be lifted from the fat and laid upon a napkin or 
folded paper comparatively free from grease. Dust the fritters 
well with sugar and nutmeg, if agreeable. For supper eat them so, 
but for dinner some nice sauce should be served. Some persons 
substitute honey or maple syrup for sauce. Fritters bear a bad 
reputation, but when properly made, and eaten occasionally for a 
change, are quite as wholesome as many of the messes recommended 

as food for dyspeptics. 

VANITIES. 



Beat two eggs, stir in a pinch of salt and a half tea-spoon 
rose-water, add sifted flour till just thick enough to roll out, cut 
with a cake-cutter, and fry quickly in hot lard. Sift powdered 
sugar on them while hot, and when cool put a tea-spoon of jelly in 
the center of each one. Nice for tea or dessert. Mrs. D. C. Har- 
rington, 



GRIDDLE-CAKES. 



Griddle-cakes should be well beaten when first made, and are 
much lighter when the eggs are separated, whipping the yolks to 
a thick cream, and adding the whites beaten to a stiff froth just 
before baking. Some never stir buckwheat cakes after they have 
risen, but take them out carefully with a large spoon, placing 
the spoon when emptied in a saucer, and not back again into the 
batter. In baking griddle-cakes have the griddle clean, and, if the 
cakes stick, sprinkle on salt and rub with a coarse cloth before 
greasing. Some prefer griddles made *of soap-stone, which need no 



52 GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

greasing. They need to be very hot, but greasing spoils them. 
They are more costly and more easily broken than iron. Iron 
griddles, if properly cared for, need washing but seldom. Imme- 
diately after use they should be carefully wiped and put away out 
of the dust, never to be used for any other purpose. Never turn 
griddle-cakes the second time while baking, as it makes them 
heavy, and serve the same side up as when taken from griddles. 



BUCKWHEAT CAKES. 

Buckwheat flour, when properly ground, is perfectly free from 
grits. The grain should be run through the smutter with a strong 
blast before grinding, and the greatest care taken through the 
whole process. Adulteration with rye or corn cheapens the flour, 
but injures the quality. The pure buckwheat is best, and is un- 
surpassed for griddle-cakes. To make batter, warm one pint sweet 
milk and one pint water (one may be cold and the other boiling) ; 
put half this mixture in a stone crock, add five tea-cups buckwheat 
flour, beat well until smooth, add the rest of the milk and water, 
and last a tea-cup of yeast. Or, the same ingredients and propor- 
tions may be used except adding two table-spoons of molasses or 
sugar, and using one quart of water instead of one pint each of 
milk and water. Miss S. A. Melching. 

HORSFORD BUCKWHEAT CAKES. 

Mix " .over night," with warm water, a little salt, and a table- 
spoon molasses, one pint buckwheat flour, to the usual consistency 
of griddle-cakes. When ready to bake for breakfast, add one meas- 
ure each of acid and soda (or two heaping tea-spoons acid and one 
moderately heaping tea-spoon soda) of Horsford's Bread Prepara- 
tion thinning the batter if necessary and bake immediately on a 

hot griddle. 

FRENCH PANCAKES. 

Beat together till smooth six eggs and half a pound of flour, melt 
four ounces butter and add to the batter, with one ounce of sugar 
and half a pint of milk, and beat until smooth. Put a table-spoon 
at a time into a hot frying-pan slightly greased, spreading the batter 
evenly over the surface of the pan by tipping it about, fry to a light 



GRIDDLE-CAKES. 53 

brown, spread with jelly, roll it up, dust it with powdered sugar, 
and serve hot. 

BATTER CAKES. 

Make a batter of one quart each of flour and sour milk, three 
eggs beaten separately, a table-spoon of butter, and two level tea- 
spoons soda. Pulverize the soda very fine before measuring, then 
thoroughly mix with the flour. Add whites of eggs just before 
baking on the griddle. Sweet milk may be used (with the other 
ingredients in same quantity) with Horsford's Bread Preparation, 
one measure each of soda and acid, which must be thoroughly 
mixed with the flour. These may also be made without es^s. 

J OO 

BREAD CAKES. 

Take stale bread and soak over night in sour milk ; in the morn- 
ing rub through a colander, and to one quart add the yolks of two 
eggs, one tea-spoon salt, one tea-spoon soda, two table-spoons sugar, 
and flour enough to make a batter a little thicker than for buck- 
wheat cakes; add last the well-beaten whites of the eggs, and bake. 

CRUMB GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

The night before using put some bread crumbs to soak in one 
quart of sour milk; in the morning rub through a sieve, and add 
four well-beaten eggs, two tea-spoons soda dissolved in a little water, 
one table-spoon melted butter, and enough corn meal to make them 
the consistency of ordinary griddle -cakes. It is better to beat yolks 
and whites separately, stirring the whites lightly in just before 
baking. Mrs. W. E. Scobey, Kaiikakee, 111. 

CORN CAKES. 

One pint corn meal, one of sour milk or buttermilk, one egg, one 
tea-spoon soda, one of salt. A table-spoon of flour or corn starch 
may be used in place of the egg; bake on a griddle. 

FLANNEL CAKES. 

Make hot a pint of sweet milk, and into it put two heaping table- 
spoons butter, let melt, then add a pint of cold milk, the well- 
beaten yolks of four eggs placing the whites in a cold place a 
tea-spoon of salt, four table-spoons potato yeast, and sufficient flour 
to make a stiff batter ; set in a warm place to rise, let stand three 



54 YEAST. 

hours or over night ; before baking add the beaten whites ; fry like 
any other griddle-cakes. Be sure to make batter just stiff enough, 
for flour must not be added in the morning unless it is allowed to 

r<se again. 

GRAHAM GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

One quart Graham flour, one tea-spoon baking powder, three 
eggs, *ud milk or water enough to make thin batter. 

INDIAN PANCAKES. 

One pint Indian meal, one tea : spoon salt, small tea-spoon soda; 
pour on boiling water until a little thinner than mush ; let stand 
until cool, add the yolks of four eggs, half a cup of flour in which 
is mixed two tea-spoons cream tartar ; stir in as much sweet milk or 
water as will make the batter suitable to bake; beat the whites 
well, and add just before baking. Mrs. W. W. Woods. 

RICE GRIDDLE-CAKES. 

Boil half a cup rice; when cold mix one quart sweet milk, the 
yolks of four eggs, and flour sufficient to make a stiff batter; beat 
the whites to a froth, stir in one tea-spoon soda, and two of cream 
tartar; add a little salt, and lastly the whites of eggs; bake on a 
griddle. A nice way to serve is to spread them while hot with but- 
ter, and almost any kind of preserves or jelly ; roll them up neatly, 
cut off the ends, sprinkle them with sugar, and serve immediately. 
' Mrs. Walter Mitchell, Gattipolis. 



YEAST. 



The best is potato yeast, because bread made witfc it is moister. 
and there is no danger of injuring the flavor of the bread by ap 
excess of yeast. Dry yeast should be made in May or June for 
summer use, and in October for winter use. In hot and damp 
weather, dry yeast sometimes loses its vitality ; however, many use 
it on account of its convenience, since there is no danger of ite 
souring in summer or freezing in winter. Soft hop or potato yeast 






YEAST. 55 

will keep in a cool place one or two weeks in warm weather, and in 
cold weather five or six weeks, care being taken that it does not 
freeze. Never add soda to yeast; if it becomes sour it will do to 
start fresh yeast, but will never make good bread. Make yeast in 
a * bright tin pan, kept for this purpose alone. When, it is risen 
sufficiently, a thick white scum rises to the top. Keep in a stone 
jar with a close-fitting cover, or in a jug, on the cellar bottom, or 
in ice-chest, or in some other cool place. Always shake the jug 
before taking out yeast for use. Leave cork loose for first twelve 
hours. Extreme heat or freezing kills the plant, which grows while 
fermentation goes on. The jar or jug, when emptied, should be 
washed first in cold water, then in soap and water, and afterward 
in hot water, which may be allowed to stand a half hour, when 
pour out. Let jar cool, and it is ready for use. The cork or cover 
needs the same careful attention. Many times the yeast is spoiled 
by want of care and neatness in washing the yeast jar. Keep hops 
in a paper sack in a dry, cool place. One pint of potato yeast, 
one tea-cup of hop yeast, a piece of compressed yeast size of a 
walnut, and one yeast cake, or two-thirds of a tea-cup of yeast 
crumbs, are equal in strength. 

DRY YEAST. 

Boil two large potatoes and a handful of hops (the latter in a 
bag) in three pints water; when done, take out potatoes, mash well, 
add one pint flour, and pour boiling hot water over all; beat well 
together, adding one table-spoon salt, one of ginger, and one-half 
cup sugar ; when hike-warm add one cup good yeast and let stand 
two days (or only one day, if very warm weather), stirring down 
frequently; add good white corn meal until thick enough to make 
into cakes about half an inch in thickness ; place to dry in the 
shade (never expose to the sun or to stove heat) where the air will 
pass freely, so as to dry them as soon as possible, as the fermentation 
goes on as long as there is any moisture; turn the cakes frequently, 
breaking them up somewhat, or even crumbling, so they will dry 
out evenly and quickly ; when thoroughly dried put in a paper sack, 
and keep in a dry place. A small cake will make a sponge suffi- 
cient to bake five or six ordinary loaves. Mrs. E. T. Carson. 



56 YEAST. 

FARMERS' YEAST. 

A yeast which is especially good for the use of farmers, and 
others who use a great deal of bread and bake frequently, is made 
as follows: Take a handful of impressed or two ounces of pressed 
hops (those showing the pollen dust are best), put them in one quart 
of water, with four ordinary potatoes, and boil till the potatoes are 
well cooked ; mash all together, and strain through a linen strainer, 
add flour enough to make a thick batter ; a tea-spoon salt, a table- 
spoon pulverized ginger and half a cup sugar ; set it back on the 
fire and let it come to a boil, stirring constantly, and set by to cool ; 
when only milk warm add a cup of old yeast, or two cakes grocers' 
dry hop yeast, or half a cup bakers'. This will be light in two or 
three hours. The yeast may be made perpetual, by saving a cup 
when started, but it must be kept from freezing in winter and in a 
cool place in summer. This is a good mode, and acceptable to all 
who prefer yeast bread. Mrs. H. Young, 

HOP YEAST. 

Place a handful of hops in two quarts of cold water, boil slowly 
for a half hour, strain boiling hot on one pint flour and one table- 
spoon salt (gradually at first in order to mix smoothly) ; w r hen luke- 
warm add a half pint of yeast, and set in a warm place to rise. 
When light, cover and keep in a cool place. Mrs. M. J. Woods. 

POTATO YEAST WITHOUT HOPS. 

Four good-sized potatoes peeled, boiled and mashed, four table- 
spoons white sugar, one of ginger, one of salt, two cups flour; pour 
over this a pint of boiling water, and beat till all the lumps disap- 
pear. After it has cooled, add to it one cup good yeast, and set 
away to rise ; when risen put in glass or stone jar, cover and set 
away in a cool place. Mrs. George H. Rust, 

POTATO YEAST. 

Boil one cup hops in a sack in two quarts water for fifteen minutes ; 
remove sack with hops, add immediately after grating (to prevent 
their darkening) five good-sized Irish potatoes, peeled and grated 
raw, one cup white sugar, one table-spoon salt, and one of ginger ; 
stir occasionally and cook from five to ten minutes, and it will boil 



YEAST. 57 

tip thick like starch ; turn into a jar, and when just tepid in sum- 
mer, or quite warm in winter, add one-half pint good yeast (always 
save some to start with) ; set jar in a large tin pan, and as often as 
it rises stir down until fermentation ceases, when it will be quite 
thin*. Cover closely, and set away in a cool place, and it will keep 
two weeks. When yeast smells sour but does not taste sour it is 
.still good ; if it has no smell it is dead. One cup will make six 
good-sized loaves. Mrs. D. Buxlon. 

POTATO YEAST. 

Take as many hops as can be grasped in the hand twice, put one- 
Lalf gallon water over them in a new coffee-pot kept for that pur- 
pose, boil slowly for one hour. Do not tie them in a cloth to boil, 
as that keeps the pollen (an important rising property) out of the 
yeast. Pare and grate half a dozen large potatoes into a two gallon 
stone crock, add a half cup sugar, table-spoon each of salt and 
ginger, pour over this a half gallon of the boiling hop- water, stir- 
ring all the time. When milk-warm, add one cup of good lively 
yeast, set in a. warm place until it rises, and remove to the cellar or 
:some other cool place. The boiling hop-water must be added to po- 
tatoes immediately or they will darken, and darken the yeast. A 
.good way to prevent the potatoes from darkening is to grate them 
into a pan half filled with cold water. As grated the potatoes sink 
to the bottom ; when done grating, pour off the water and add the 
boiling hop-water. This is an excellent recipe, and the method 
given for boiling hops is especially recommended. 

YEAST. 

Pare and boil four ordinary-sized potatoes, boiling at the same 
time in a separate vessel a good handful of hops. When the pota- 
toes are done, mash fine and add, after straining, the water in which 
the hops were boile$ ; put into this one cup white sugar and one- 
half cup salt, and add sufficient water to make one gallon ; when 
cold add one cup of good yeast, let stand in a warm place for a few 
hours until it will " sing" on being stirred, when it is ready for use. 
Keep covered in a cellar or cool place. Mrs. C. M. 



58 YEAST. 

YEAST WITHOUT YEAST. 

This requires no yeast to raise it, and has been called the "best 
yeast in the world." Monday morning, boil one pint hops in two- 
gallons water for half an hour, strain into a crock and let the liquid 
become lukewarm, add two even tea-spoons salt and half a pint 
best brown sugar ; mix half a pint flour smooth with some of the 
liquor, and stir all well together. On Wednesday, add three pounds 
potatoes boiled and mashed, stir well and let stand till Thursday, 
then strain and put in stone-jugs, but for the first day or two leave 
the corks quite loose. Stir the yeast occasionally while making, 
and keep near the fire. It should be made two weeks before using, 
aud will keep any length of time, improving with age. Keep it m 
a cool place, and shake the jug before pouring from it, but with 
the cork out, holding the palm of the hand over the mouth to pre- 
vent the escape of the yeast. 

YAHOO YEAST. 

Take a table-spoonful and a half of New Orleans molasses, and 
add to it the same quantity of warm w r ater. Stir in enough flour 
to make a thin batter; set it in a warm place not hot and it will 
soon begin to throw up bubbles on the top, and in a short time fer- 
ment. Meanwhile, have all ready to make the yeast as soon as the 
batter begins to work. Put a tea-cup of hops into a clean porce- 
lain kettle, and add two quarts of boiling water. Set over the fire> 
and boil steadily twenty minutes. Strain it, after boiling, into a 
clean dish. Stir in a pint of flour and a table-spoonful of salt. Be 
sure and stir it free from lumps. Set again over the fire, stirring 
constantly, until it boils up and thickens. If too thick after it 
boils up, pour in boiling water till it is about the consistency of 
good starch. Then pour back into the bowl, cover over till rnilk- 
'warm, then stir in the " risings" made of molasses, flour and water. 
Set where it will be kept warm until it has risen and is quite light. 
Then put into a jug, cork, and set in a cool place for use. Mrs* 
Clarkson, Bath Co., Ky. 



CAKE-MAKING. 



'* Let all things be done decently and in order," and the first to 
put in order when you are going to bake is yourself. Secure the 
iiair in a net or other covering, to prevent any from falling, and 
brush the shoulders and back to be sure none are lodged there that 
might blow off; make the hands and finger nails clean, roll the 
-sleeves up above the elbows, and put on a large, clean apron. Clean 
the kitchen table of utensils and every thing not needed, and pro- 
vide every thing that will be needed until the cake is baked, not 
forgetting even the broom-splints previously picked off the new 
broom and laid away carefully in a little box. (A knitting-needle 
may be kept for testing cake instead of splints.) If it is warm 
weather, place the eggs in cold water, and let stand a few minutes, 
-as they will then make finer froth ; and be sure they are fresh, as 
they will not make a stiff froth from any amount of beating if old. 
The cake-tins should be prepared before the cake, when baking 
powder is used, as it effervesces but once, and there should be no 
delay in baking, as the mixture should be made firm by the heat, 
while the effervescing process is going on. Grease the pans with 
fresh lard, which is much better than butter ; line the bottom with 
paper, using six or eight thicknesses if the cake is large, and greas- 
ing the top one well. (In some ovens, however, fewer thicknesses 
of paper would be needed on the bottom, and in some the sides 
also should be lined with one or two thicknesses.) Sift flour and sugar 
(if not pulverized), and measure or weigh. Firkin or very salt but* 

159) 



60 CAKE-MAKING. 

ter should be cut in bits and washed to freshen a little; if very 
hard, warm carefully, but in no case allow any of it to melt. Good 
butter must be used, as the heat develops any latent bad qualities. 
Use pulverized sugar for all delicate cakes; for rich cakes coffee- 
crushed, powdered and sifted ; for dark cakes, the best brown 
sugars are best; for jelly-cakes, light fruit-cakes, etc., granulated 
and coffee "A" are best and most economical. Beat the yolks of 
eggs thoroughly, and strain ; set the whites away in a cool place 
until the cake is ready for them, then beat them vigorously in a cool 
room, till they will remain in the dish when turned upside down. 
Sift a part of the measured flour with the baking-powder or soda 
and cream tartar through a hand-sieve (which should be among the 
utensils of every housekeeper), and mix thoroughly with the rest of 
the flour. In using new flour for either bread or cake-making, it 
can be "ripened" for use by placing the quantity intended for bak- 
ing in the hot sun for a few hours, or before the kitchen fire. In 
using milk, note this : that sour milk makes a spongy, light cake m r 
sweet milk, one that cuts like pound cake; remembering that with 
sour milk soda alone is used, while with sweet milk baking powder 
or soda and cream tartar are to be added. 

Having thus gathered the material, cut butter (in cold weather) 
into small pieces, and warm, not melt; beat the butter and sugar ta 
a cream, add the milk in small quantities (never use fresh and stale 
milk in same cake), next the yolks of eggs, then a part of the flour, 
then a part of the whites, and so on until the whole is used ; lastly, 
add the flavoring. Many good cake-makers first stir the milk and 
flavoring into the creamed butter and sugar, then the yolks, next 
the whites, and lastly the flour, first taking about two-thirds of it 
and thoroughly mixing the baking powder through it; the re- 
mainder of the flour is then left to be used at discretion. A little- 
more or less flour may be needed, according to the climate, or ta 
the kind of flour used, as the " New Process" flour requires one- 
eighth less than other brands. There is great " knack" in beating- 
cake; don't stir, but beat thoroughly, bringing the batter up from the 
bottom of the dish at every stroke; in this way the air is driven inta 
the cells of the batter, instead of out of them but the cells will be- 
finer if beaten more slowly at the last, remembering that the motio 



CAKE-MAKING. 61 

should always be upward. In winter it is easier to beat with the 
hand, but in summer a wooden spoon is better. An iron spoon 
turns the mixture dark. Never beat a cake in tin, but use earthen 
or stone\vare. Unskillful mixing, too rapid or unequal baking, or a 
sudden decrease in heat before it is quite done, will cause streaks in 
the cake. Always bake a small cake first, fill a patty, pan, or cover 
to a baking-powder can, one-third full, and bake; then add more 
or less flour as required. If the cake is hard and solid, it needs a 
few tea-spoons of milk; if more flour is needed it will fall in the 
middle and be spongy and crumbly. Powdered sugar may be- 
sifted on the top of any cake while it is a little warm; if it dis- 
solves add more when it is cold, keep some for that purpose in a 
spice box with a perforated top. The white portion of orange or 
lemon-peel should never be used; grate only the yellow. When 
recipes call for soda and cream of tartar, baking powder may be 
used by taking the same quantity as required of both, or Horsford's- 
Bread Preparation will be found excellent. "Milk" always means- 
Bweet milk. "A cup" always means a tea cup, not a coffee cup. 
Sour milk may always be used instead of sweet, by using soda only. 
The proportions of rising-powder to one quart of flour are three tea- 
spoons baking-powder, or one tea-spoon soda and two tea-spoons- 
cream tartar, or one measure each of Horsford's Bread Preparation, 
or one pint sour milk and one level tea-spoon soda. 

FRUIT CAKE. 

Most ladies think fruit cake quite incomplete without wine or 
brandy, but it can be made equally good on strictly temperance- 
principles, by substituting one-third of a cup of molasses for a wine- 
glass of brandy. The objection to the use of liquor in sauces does 
not, however, hold good against that used in cake-making, as the 
alcohol is converted to vapor by the heat and passes off with the 
other gases. There are many, however, who object to the use of 
liquors in any way, and to keeping them in the house, and such 
will find the above an excellent and cheap substitute. 

Raisins should never be washed, as it is difficult to dry out the 
moisture absorbed by them, and every particle of moisture retained 
tends to make the cake heavy. To remove the stems and ex- 
traneous matter, place the raisins in a coarse tow-el and rub them i 



62 CAKE-MAKING. 

this until as clean as rubbing will make them ; then pick over care- 
fully, remove any steins or other defects which may be left. The 
raisins should be prepared before the cake, and added the last thing 
before putting in the oven, as, being heavy, they sink to the bottom 
if allowed to stand. To seed, clip with the scissors, or cut with a 
sharp knife. .Do not chop too fine; if for light fruit cake, seeding 
is all that is necessary. Slice the citron thin, and do not have the 

*/ 

pieces too large, or they will cause the cake to break apart in cut- 
ting. Currants should be kept prepared for use as follows : Wash 
in warm water, rubbing well, pour off water, and repeat until the 
water is clear; drain them in a sieve, spread on a cloth and rub 
dry ; pick out bad ones, dry carefully in a cool oven or in the 
"heater" (or in the sun and wind, with a thin gauze over them to 
keep off flies, insects and dust), and set away for use. When the 
fruit is all mixed, cream the butter and sugar this is very im- 
portant in all cakes add the spices, molasses, or liquors, then the 
milk (if any used), next the eggs well beaten, adding whites with 
the flour, as previously directed. Always beat whites and yolks 
separately if many eggs are used, but if only a few, it is just as well 
to beat both together. Next add the flour (which in making black 
fruit cake may be browned), prepared with baking powder or soda 
and cream tartar, then the flavoring (lemon and vanilla, in equal 
parts, make the best flavoring), and lastly the fruit dredged with a 
very little flour. Some prefer to mix the fruit with all the flour. 
When but little fruit is used it may be dropped into the dough after 
it is in the pan, and pushed just beneath the surface, which pre- 
vents it from settling to the bottom. The batter for fruit cake 
should be quite stiff. 

In making very large cakes that require three or four hours to 
bake, an excellent way for lining the pan is the following: Fit three 
papers carefully, grease thoroughly, make a paste of equal parts 
Graham and fine flour, wet with water just stiff enough to spread 
easily with a spoon, place the first paper in the pan with the greased, 
side down, and spread the paste evenly over the paper about as 
thick as pie-crust. In covering the sides of the pan, use a little 
paste to stick a portion of the paper to the top of the pan to keep it 
from slipping out of place, press the second paper carefully into tts 



CAKE-MAKING. 63 

place, with the greased side up, and next put in the third paper as 
you would into any baking-pan, and pour in the cake. Earthen 
pans are used by some, as they do not heat so quickly and are less 
liable to burn the cake. 

When using a milk-pan or pans, without stems, a glass bottle filled 
with shot to give it weight, and greased, may be placed in the center 
of the pan, or a stem may be made of paste-board, rolled up, but 
the latter is more troublesome to keep in place. The cake is apt to 
burn around the edges before it is done unless there is a tube in the 
center. 

All except layer cakes should be covered with a paper cap, (or a 
sheet of brown paper, which the careful housewife will save from 
her grocers' packages), when first put into the oven. Take a square 
of brown paper large enough to cover well the cake pan, cut off the 
corners, and lay a plait on four sides, fastening each with a pin se- 
as to fit nicely over the pan. This will throw it up in the center , 
so that the cover will not touch the cake. Save the cap, as it can be 
used several times. 

Before commencing, clean out the stove, take off the lids and brush 
inside, rake it out underneath, get all the ashes out of the corners, 
have the best of fuel at hand. Don't build a baking fire before it 
is needed, have it only moderate, and add the extra fuel in time to 

get it nicely burning. 

THE OVEN. 

Too much care can not be given to the preparation of the oven, 
which is oftener too hot than too cool ; however, an oven too cold 
at first will ruin any cake. Cake should rise and begin to bake 
before browning much, large cakes requiring a good, steady, solid 
heat, about such as for baking bread ; layer cakes, a brisk hot fire, 
as they must be baked quickly. A good plan is to fill the stove 
with hard wood (ash is the best for baking), let it burn until there 
is a good body of heat, and then turn damper so as to throw the 
heat to the bottom of oven for fully ten minutes before the cake is 
put in. In this way a. steady heat to start with is secured. Gener- 
ally it is better to close the hearth when the cake is put in, as this 
stops the draft and makes a more regular heat Keep adding wood 
in small quantities, for if the heat becomes slack the cake will be 



64 CAKE-MAKING. 

heavy. Great care must be taken, for some stoves need to have the 
dampers changed every now and then, but as a rule more heat is 
needed at the bottom of the oven than at the top. Many test their 
ovens in this way : if the hand can be held in from twenty to thirty- 
five seconds (or while counting twenty or thirty-five), it is a " quick" 
oven, from thirty-five to forty-five seconds is " moderate," and from 
forty-five to sixty seconds is " slow." Sixty seconds is a good oven 
to begin with for large fruit cakes. All systematic housekeepers 
will hail the day when some enterprising, practical "Dixie" girl 
shall invent a stove or range with a thermometer attached to the 
oven, so that the heat may be regulated accurately and intelligently. 
If necessary to move the cake while baking, do it very gently. Do 
not open the oven door until the cake has had time to form, and 
do not open it oftener than necessary, then be careful to close it 
quickly and gently, so as not to jar the cake. Be sure the outside 
door of the kitchen is closed so that no cold air may strike it. If 
the oven bakes too hard on the bottom, place the grate under the 
pali ; if too hot on top, set a pie-pan of water on the top grate. If 
one side bakes faster than the other, turn very gently. Be careful 
not to remove from the oven until done ; test thoroughly before re- 
moving, for if the cooler air strikes it before it is done, it is certain 
to fall. Allow about thirty minutes for each inch of thickness in 
a quick oven, and more time in a slow one. Test with a broom- 
splint or knitting-needle, and if the dough does not adhere, it is 
done. Settling away from the pan a little, and stopping its ' ' sing- 
ing," are other indications that the cake is ready to leave the oven. 
When removed, set the cake, while in the pan, on an inverted sieve 
to cool ; this secures a free circulation of air all round it, and cools 
it evenly. It should remain in the pan at least fifteen minutes after 
taking from the oven, and it is better to leave the "cap" on until 
the cake is carefully removed from the pan and set away, always 
right side up. A tin chest or stone jar is best to keep it in. Coffee 
cake should be put away before it is cold, and so closely wrapped 
in a large napkin that the aroma will not be lost. 

SPONGE AND WHITE CAKES. 

The good quality of all delicate cake, and especially of sponge- 
cake, depends very much upon its being made with fresh eggs. It cax 



CAKE-MAKING. 65 

never be perfect unless pulverized sugar is used. It must be quickly 
put together, beaten with rapidity, and baked in a rather quick 
oven. It is made "sticky "and less light by being stirred long. 
There is no other cake so dependent upon care and good judgment 
in baking as sponge-cake. In making white cake, if not convenient 
to use the yolks that are left, they will keep for several days if 
thoroughly beaten and set in a cool place. The whites of eggs, when 
not used, must not be beaten, but will keep for several days if set in 
a cool place. The white or yolk of a medium-sized egg weighs one 
ounce, a fact that it is convenient to know, as sometimes the white 
or yolk of one or more eggs is wanted from several that have been 
put away together. Whenever it is necessary to cut a cake while 
warm, do it with a warm knife. To prepare cocoa-nut, cut a hole 
through the meat at one of the holes in the end, draw off the milk, 
pound the nut well on all sides to loosen the meat, crack, take out 
meat, and set the pieces in the heater or in a cool, open oven over 
night, or for a few hours, to dry, then grate ; if all is not used, 
sprinkle with sugar (after grating) and spread out in a cool, dry 
place, and it will keep for weeks. 

ANGEL'S FOOD. 
Use the whites of eleven eggs, one and a half tumbler of sifted 

granulated sugar, one tumbler sifted flour, one tea-spoon of vanilla, 
one tea-spoon of cream tartar; sift the flour four times, then add 
the cream tartar and sift again but measure it before putting in the 
cream of tartar sift the sugar and measure it ; beat the eggs to a 
stiff froth on a large platter ; on the same platter add the sugar 
lightly, then the flour very gently, then the vanilla ; do not stop 
beating until you put it in the pan to bake. Bake forty minutes 
in a moderate oven, try with a straw and if too soft let it remain a 
few minutes longer. Do not open the oven until the cake has been 
in fifteen minutes. Turn the pan upside down to cool, and when 
cold, take out by loosening around the sides with a knife, and then 
ice ; use a pan that has never been greased. The tumbler for meas- 
uring must hold two and one-fourth gills. The pans have feet. 

ICING. --Whites of two eggs, two tea-cups granulated sugar; 
boil the sugar until clear with just enough water to moisten it. 
Having beaten the eggs to a stiff froth, pour boiling syrup very 
5 



66 CAKE-MAKING. 

slowly over them. Dissolve one-half tea-spoon of citric acid in a 
small table-spoon of water, and put enough in to make a pleasant 
tart add a little essence of lemon. 

BUFORD CAKE. 

One cup butter, two of white sugar, four of sifted flour, five eggs 
beaten separately, one cup sour milk, tea-spoon soda, pound seeded 
raisins chopped a little ; beat the butter and sugar to a cream, add 
the yolks and milk, and stir in the flour with soda well mixed 
through it ; then add the white of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth, 
and lastly the raisins dredged with a little flour ; bake one and one- 
half hours. Use coffee-cups to measure. This makes a cake for a 
six quart pan. 

ALMOND, HICKORY-NUT OR COCOA-NUT CAKE. 
One pound flour, half tea-spoon salt, fourth pound butter, pound* 
of sugar, tea-cup sour cream, four eggs, lemon flavor to taste, and 
a tea-spoon soda dissolved in two tea-spoons hot water; mix all 
thoroughly, grate in the white part of a cocoa-nut, or stir in a pint 
of chopped hickory-nuts, or a pint of blanched almonds pounded* 
Mrs. J. W. Grubbs, Richmond. 

BLACK CAKE. 

One pound powdered white sugar, three-quarters pound butter, 
pound sifted flour (brown or not as preferred), twelve eggs beaten 
separately, two pounds raisins stoned and part of them chopped, 
two of currants carefully cleaned, half pound citron cut in strips, 
quarter ounce each of cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves mixed, wine- 
glass wine and one of brandy ; rub butter and sugar together, add 
yolks of eggs, part of flour, the spice, and whites of eggs well 
beaten ; then add remainder of flour, and wine and brandy ; mix 
all thoroughly together ; cover bottom and sides of a four-quart 
milk-pan with buttered white paper, put in a layer of the mixture, 
then a layer of the fruit (first dredging the fruit with flour), until 
pan is filled up three or four inches. A small cup of Orleans mo- 
lasses makes the cake blacker and more moist, but for this it is not 
necessary to add more flour. Bake three and one-half or four 
hours in a slow oven. This is excellent. Mrs. M. M. Munsell, Del* 
aware. 



CAKE-MAKING. 67 

BLACK CAKE. 

One pound flour, one of currants, one of raisins, one of sugar, 
half pound citron, half pound chopped figs, three-fourths pound 
butter, ten eggs leaving out two whites, tea-cup molasses, one of 
sour cream and soda, one gill brandy or good whisky, half cup cin- 
namon, two table-spoons allspice and cloves, four table-spoons jam. 
Mrs. Gov. Kirkwood, loiva. 

BLACK CAKE. 

Two cups brown sugar, one and one-half cups of butter, six eggs 
beaten separately, three cups flour (brown the flour), two table- 
spoons molasses, one of cinnamon, one tea-spoon mace, one of cloves, 
two cups sweet milk, two pounds raisins, two of currants, a half 
pound citron, one tea-spoon soda, two of cream tartar. Bake three 
hours. Mrs. A. B. Morey. 

BREAD CAKE. 

Three coffee-cups yeast dough, light enough to bake for bread, 
two and two-thirds cups sugar, one cup butter, three eggs, one 
nutmeg ; put all together, and work with the hands until smooth 
as pound-cake. It is very important that all should be mixed very 
thoroughlv with the lisiit dough. Add raisins and as much fruit 

o */ o 

as desired, and let rise half an hour in the pans in which you bake. 
The oven should be about right for bread. This is easily made, 
and is quite as nice as common loaf-cake. Mrs. Ghas. Fidlingfon. 

BREAD CAKE. 

Two cups light bread dough, one and one-half cups sugar, half 
cup butter, three table-spoons sour milk in which has been dis- 
solved half tea-spoon soda, half a grated nutmeg, tea-spoon cinna- 
mon, cup raisins chopped a little and floured ; stir all well together, 
adding fruit lastly; let rise half an hour and bake in a moderate 
oven. Mrs. Hartle, Massitton. 

BRIDE'S CAKE. 

Whites of twelve eggs, three cups sugar, small cup butter, a cup 
sweet milk, four small cups flour, half cup corn starch, two tea- 
spoons baking powder, lemon to taste. Adding a cup citron sliced 



68 CAKE-MAKING. 

* 

thin and dusted with flour, makes a beautiful citron cake. 
Harvey Clark, Piqua. 

WHIPPED-CREAM CAKE. 

One cup sugar, two eggs, two table-spoons softened butter and 
four of milk ; beat all well together ; add a cup of flour in which 
has been mixed tea-spoon cream tartar and half tea-spoon soda. 
Bake in rather small square dripping-pan. When cake is cool have 
ready a half pint sweet cream whipped to a stiff froth, sweeten and 
flavor to taste, spread over cake and serve while fresh. The cream 
will froth easier to be made cold by setting on ice before whipping. 
Mrs. Win. Brown, 

CORN-STARCH CAKE. 

Two coffee-cups pulverized sugar, three-fourths cup butter, cup 
corn starch dissolved in a cup of sweet milk, two cups flour, whites 
of seven eggs, two tea-spoons cream tartar, tea-spoon soda mixed 
thoroughly with the flour ; cream butter and sugar, add starch and 
milk, then add the whites and flour gradually until all is used. 
Flavor with lemon or rose. Mrs. W. P. Anderson. 

COFFEE CAKE. 

Two cups brown sugar, one of butter, one of molasses, one of 
strong coffee as prepared for the table, four eggs, one tea-spoon 
saleratus, two of cinnamon, two of cloves, one of grated nutmeg, 
pound raisins, one of currants, four cups flour. Mrs. Wm. Skinner, 
Battle Greek, 

COFFEE CAKE. 

One cup brown sugar, cup molasses, half cup butter, cup strong 
coffee, one egg or yolks of two, four even cups flour, heaping tea- 
spoon soda in the flour, .table-spoon cinnamon, tea-spoon cloves, two 
pounds raisins, fourth pound citron. Soften the butter, beat with 
the sugar, add the egg, spices, molasses, and coffee, then the flour, 
and lastly the fruit dredged with a little flour. Bake one hour in 
moderate oven, or make in two small loaves which will bake in a 
short time. This may be made without the egg. Mrs. D. Buxton. 



CAKE-MAKING. 69 

COCOA-NUT CAKE. 

One cup butter, three of sugar, one of sweet milk, four and a 
half of flour, four eggs with whites beaten to a stiff froth, a tea- 
spoon soda, two of cream tartar, one grated cocoa-nut. Mrs. J. 
Holland, 

CARAMEL CAKE. 

One cup butter, two of sugar, a scant cup milk, one and a half 
cups flour, cup corn starch, whites of seven eggs, three tea-spoons 
baking powder in the flour ; bake in a long pan. Take half pound 
brown sugar, scant quarter pound chocolate, half ^up milk, butter 
size of an egg, two tea-spoons vanilla ; mix thoroughly and cook as 
syrup until stiff enough to spread ; spread on cake and set in the 
oven to dry. Mrs. George Sever. 

CINCINNATI CAKE. 

Pour over one pound fat salt pork, chopped fine and free from 
lean and rind, one pint boiling water, let stand until nearly cold ; 
add two cups brown sugar, one of molasses, one table-spoon each 
of cloves and nutmeg, and two of cinnamon, two pounds raisins, 
fourth pound citron, half glass brandy, three tea-spoons of baking 
powder, and seven cups of sifted flour. Bake slowly two and a 
half hours. This is excellent, and requires neither butter or eggs. 
Mrs. G. E. Kinney. 

CHOCOLATE CAKE. 

One cup butter, three of brown sugar, one of sweet milk, four of 
flour, yolks of seven eggs, nine table-spoons grated Baker's choco- 
late, three tea-spoons baking powder. This may be baked as a 
layer cake, making a white cake of the whites -of the eggs, baking 
in layers, and putting them together with frosting, alternating the 
layers. Mrs. Frank Woods Robinson, Kenton. 

DELICATE CAKE. 

Three cups flour, two of sugar, three-fourths cup sweet milk, 
whites of six eggs, half cup butter, tea-spoon cream tartar, half 
tea-spoon of soda. Flavor with lemon. Good and easily made. 
Mary E. Miller. 



70 CAKE-MAKING. 

EVERLASTING CAKE. 

Beat together the yolks of six eggs and three-fourths of a pint 
white sugar, add one and a half pints blanched and shelled almonds, 
half pound sliced citron well floured, and the whipped whites with 
one and a half pints sifted flour ; pour one and a half inches thick 
in well-greased dripping pans, bake in a quick oven, and, when done, 
cut slices one inch thick across the cake, turn each slice over on its 
side, return to oven and bake a short time. When cold place in a 
tin box. These will keep a year and a half or more, and are nice 
to have in sto.e. Mrs. J. S. Williams, Brooklyn. 

EGOLESS CAKE. 

One and a half tea-cups sugar, one of sour milk, three (level) of 
sifted flour, half cup butter, tea-spoon soda, half tea-spoon cinna- 
mon, half tea-spoon grated nutmeg, tea-cup raisins chopped and 
well floured. Miss Louise Skinner. 

OLD HARTFORD ELECTION CAKE. 

Five pounds sifted flour, two of butter, two of sugar, thre gills 
distillery yeast or twice the quantity of home brewed, four eggs, gill 
of wine, gill of brandy, one quart sweet milk, half an ounce of nut- 
meg, two pounds raisins, one of citron ; rub the butter and flour 
together very fine, add half the sugar, then the yeast and half the 
milk (hot in winter, blood- warm in summer), then add the eggs, 
then remainder of the milk, and the wine; beat well and let rise in 
a warm place all night ; in the morning beat a long time, adding 
brandy, sugar, spice, and fruit well floured, and allow to rise again 
very light, after which put in cake pans and let rise ten or fifteen 
minutes ; have the oven about as hot as for bread. This cake will 
keep any length of time. For raised cakes use potato yeast if fresh 
made ; it is always a perfect success. This recipe is over one hun- 
dred years old. Mrs. Eliza Burnham, Milford Center. 

APPLE FRUIT CAKE. 

One cup butter, two of sugar, one of milk, two eggs, tea-spoon 
soda, three and a half cups flour, two of raisins, three of dried 
apples soaked over night and then chopped fine and stewed two 
hours in two cups molasses ; beat butter and sugar to a cream, add 
milk, in which dissolve soda, then the beaten eggs and flour, and 



CAKE-MAKING. 71 

lastly the raisins and apples well stirred in ; pour in pan and bake 
an hour and a half. Mrs. C. M. Ingman. 

FRUIT CAKE. 

One cup butter, one of brown sugar, half pint molasses, two eggs, 
cup sour milk, tea-spoon soda, pound of flour, one of currants, one 
and a half pounds raisins. Flavor to taste. This has been thor- 
oughly tested, and is a great favorite. Mrs. M. E. Nicely. 

FRUIT CAKE. 

Twelve eggs, one and a half pounds each of butter, sugar and 
flour, two pounds each of raisins and currants, one pound citron, 
one half-pint molasses, one ounce each of nutmeg, mace and cloves, 
one and a half glasses of jelly (grape is best), one-fourth pint each 
of wine and brandy, more flour if needed. Put dough in pans, 
set in steamer, taking care that the cover is made to fit very tight ; 
if necessary put cloth under the lid and shut it down on it, taking 
care that it does not touch the cake, or lay several thicknesses of 
cloth over the lid. Steam two hours and bake one hour. Chas. 

Cyphers, Minneapolis, Minn. 

FRUIT LOAF CAKE. 

One cup butter, two of brown sugar, one of New Orleans molas- 
ses, one of sweet milk, three eggs, five cups sifted flour, two tea- 
spoons cream tartar in the flour, tea-spoon soda in the milk, table- 
spoon cinnamon, one nutmeg, one pound raisins, one of currants, 
quarter pound citron (citron may be omitted, and half the quantity 
of raisins and currants will do). Put flour in a large crock, mix 
well with cream tartar, make a well in the center, put in other ingre- 
dients, having warmed the butter and molasses a little ; mix well 
together with the hands, putting in the fruit last after it has been 
floured ; bake two hours in a moderate oven. This will make two 
common-sized loaves. Mrs. N. S. Long. 

FRUIT CAKE. 

Three pounds butter, three of brown sugar, beaten to a cream, 
three of flour, six of currants, six of raisins, after seeds are removed, 
one of citron sliced thin, three glasses brandy, twenty-eight eggs, 
one ounce cinnamon, one of grated nutmeg, three-quarters ounce 
cloves, half ounce mace ; roll the raisins, currants and citron in 
part of the flour. Miss H. D. 



72 CAKE-MAKING. 

FRUIT CAKE. 

One pound brown sugar, one of butter, one of eggs, one of flour, 
two of raisins, two of currants, half pound citron, a nutmeg, table- 
spoon cloves, one of allspice, half pint brandy, and two tea-spoons 
baking-powder. After baking, while yet warm, pour over cake a 
half pint wine. This makes the cake delicious. Miss Angie Shinner, 

Somerset. 

EXCELLENT FRUIT CAKE. 

One and a half pounds raisins, one and a fourth pounds currants, 
three-fourths pound citron, pound butter, pound sugar, one and a 
fourth pounds flour, ten eggs, two table-spoons lemon, two tea-spoons 
yeast powder ; mix a fourth pound of the flour in the fruit. Mrs. 
J. W. Grubbs, 



POOR MAN'S FRUIT CAKE. 

One and a half cups brown sugar, two of flour, one each of but- 
ter and chopped raisins, three eggs, three table-spoons sour milk, 
half tea-spoon soda, half cup blackberry jam. This is excellent as 
well as economical. Mrs. J. S. Robinson, 

SCOTCH FRUIT CAKE. 

A cup butter, two of white sugar, four of sifted flour, three- 
fourths cup sour milk, half tea-spoon soda, nine eggs beaten separ- 
ately, one pound raisins, half pound currants, a fourth pound citron; 
cre:im the butter and sugar, add milk gradually, then beaten yolks 
of eggs, and lastly, while stirring in flour, the whites well whipped. 
Flavor with one tea-spoon lemon, and one of vanilla extract, and 
have raisins chopped a little, or, better still, seeded, and citron 
sliced thin. Wash and dry currants before using, and flour all fruit 
slightly. In putting cake in pan, place first a thin layer of cake, 
then sprinkle in some of the three kinds of fruit, then a layer of 
cake, and so on, always finishing off with a thin layer of cake. Bake 
in a moderate oven for two hours. Tested by many and has never 
failed. Mrs. J. H. Shearer. 

THANKSGIVING FRUIT CAKE. 

Six pounds flour, three of butter, three and a half of sugar, an 
ounce mace, two glasses wine, two glasses brandy, four pounds 
raisins, half pound citron, six eggs, one pint yeast, small tea-spoon 



CAKE-MAKING. 73 

soda put in at last moment. After tea, take all the flour (except 
one plate for dredging raisins), a small piece butter, and a quart or 
more of milk, and mix like biscuit ; then mix butter and sugar, and 
at nine o'clock in the evening, if sufficiently light, put one-third of 
butter and sugar into dough ; at twelve add another third, and very 
early in the morning the remainder ; about eleven o'clock, if light 
enough, begin kneading, and continue for an hour, adding mean- 
while all the other ingredients. This will make seven loaves. 
Mrs. Woodworth, Springfield. 

CHOICE FIG CAKE. 

A large cup butter, two and a half of sugar, one of sweet milk, 
three pints flour with three tea-spoons baking-powder, whites of six- 
teen eggs, a pound and a quarter of figs well floured and cut in 
strips like citron ; no flavoring. Mrs. A. B. Morey. 

GROOM'S CAKE. 

Ten eggs beaten separately, one pound butter, one of white sugar, 
one of flour, two of almonds blanched and chopped fine, one of 
seeded raisins, half pound citron, shaved fine ; beat butter to a 
cream, add sugar gradually, then the well-beaten yolks ; stir all till 
very light, and add the chopped almonds ; beat the whites stiff and 
add gently with the flour ; take a little more flour and sprinkle over 
the raisins and citron, then put in the cake-pan, first a layer of cake 
batter, then a layer of raisins and citron, tfaeii cakfe, and so on till 
all is used, finishing off with a layer of cake. Bake in a moderate 
oven two hours. Mary Wikox, Dalton. 

HARD-MONEY CAKE. 

Gold Part Yolks of eight eggs, scant cup butter, two of sugar, 
four of flour, one of sour milk, tea-spoon soda, table-spoon corn 
starch ; flavor with lemon and vanilla. 

Silver Part. Two cups sugar, one of butter, four (scant) of flour, 
one of sour milk, tea-spoon soda, table-spoon corn starch, whites of 
eight eggs ; flavor with almond or peach. Put in pan, alternately, 
one spoonful of gold and one of silver. Miss Emma Fisher. 

OLD HICKORY CAKE. 

One cup sugar, half cup butter, three eggs beaten well together, 
level tea-spoon soda stirred in half cup sour milk, two small cups 



74 CAKE-MAKING. 

flour ; flavor with lemon, pour in small dripping-pan, bake hair 
hour, and cut in squares. This cake is always elected for a " second 
term." Miss Flora Ziegler, Columbus. 

HICKORY-NUT CAKE. 

Two cups sugar, one of milk, two-thirds cup butter, three of flour, 
three eggs, two tea-spoons baking-powder, a cup nut-kernels cut 
fine. Tried, and not found wanting. Mrs. Judge West, BeUefontaine. 

HICKORY-NUT CAKE. 

A cup butter, two of sugar, three of flour, one of sweet milk, 
whites of seven and yolks of two eggs, a tea-spoon soda, two of 
cream tartar, one pint hickory-nut meats rolled and sprinkled with 
flour ; beat the whites to a stiif froth. Rich and excellent Mrs. 

A. B. Morey. 

IMPERIAL CAKE. 

One pound butter and one of sugar beaten to a cream, one pound 
flour, the grated rind and juice of a lemon, nine eggs, one and a 
quarter pounds almonds before they are cracked, half pound citron, 
half pound raisins ; beat the yolks light, add sugar and butter, then 
the whites beaten to a stiff froth, and the flour, reserving a part for 
the fruit, and, lastly, the nuts blanched, cut fine and mixed with 
fruit and the rest of the flour. This is very delicious, and will keep 
for months. Mrs. E. R. May, Minneapolis, Minn. 

LADY'S CAKE. 

One-half cup butter, one and a half of sugar, two of flour, nearly 
one of sweet milk, half tea-spoon soda, one of cream tartar, whites 
of four eggs well beaten ; flavor with peach or almond. Mss M. 

E. W., Madison. 

YELLOW LADY'S CAKE. 

One and a half cups flour, one of sugar, half cup butter, half 
cup sweet milk, tea-spoon soda, two tea-spoons cream tartar, yolks 
of four eggs, tea-spoon vanilla. Olivia S. Hinman, Battle Creek, 

Mich. 

LEMON CAKE. 

One pound flour, one of sugar, three-fourths pound butter, seven 
eggs, juice of one and rind of two lemons. The sugar, butter and 
yolks of eggs must be beaten a long time, adding, by degrees, the 



CAKE-MAKING. 75 

flour, and the whites of eggs. last. A tumbler and a half of sliced 
citron many be added. This keeps well. Miss M. B. FuUington, 

AUNT HETTIE'S LOAF CAKE. 

Two cups sugar and one of butter beaten to a cream, three eggs, 
the whites beaten separately, three cups flour with one tea-spoon 
cream tartar stirred in, yolks of the eggs stirred well with the sugar 
and butter; now add two cups more flour with one tea-spoon 
cream tartar, one cup sweet milk and the whites of the eggs, and 
then stir again ; add one nutmeg, one pound raisins or currants 
dredged with flour, one tea-spoon soda dissolved in four table-spoons 
of water. This makes two nice loaves, and is excellent. 

FRENCH LOAF CAKE. 

Five cups sugar, three of butter, two of milk, ten of flour, six 
eggs, three nutmegs, pound seeded raisins, a grated lemon, small 
tea-spoon soda, wine-glass wine, one of brandy, or, two-thirds of a 
cup of Orleans molasses. Mrs. A. S. Chapman. 

OLD-FASHIONED LOAF CAKE. 

Three pounds (three quarts sifted and well heaped) flour, one and 
a fourth pounds (a rounded pint of soft) butter, one and three- 
fourths pounds (one quart) sugar, five gills new milk, half pint 
yeast, three eggs, two pounds raisins, tea-spoon soda, gill of brandy 
or wine, or a fourth pint of molasses, two tea-spoons cinnamon and 
two or nutmeg. Scald tlie milk, cobi 10 trtoou -rrnrni, nttu tneyettcsv, 
then the flour, to which all the butter and half the sugar have been 
added ; then mix together, and let rise until light. It is better to 
set this sponge over night, and in the morning add the other ingre- 
dients (flouring raisins), and let rise again. When light, fill baking- 
pans and let rise again. Bake in a moderate oven. This recipe 
makes three large loaves, and is a standard, economical loaf-cake. 
Mrs. Ex-Gov. John J. Bagley, Mich. 

MARBLE CAKE. 

White Part. Whites of seven eggs, three cups white sugar, one 
of butter, one of sour milk, four of flour, sifted and heaping, one 
tea-spoon soda ; flavor to taste. 

Dark Part. Yolks of seven eggs, three cups brown sugar, one of 
butter, one of sour milk, four of flour, sifted and heaping, one 



76 CAKE-MAKING. 

table-spoon each of cinnamon, allspice and cloves, one tea-spoon 
soda ; put in pans a spoonful of white part and then a spoonful of 
dark, and so on. Bake an hour and a quarter. U<e coffee-cups to 
measure. This will make one large and one medium cake. The 
white and dark parts are alternated, either by putting in a >p<xwfuJ 
of white, then of dark, or a layer of white and then of darx. part, 
being careful that the cake may be nicely " marbleized." J//v*. M 
E. Smith, Cleveland. 

MARBLED CHOCOLATE CAKE. 

Make a batter as for white cake, take out one tea-cup, add to it 
five table-spoons of grated chocolate, moisten with milk, and flavoi 
with vanilla ; pour a layer of the white batter into the baking-pan, 
then drop the chocolate batter with a spoon in spots, and spread the 
remainder of the white batter over it. Jkfrs. Sarafi Phelps, Spring- 
field, Ohio. 

ONE-EGG CAKE. 
One half cup butter, one and a half cups sugar, three of flour, 

one of sweet milk, one egg, tea-spoon soda, two tea-spoons 
cream tartar in the flour, cup raisins chopped fine. Mrs. A. S. C. 

ORANGE CAKE. 

Two cups sugar, four eggs, leaving out the whites of two, half 
cup butter, one of water, two tea-spoons baking-powder, three cups 
flour, juice, grated rind, and pulp of one orange; use the remain- 
ing whites for frosting the top. Mrs. D. B 

CITRON POUND CAKE. 

One pound sugar, one of flour, three-fourths pound butter, eight 
large or ten small eggs, one and a fourth pound citron finely 
shredded; cream butter and sugar, add the yolks, the nthe flour 
and well -.whipped whites; put layer of batter in cake-pan and 
sprinkle thickly with citron, then another layer of batter, etc., till 
pan is filled. Bake slowly one and a half to tv^o hours. Mrs. J. 

M. Southard. 

PYRAMID POUND CAKE. 

One pound sugar, one of butter, one of flour, ten eggs; bake in 
a dripping-pan one inch in thickness; cut when cold into pieces 
three and a half inches long by two wide, and frost top and sides; 



CAKE-MAKING. 77 

form on the cake stand in pyramid before the icing is quite dry by 
laying, first in a circle, five pieces with some space between them; 
over the spaces between these lay five other pieces, gradually draw- 
ing in the column and crowning the top with a bouquet of flowers. 

Mrs. Dr. Thompson. 

WHITE POUND CAKE. 

One pound sugar, one of flour, half pound butter, whites of six- 
teen eggs, tea-spoon baking-powder sifted thoroughly with the flour; 
put in cool oven with gradual increase of heat. For boiled icing 
for the cake, take three cups sugar boiled in one of water until 
clear; beat whites of three eggs to very stiff froth, and pour over 
them the boiling liquid, beating all the time for ten minute ; frost 
while both cake and icing are warm. Mrs. Ada Estelle Sever, Cedar 

Rapids, Iowa. 

RICE CAKE. 

One pound sugar, a pound of ground rice, half pound butter, 
nine eggs, rose-water to taste ; add a little salt, beat butter and 
sugar together, add rose-water, salt and eggs, lastly the rice ; bake 
in shallow pans. Governor Rice, Mass. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

Three eggs, one and a half cups powdered sugar, two of sifted 
flour, two tea-spoons cream tartar, half cup cold water, tea-spoon 
soda, grated rind and half the juice of one lemon ; bake in dripping- 
pan. Mrs. Eliza J. Starr. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

Twelve eggs, pint pulverized sugar, one of flour, measured before 
sifting, small tea-spoon salt, heaping tea-spoon baking powder, es- 
sence of lemon for flavor; beat the whites to a very stiff froth, and 
add sugar ; beat the yolks, strain and add them to the whites and, 
sugar, and beat the whole thoroughly ; mix baking-powder and salt 
in the flour and add last, stirring in small quantities at a time ; bake 
one hour in a six-quart pan in a moderate oven. This makes one 
very large cake. By weight use one pound pulverized sugar and 
three-fourths pound flour. Miss S. Alice Melcking. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

One pound sugar, one of flour, ten eggs; stir yolks of eggs and 
eugar till perfectly light; beat whites of eggs and add them with 



78 CAKE-MAKING. 

the flour after beating together lightly; flavor with lemon. Three 
tea-spoons baking-powder in the flour will add to its lightness, but 
it never fails without. Bake in a moderate oven. Mrs. Mar? 
Reynolds, Hamilton. 

MRS. JENNISON'S SPONGE CAKE. 

One lemon, three gills flour, one pint sugar, eight eggs; beat the 
yolks of the eggs thoroughly, add the sugar little by little, and the 
grated rind of the lemon ; beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff 
froth, and add them alternately with the flour, beating very gently 
and barely long enough to mix well; when part of the flour is in, 
add the lemon juice. Bake twenty minutes, in small loaves. In 
ike Kitchen. 

PHIL SHERIDAN CAKE. 

Four cups fine white sugar, five of sifted flour, one of butter, one 
and a half of sw r eet milk, one tea-spoon soda dissolved in the milk, 
two of cream tartar, whites of sixteen eggs; stir sugar and butter 
to a cream, then add whites of eggs beaten to a stiff froth, next add 
flour, then the milk and soda; stir several minutes, and then add 
cream tartar and flavoring. This makes a large cake. Mrs. Mary 
S. Moore, Granvitte. 

SPICE CAKE. 

Three pounds seedless raisins, one and a half pounds citron, one; 
pound butter, two and a half coffee-cups sugar, two of sweet milk,, 
four of flour, six eggs, two large tea-spoon's baking-powder, three 
tea-spoons cinnamon, two of mace. Mrs. Gov. Potts, Montana. 

SNOW CAKE. 

Half tea-cup butter, one of sugar, one and a half of flour, half 
cup sweet milk, whites of four eggs, tea-spoon baking-powder ; flavor 
with lemon. Mrs. Wm. Patrick, Midland, Mich. 

SNOW CAKE. 

Whites often eggs beaten to a stiff froth, sift lightly on this one 
and a half cups fine white or pulverized sugar, stir well, and add cup 
flour mixed with tea-spoon cream tartar; flavor with lemon or 
vanilla. Mrs. Dr. Koogler, Connersville, Ind. 



CAKE-MAKING. 79 

TEN-MINUTE CAKE. 

One-fourth pound butter, a little less than a pound flour, the 
same of sugar, six eggs beaten separately; flavor with mace and 
bake in muffin-rings. Mrs. S. C. Lee, Baltimore, Md. 

TILDEN CAKE. 

One cup butter, two of pulverized sugar, one of sweet milk, three 
of flour, half cup corn starch, four eggs, two tea-spoons baking- 
powder, two of lemon extract. This is so excellent that a ' 'bar- 
rel " would not be too much of it. Mrs. T. B., Chicago, 111. 

TIN- WEDDING CAKE. 

Rub one cup butter and three of sugar to a cream; add one cup 
milk, four of flour, five eggs, one tea-spoon cream tartar, half tea- 
spoon soda, one-fourth pound citron. This makes two loaves. 
Mrs. J. H. Ferris, South Norwalk, Conn. 

WATERMELON CAKE. 

White Part. Two cups white sugar, one of butter, one of sweet 
milk, three and a half of flour, whites of eight eggs, two teaspoons 
cream tartar, one of soda dissolved in a little warm water. 

Red Part. One cup red sugar, half cup butter, third cup sweet 
milk, two cups flour, whites of four eggs, tea-spoon cream tartar, 
half tea-spoon soda, tea-cup raisins ; be careful to keep the red part 
around the tube of the pan and the white around the edge. It 
requires two persons to fill the pan. This is a very attractive and 
ornamental cake. Mrs. Baxter. 

WEDDING CAKE. 

Fifty eggs, five pounds sugar, five of flour, five of butter, fifteen 
of raisins, three of citron, ten of currants, pint brandy, fourth 
ounce cloves, ounce cinnamon, four of mace, four of nutmeg. 
This makes forty -three and a half pounds, and keeps twenty years. 
This cake is unequaled. Mrs. C. H. D., Northampton, Mass. 

WHITE CAKE. 

One cup butter, two of sugar, one of sweet milk, three of flour, 
whites of five eggs, two tea-spoons baking powder. Easily made, 
and very good. Mrs. Daniel Miller. 



80 LAYER-CAKES. 

WHITE PERFECTION CAKE. 

Three cups sugar, one of butter, one of milk, three of flour, one 
of corn starch, whites of twelve eggs beaten to a stiff froth, two 
tea-spoons cream tartar in the flour, and one of soda in half the 
milk ; dissolve the corn starch in the rest of the milk, and add it to 
the sugar and butter well beaten together, then the milk and soda, 
and the flour and whites of eggs. This cake is rightly named 
" Perfection." Mrs. C. Jones, Bradford, Vt. 



LAYER-CAKES. 



In baking layer-cakes it is important to thoroughly grease the 
tins to make it emphatic, we will say thoroughly grease and then 
grease again and after using rub off with a coarse towel, taking 
care that they are perfectly free from all small particles of cake, 
grease and fill again, thus obviating the necessity of washing every 
time they are filled. If jelly is used to spread between the layers, 
it is a good plan to beat it smoothly and spread it before the cakes 
are quite cool. In "building," an inverted jelly-tin furnishes a 
perfectly level surface on which to lay and spread the cake, and it 
may be allowed to remain on it until perfectly cold, when it should 
be set away in a tin cake-box, in a cool place. In cutting, it is 
better to first make a round hole in the center, with a knife, or a 
tin tube, about an inch and a quarter in diameter. This prevents 
the edge of the cake from crumbling in cutting. In making the 
custard or ''filling" for layer-cake, place in a custard-kettle or in 
a tin pail. Set in boiling water to cook, to avoid all danger of 
Burning. 

To blanch almonds, pour boiling water over them, let stand a 
moment, drain and throw them into cold water, slip off the skins, 
and pound. 

ALMOND CAKE. 

Two cups sugar, three-fourths cup butter, one of sweet milk, two 
of flour, and one of corn starch well mixed, whites of six eggs, two 



LAYER-CAKES. 81 

tea-spoons cream tartar in the flour, one tea-spoon soda in the milk ; 
cream the butter and sugar, add milk gradually, then the whites of 
eggs together with the flour, and bake in jelly-tins. To put between 
layers, take two pounds almonds, blanch and pound fine in a mor- 
tar (or a cloth will do), beat whites and yolks of two eggs together 
lightly, add a cup and a half sugar, then the almonds, with one 
table-spoon vanilla. Mrs. Harvey Wood. 

ALMOND CREAM CAKE. 

On beaten whites of ten eggs, sift one and a half goblets pulver- 
ized sugar, and a goblet flour through which has been stirred a 
heaping tea-spoon cream tartar ; stir very gently and do not heat it ; 
bake in jelly-pans. For cream, take a half pint sweet cream, yolks 
of three eggs, table-spoon pulverized sugar, tea-spoon corn starch ; 
dissolve starch smoothly with a little milk, beat yolks and sugar 
together with this, boil the cream, and stir these ingredients in as 
for any cream-cake filling, only make a little thicker ; blanch and 
chop fine a half pound almonds and stir into the cream. Put to- 
gether like jelly cake w T hile icing is soft, and stick in a half pound 
of almonds split in two. Mrs. Paris Gibson, Minneapolis, Minn. 

BOSTON CREAM PUFFS. 

Put half pint hot water and two-thirds cup butter over the fire; 
when boiling, stir in one and a half cups flour, and continue stirring 
until smooth and the mixture leaves the sides of the sauce-pan; 
remove from fire, cool, and beat thoroughly into it five well-beaten 
eggs. Drop on warm greased tins (or a dripping-pan), a table- 
spoon in a place, leaving space between to prevent touching, brush 
over with the white of an egg, and bake ten or fifteen minutes in a 
quick oven. When cakes are done, they will be hollow. When 
cold, slice off the top, fill space with the cream, and replace top. 

Cream for Inside. Take one pint milk, place one-half in a tin 
pail and set in boiling water ; reserve from the other half two table- 
spoons to mix with eggs, and into the rest, while cold, mix one cup 
of flour until smooth ; when the milk is hot, pour in the flour, and 
stir until thicker than boiled custard ; then beat well together the 
two table-spoons milk, two eggs, one cup granulated sugar, a level 
6 



82 LAYER-CAKES. 

table-spoon butter, and a tea-spoon vanilla or lemon; add gradually, 
and continue stirring briskly until so thick that when cold it will 
drop, not jtour, from the spoon. The puffs may be kept on hand. 
Make the creaia fresh, let it cool, and fill as many as are wanted. 
Mrs. Ex- Governor Noyes, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

DIXIE CREAM PUFFS. 

Five eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately, one and a half 
cups each of white sugar and sifted flour, two tea-spoons baking 
powder in the flour ; bake in tea-cups, filling about half full. The 
cream is prepared by placing a small tin pail containing a pint sweet 
milk in a kettle of boiling water ; beat the whites and yolks of two 
eggs separately ; stir in the milk while boiling, a half tea-cup 
sugar, a large table-spoon corn starch dissolved in a little sweet 
milk, then the beaten yolks and a piece of butter the size of a large 
walnut ; flavor with lemon or vanilla. When done, cut the cakes 
open, put in a spoonful of the cream, place together again, roll in 
the whites, and then in coarse granulated sugar. 

FRENCH CREAM CAKE. 

Three eggs, one cup granulated sugar*, one and a half cups flour, 
two table-spoons cold w r ater, tea-spoon baking powder. This is 
enough for two cakes baked in pie-pans, to be split while warm, 
spreading the hot custard between them, or for four cakes baked in 
jelly -pans, with the hot custard spread between them, the latter 
being the preferable plan. For custard, boil nearly one pint sweet 
milk ; mix two table-spoons corn starch with a half tea-cup sweet 
milk, add two well-beaten eggs ; when milk has boiled add nearly a 
cup sugar, and add gradually the corn starch and eggs, stirring 
briskly; add a half cup butter, stirring until dissolved, flavor with 
one tea-spoon vanilla, and spread between cakes while hot. This 
cake can be used as a pudding by pouring over each piece a spoonful 
of the custard that is left. Mrs. Charles Morey. 

GOLDEN CREAM CAKE. 

Cream one cup sugar and one-fourth cup butter, add half cup 
sweet milk, the well beaten whites of three eggs, one and a half 
cups flour, with half a tea-spoon soda, and a tea-spoon cream tartar 



LAYER-CAKES. 83 

sifted with it ; bake in three deep jelly-tins ; beat very light the 
yolks of two eggs, one cup sugar, and two table-spoons rich sweet 
cream, flavor with vanilla, and spread on cakes ; or to yolks add 
one and a half table-spoons corn starch, three-quarters cup sweet 
milk and small lump butter ; sweeten and flavor to taste, cook in a 
custard-kettle till thick, let cool, and then spread. Mrs. J. M. 
Soutfiard. 

ICE-CREAM CAKE. 

Make good sponge-cake, bake half an inch thick in jelly-pans, 
and let them get perfectly cold ; take a pint thickest sweet cream, 
beat until it looks like ice-cream, make very sweet, and flavor with 
vanilla ; blanch and chop a pound almonds, stir into cream, and 
put very thick between each layer. This is the queen of all cakes. 
Miss Mattie Fullington. 

ICE-CREAM CAKE. 

One-fourth pound each butter and powdered sugar, half pint 
milk, half pound flour, six eggs, one glass wine, one nutmeg; bake 
quickly in iron gem-pans. They raise light with hollow center. 
When cold, cut a round hole in top (as you would "plug" a melon), 
fill with ice-cream just before serving, so that it will not have thn 
to melt. Mrs. A. C. Glazier 

COCOA-NUT CAKE. 

To the well-beaten yolks of six eggs, add two cups powdered 
white sugar, three-fourths cups butter, one of sweet milk, three and 
a half of flour, one level tea-spoon soda and two of cream tartar, 
whites of four eggs well beaten ; bake in jelly-cake pans. For 
icing, grate one cocoa-nut, beat whites of two eggs, and add one 
tea-cup powdered sugar ; mix thoroughly with the grated cocoa-nut, 
and spread evenly on the layers of cake when they are cold. 
Miss Nettie Miller, Columbus. 

CARAMEL CAKE. 

One and a half cups sugar, three-fourths cup butter, half cup 
milk, two and a fourth cups flour, three eggs, one and a half heap- 
ing tea-spoons baking-powder, or a small tea-spoon soda, and two 
tea-spoons cream tartar; bake in jelly- tins. Make caramel as fol- 
lows : Butter size of an egg, pint brown sugar, half cup milk or 



84 LAYER-CAKES. 

water, half cake chocolate ; boil twenty minutes (or until thick 
enough), and pour over cakes while warm, piling the layers one upon 
the other. For frosting for top of cake, take whites of two eggs, 
one and a half cups sugar, tea-spoon vanilla, three heaping tea- 
spoons grated chocolate. Mrs. Ella Snider, Minneapolis, Minn. 

DELICIOUS CHOCOLATE CAKE. 

The whites of eight eggs, two cups sugar, one of butter, three 1 full 
-cups flour, one of sweet milk, three tea-spoons baking-powder; beat 
the butter to a cream, stir in the sugar, and beat until light ; add 
the milk, then the flour and beaten whites. When well beaten, 
divide into equal parts, and into half grate a cake of sweet choco* 
late. Bake in layers, spread with custard, and alternate the white 
and dark cakes. For custard for the cake, add a table-spoon of 
butter to one pint of milk, and let it come to a boil ; stir in two 
eggs beaten with one cup of sugar, add two teaspoons of corn starch 
dissolved in a little milk. Mrs. J. M. Riddle, BeUefontaine. 

CHOCOLATE CAKE. 

One cup butter, two of sugar, one of milk, five eggs, leaving out 
the whites of three, four cups sifted flour, two tea-spoons baking- 
powder, or one small tea-spoon soda and two of cream tartar in the 
flour; bake in three layers in deep jelly-tins. For icing, take whites 
of three eggs, beaten stiff, one and a half cups powdered sugar, 
six table-spoons grated chocolate, two tea-spoons vanilla. Mrs. J. 

JT. SJiearer. 

CUP CAKE. 

Three cups sugar, one of butter, six of flour, two- thirds pint sour 
cream, seven eggs (leaving out the whites of two for icing), one 
even tea-spoon soda in the cream, tea-spoon soda in the flour, one of 
cream tartar, and one of lemon or vanilla. Bake in pans one inch 
deep, and when done spread one with icing, and lay the other on 
top of it, allowing two layers for each cake. Mrs. Dr. Thompson. 

DOMINOES. 

Make "Mrs. Jennison's sponge cake," bake in long pie-tins (twc 
such tins will make twelve dominoes, and if no more are required, 
the rest of the batter may be baked in a loaf). The batter in the 
pie-tins should not be more than one-third of an inch deep ; spread 
it evenly, and bake in a quick oven. Have a brown paper nearly 



LAYER-CAKES. 85 

twice the size of the cake on the table, and the moment one of the 
cakes comes from the oven turn it upside down in the center of the 
paper, spread it with a thin layer of currant jelly, and ky the other 
cake on it upside down, cut it with a hot, sharp knife lengthwise, 
directly through the center, then divide it across in six equal parts, 
push them with the knife about an inch apart, and ice them with 
ordinary white icing, putting a large dessert-spoonful on every piece; 
the heat of the cake will soften it, and with a little help the edges 
and sides will be smoothly covered. All of the icing that runs over 
on the paper may be carefully taken up and used again. It must 
then dry, which it will do very quickly. Make a horn of stiff white 
paper about five inches long, one and a half inches across the top, 
and one-eighth of an inch at the other end ; put in it a dessert-spoon 
of dark chocolate icing, close the horn at the top, and pressing out 
the icing from the small opening, draw a line of it across the center 
of every cake, and then make spots like those on ivory dominoes ; 
keep the horn supplied with icing. In the Kitchen. 

FIG CAKE. 

Silver Part. Two cups sugar, two-thirds cup butter, not quite 
two-thirds cup sweet milk, whites of eight eggs, three heaping tea- 
spoons baking-powder thoroughly sifted, with three cups flour ; stir 
sugar and butter to a cream, add milk and flour, and last white 
of eggs. 

Gold Part. One cup sugar, three-fourths cup butter, half cup 
sweet milk, one and a half tea-spoons baking-powder sifted in a little 
more than one and a half cups flour, yolks of seven eggs thoroughly 
beaten, and one whole egg, one tea-spoon allspice, and cinnamon 
until you can taste it; bake the white in two long pie-tins. Put 
half the gold in a pie-tin, and lay on one pound halved figs (previ- 
ously sifted over with flour), so that they will just touch each other; 
put on the rest of the gold, and bake. Put the cakes together with 
frosting while warm, the gold between the white ones, and cover 
with frosting. Miss Tina Lay, 

HARD-TIMES CAKE. 

Half a cup of butter, two of sugar, one of sour cream, three of 
flour, three eggs, half tea-spoon of soda ; bake in layers and spread 
with jelly. Mrs. R. M. Henderson. 



86 LAYER-CAKES. 

HICKORY-NUT CUSTARD CAKE. 

Cream one pound sugar and half pound butter ; add five eggs 
beaten separately, one cup sweet milk, one pound flour, three tea- 
spoons baking powder, flavor with lemon, and bake in jelly-pans. 
For custard, place one pint milk in a tin pail and set in boiling- 
water ; add a table-spoon of corn starch dissolved in a little milk r 
two eggs, one-half cup sugar, two cups chopped hickory-nut meats, 
well mixed together to the boiling milk ; stir, and put between the 
layers of the cake, while both cake and custard are warm. This is 

excellent. 

KOLLED JELLY CAKE. 

Beat twelve eggs and one pound pulverized sugar together very 
lightly, then stir in three-fourths pound of flour, making batter as 
light as for sponge-cake, and thin enough to spread nicely when 
poured ; make up as quickly as possible. Have shallow tin-pans 
prepared (about twelve by eighteen inches and an inch deep) by 
lining with thin brown paper, using no grease on pan or paper ; 
pour in batter, spread out with a knife as thin as possible (about 
half an inch thick), and bake in solid oven. When done, remove 
from oven, let cool a few minutes, and while still warm, but not 
hot, turn out of pan upside down. With a brush or soft cloth wet 
in cold water, brush over the paper and pull it off; spread cake 
thin with jelly and roll it up, being careful to place the outer edge 
of roll against something so that it will not unroll until cold. 
Sprinkle with powdered sugar and serve. If baked in pans sucli 
as are described above, the recipe will make two rolls, each twelve 
inches long, which should be cut in two, making foar rolls. Use 
no baking-powder, as it makes the cake too brittle. Many use 
none in sponge-cake. The paper lining should be larger than pan, 
to lift out the cake by taking hold of the projecting edges. This 
never fails. C. W. Cyphers, Mitmeapolis. 

KELLY ISLAND CAKE 

(Lie cup butter, two of sugar, three of flour, four eggs, half cup 
milk, three tea-spoons baking-powder; bake in jelly-tins. For 
filling, stir together a grated Iemon 7 a, large grated tart apple, an 
egg, and a cup sugar, and boil four minutes. A very excellent 
cake. Afoss Greeley Grubbs. 



LAYER-CAKES. 87 

LEMON CAKE. 

One and one-half cups sugar, one of butter, two and one-half of 
flour, five eggs beaten separately, four tea-spoons sweet milk, tea- 
spoon cream tartar, half tea-spoon soda. 

For Jelly. Take coffee-cup sugar, two table-spoons butter, two 
eggs, and the juice of two lemons: beat all together and boil until 
the consistency of jelly. For orange cake use oranges instead of 
lemons. Miss Minnie Brown. 

LADY'S FINGERS. 

One and one-eighth pound of flour, one of powdered sugar, ten 
eggs ; beat eggs and sugar as light as for sponge-cake ; sift in with 
flour one tea-spoon baking-powder and stir slowly. Make a funnel- 
shaped bag of heavy ticking or strong brown paper ; through the 
hole in the small end push a funnel-shaped tin tube, one-third inch 
in diameter at small end and provided with a flange at the other to 
prevent it from slipping quite through ; tie the small end of bag 
firmly around the tube, and you have a funnel-shaped sack with a 
firm nozzle projecting slightly from the small end. Into this bag 
pour the batter, over which gather up the bag tightly so that none 
will run out, press and run the dough out quickly through the 
tube into a pan lined with light brown paper (not buttered), mak- 
ing each about a finger long, and about as thick as a lead-pencil, 
being careful not to get them too wide. Sprinkle with granulated 
sugar, bake in a quick oven, and, when cool, wet the under side 
of the paper with a brush, remove and stick the fingers together 
back to back. The bag, when made of ticking, will be useful in 
making macaroons and other small cakes. Unsurpassed. Charles 
W. Cyphers, 

MlNNEHAHA CAKE. 

One and a half cups granulated sugar, half cup butter stirred to 
a cream, whites of six eggs, or three whole eggs, two tea-spoons 
cream tartar stirred in two heaping cups sifted flour, one tea-spoon 
soda in half cup sweet milk ; bake in three layers. For filling, take 
a tea-cup sugar and a little water boiled together until it is brittle 
when dropped in cold water, remove from stove and stir quickly 
into the well-beaten white of an egg ; add to this a cup of stoned 



88 LAYER-CAKES. 

raisins chopped fine, or a cup of chopped hickory-nut meats, and 
place between layers and over the top. A universal favorite. 
Mrs. E. W. Herrick, 

METROPOLITAN CAKE. 

Two cups sugar, one of butter, one of milk, nearly four cups 
flour, whites of eight eggs, three tea-spoons baking-powder, flavor 
with lemon. Take a little more than three-fifths of this mixture 
in three jelly-tins, add to the remaining batter one table-spoon 
ground allspice, one and a half table-spoons cinnamon, tea-spoon 
cloves, fourth pound each of sliced citron and chopped rai- 
sins ; bake in two jelly-tins and put together with frosting, alter- 
nating dark and light. Mrs. Dr. D. H. Moore, Wedeyan College, 

Cincinnati. 

NEAPOLITAN CAKE. 

Black Part. One cup brown sugar, two eggs, half cup butter, 
half cup molasses, half cup strong coffee, two and a half cups flour, 
one of raisins, one of currants, a tea-spoon each of soda, cinnamon 
and cloves, and half tea-spoon mace. 

White Part. Two cups sugar, half cup butter, one of milk, 
two and a quarter of flour, one of corn starch, whites of four 
eggs, small tea-spoon cream tartar ; make frosting of whites of 
two eggs to put between the layers. Mrs. Calista Hawks Gortner y 

Goslien, 

ORANGE CAKE. 

One cup butter, one of water, two of sugar, four of flour, three 
eggs, three tea-spoons baking-powder ; bake in layers. Take the 
juice of two large or three small oranges, coffee-cup pulverized 
sugar, one egg ; mix yolk of egg, sugar, and juice together ; beat 
whites to a stiff froth, stir in and spread between the layers. Mrs. 
W. B. Brown, Washington D. C. 

ORANGE CAKE. 

Two cups sugar, half cup butter, three and a half cups sifted 
flour, half cup sweet milk, three eggs beaten separately, three tea- 
spoons baking-powder mixed in flour; bake in jelly pans. For 
jelly take the juice and grated rind of two oranges, two table-spoons 
cold water, two cups sugar ; set in a pot of boiling water, and, 
when scalding hot, stir in the yolks of two well-beaten eggs, and 



LAYER-CAKES. 89 

just before taking from the fire stir in the white of one egg 
slightly beaten, and when cold put between the layers of cake. 
Frost the top with the other egg. Miss Mardie Dolbear, Cape 

Girardeau, Mo. 

ORANGE CAKE. 

Two-thirds cup butter, two small cups sugar, one cup milk, three 
lea-spoons baking-powder, the yolks of five eggs, three small cups 
flour ; bake in jelly-tins. Whites of tliree eggs beaten to a stiff 
froth, juice and grated peel of one orange, sugar to consistency; 
put this between the layers with white frosting on the top. Mrs. 

Gov. Pillsbury, Minnesota. 

PEACH CAKE. 

Bake three sheets of sponge-cake as for jelly cake; cut peaches 
in thin slices, prepare cream by whipping, sweetening and adding 
'flavor of vanilla if desired, put layers of peaches between the sheets 
of cake, pour cream over each layer and over the top. This may also 
be made with ripe strawberries. Mrs. Woodworth, Springfield, 

RIBBON CAKE. 

Two and a half cups sugar, one of butter, one of sweet milk, 
'tea-spoon cream tartar, half tea-spoon soda, four cups flour, four 
-eggs ; reserve a third of this mixture, and bake the rest in two 
loaves of the same size. Add to third reserved, one cup raisins, 
fourth pound citron, a cup of currants, two table-spoons molasses, 
tea-spoon each of all kinds of spice ; bake in a tin the same size as 
-other loaves ; put the three loaves together with a little icing or 
currant jelly, placing the fruit loaf in the middle ; frost the top 
and sides. Miss Alice Trimble, Mt. Gilead. 

FAVORITE SNOW- CAKE. 

Beat one cup butter to a cream, add one and a half cups flour 
and stir very thoroughly together ; then add one cup corn starch, 
-and one cup sweet milk in which three tea-spoons baking-powder 
have been disserved; last, add whites of eight eggs and two cups 
sugar well beaten together ; flavor to taste, bake in sheets, and put 
together with icing. Walter Moore, Hamilton. 

THANKSGIVING CAKE. 

Make batter as for cocoa-nut cake (Miss Nettie Miller's). Bake 
five layers in jelly-tins ; make frosting of whites of three eggs, three 



90 LAYER-CAKES. 

tea-spoons baking powder, and three-fourths pound of pulverized 
sugar ; with frosting for first layer mix rolled hickory-nut meats, 
with that for second layer mix fine-sliced figs, for third with 
hickory-nut meats, for fourth with figs, and on the top spread 
the plain frosting, and grate cocoa-nut over thickly. Mrs. J. & 

Robinson. 

VELVET SPONGE CAKE. 



Two cups sugar, six eggs leaving out the whites of three, one cup 
boiling hot w r ater, t\vo and one half cups flour, one table-spoon 
baking-powder in the flour ; beat the yolks a little, add the sugar 
and beat fifteen minutes; add the three beaten whites, and the cup 
of boiling water just before the flour ; flavor with a tea-spoon lemon 
extract and bake in three layers, putting between them icing made 
by adding to the three whites of eggs beaten to a stiff froth, six. 
dessert-spoons of pulverized sugar to each egg, and lemon to flavor. 
Mrs. Win. Brown, Massillon. 

VANITY CAKE. 

One and a half cups sugar, half cup butter, half cup sweet milk,, 
one and a half cups flour, half cup corn starch, tea-spoon baking- 
powder, whites of six eggs ; bake in two cakes, putting frosting be- 
tween and on top. Olivia S. Hinman, Battle Creek, 

WHITE MOUNTAIN CAKE. 

Two cups pulverized sugar, half cup butter beaten to a cream ; 
add half cup sweet milk, two and a half cups flour, two and a half 
tea-spoons baking-powder in the flour, whites of eight eggs; bake in 
jelly-tins and put together with icing made by boiling a half tea- 
cup of water and three tea-cups sugar till thick ; pour it slowly over 
the well-beaten whites of three eggs, and beat all together till cooL 
Beat before putting on each layer. 

Sprinkle each layer thickly with grated cocoa-nut, and a hand- 
some cocoa-nut cake will result. Mrs. Dr. Stall, Union Oity, lnd 



DIRECTIONS FOR FROSTING. 91 



DIRECTIONS FOR FROSTING. 



Beat whites of eggs to a stiff froth, add powdered sugar grad- 
ually, beating well all the time. (There are various opinions about the 
length of time frosting should be beaten, some giving half an hour, 
others a much shorter time). Or, break the whites into a broad plat- 
ter, and at once begin adding powdered and sifted sugar, keep add- 
ing gradually, beating well all the while until the icing is perfectly 
smooth (thirty minutes beating ought to be sufficient) ; lastly, add 
flavoring (rose, pineapple or almond for white or delicate cake, and 
lemon or vanilla for dark or fruit cake). Have the frosting ready 
when the cake is baked ; beat the white of one egg to a stiff froth, 
then stir in ten heaping tea-spoons pulverized sugar (well heaped, 
but not all that you can lift on the spoon) and one of corn starch; 
be sure that it is thoroughly beaten before taking the cake from the 
oven. If possible, have some one beating while you take out the 
cake. Now invert a common tin milk-pan, placing it on a clean 
paper, so if any falls off it can be used again, then place the cake 
on the pan and apply frosting ; it will run over the cake, becoming 
as smooth as glass, and adhere firmly to it. If but one person is 
engaged in preparing cake and frosting, and must necessarily stop 
Treating while getting the cake in readiness, it will be best to beat 
the frosting a few minutes again before placing on cake. As eggs 
vary in size, some common sense must be used in the quantity of 
the sugar. Practice only will teach how stiff icing ought to be. In 
preparing for a large party, when it is inconvenient to frost each 
cake as it is taken from the oven, and a number have become cold, 
place them in the oven to heat before frosting. If the cake is rough 
or brown when baked, dust with a little flour, rub off all loose par- 
ticles with a cloth, put on frosting, pouring it around the center of 
the cake, and smooth off as quickly as possible with a knife. If the 
frosting is rather stiff, dip the knife in cold water. If the flavor is 
lemon juice, allow more sugar for the additional liquid. It is nice, 
when the frosting is almost cold, to take a knife and mark the cake 
in slices. Any ornaments, such as gum drops, candies, orange flowers 



92 DIRECTIONS FOR FROSTING. 

or ribbons should be put on while the icing is moist. When dry 
ornament with piping, which is a stiff icing squeezed through a 
paper funnel, and may be tinted with colored sugars. If the above- 
directions are followed, the icing will not crumble. The recipe for 
" Centennial Drops" (see index) is excellent for icing. In frosting 
sponge-cake it is an improvement to grate orange peel over the cake 

before frosting. 

ALMOND FROSTING. 

Blanch half pint sweet almonds by putting them in boiling 
water, stripping off the skins, and spreading upon a dry clotk 
until cold; pound a few of them at a time in a mortar till well 
pulverized; mix carefully whites of three eggs and three-quarters 
pint powdered sugar, add almonds, flavor with a tea-spoon vanilla 
or lemon, and dry in a cool oven or in the open air when weather 

is pleasant. 

BOILED FROSTING. 

Whites of three eggs beaten to a stiff froth, one large cup 
granulated sugar moistened with four table-spoons hot water ; boil 
sugar briskly for five minutes or until it "jingles" on the bottom of 
the cup when dropped into cold water, or " ropes" or threads when 
dropped from the end of the spoon. Then, with left hand, pour the 
boiling syrup upon the beaten eggs in a small stream, while beat- 
ing hard with right hand. This is an excellent frosting. If pre- 
ferred, add half pound sweet almonds blanched and pounded to a 
paste, or a cup of hickory-nut meats, chopped fine, and it will be 
perfectly delicious. This amount will frost the top of two large- 
cakes. Mrs. A. S. C. 

CHOCOLATE FROSTING. 

Six rounded table-spoons grated chocolate, one and a half cups< 
powdered sugar, whites of three eggs ; beat the whites but very 
little (they must not become white), add the chocolate, stir it in; 
then pour in the sugar gradually, beating to mix it well. In ih&- 
J&tclien. 

FROSTING. 

Beat whites of two eggs to a stiff froth, add gradually half 
pound best pulverized sugar, beat well for at least half an hour,, 
flavor with lemon juice (and some add tartaric acid, as both 



DIRECTIONS FOE FROSTING. 93 

whiten the icing). To color a delicate pink, use strawberry, 
currant or cranberry ; or the grated peeling of an orange or lemon 
moistened with the juice and squeezed through a thin cloth, will 
color a handsome yellow. This amount will frost one large cake. 

Mn. W. W. W. 

/ FROSTING WITH GELATINE. 

Dissolve large pinch gelatine in six table-spoons boiling w r ater; 
strain and thicken with sugar and flavor with lemon. This is 
enough to frost two cakes. Mrs. W. A. J. 

FROSTING WITHOUT EGGS. 

To one heaping tea-spoon Poland starch and just enough cold 
water to dissolve it, add a little hot water and cook in a basin set in 
hot water till very thick (or cook in a crock; either will prevent its- 
burning or becoming lumpy). Should the sugar be lumpy roll it 
thoroughly, and stir in two and two-thirds cups while the starch is 
hot; flavor to taste, and spread on while the cake is a little warm. 
This should be made the day before using, as it takes longer to- 
harden than when made with eggs, but it will never crumble in 
cutting. This is excellent. Mrs. Ola Kellogg Wilcox. 

MINNESOTA FROSTING. 

Beat whites of three eggs until frothy, not white, add one and a 
third pints powdered sugar gradually with one hand, beating* 
briskly with the other. Flavor with a tea-spoon of vanilla. It is 
better not to beat the whites of the eggs until stiff before adding 
sugar, as it makes the icing very hard to dry. Mrs. C. J., Winona r 

Minn. 

ORNAMENTAL FROSTING. 

Draw a small syringe full of the icing and work it in any design 
you fancy ; wheels, Grecian borders, flowers, or borders of bead- 
ing look well. Mrs. M. J. W. 

YELLOW FROSTING. 

The yolk of one egg to nine heaping tea-spoons pulverized sugar r 
and flavor w r ith vanilla. Use the same day it is made. Mrs. 

J. S. W. 

ROSE COLORING. 

Mix together one-fourth ounce each of powdered alum and cream- 
tartar, one ounce powdered cochineal, four ounces loaf-sugar, and 



94 CR ULLERS AND DO UGHNUTS. 

a salt-spoon soda. Boil ten minutes in a pint pure soft water; 
when cool bottle and cork for use. This is used for jellies, cake, 
ice-cream, etc. Mrs W. E. H. , Minneapolis. 



CRULLERS AND DOUGHNUTS. 



To cook these properly the fat should be of the right heat. 
When hot enough it will cease to bubble and be perfectly still; 
try with a bit of the batter, and if the heat is right the dough 
will rise in a few seconds to the top and occasion a bubbling in the 
fat, the cake will swell, and the under side quickly become brown. 
Clarified drippings of roast meat are more wholesome to fry them 
in than lard. A good suet 'may be prepared as follows for those 
who are sensible enough not to like greasy doughnuts or who He- 
braically oppose lard. Use only beef suet, which is quite as cheap, 
cleanly, and healthy. Buy from the meat markets, speaking before 
hand, and securing nice, whole, clean leaves, which cut up in small 
pieces, put into a dinner-pot, which will hold well about ten pounds. 
Put in a pint of water, and after the first hour stir frequently ; it 
takes about three hours with a good heat to render it. Drain 
through a coarse towel, and if the suet is good it will require but 
little squeezing, and leave but little scrap or cracklings. Put to 
-cool in pans or jars, and you have an element into which, when well 
heated, you can drop the twisted goodies, with the assurance that 
they will not only be " done brown," but that they will emerge with 
a flavor and grain that will commend them to the favor of an epi- 
cure. Doughnuts thus cooked are more digestible and of better 
flavor than if cooked in lard, and the most fastidious will not need 
to peel them before eating. Make the dough as soft as it can be 
handled; if cut about half an inch thick, five to eight minutes will 
be time enough to cook, but it is better to break one open as a test. 
AVhen done, drain well in a skimmer, and place in a colander. The 
use of eggs prevents the dough from absorbing the fat. Doughnuts 
should be watched closely while frying, and the fire must be regu- 



CRULLERS AND DOUGHNUTS. 

lated very carefully. When you have finished frying, cut a potato 
in slices and put in the fat to clarify it, place the kettle away until 
the fat " settles," strain into an earthen pot kept for this purpose, 
and set in a cool place. The sediment remaining in the bottom of 
the kettle may be used for soap-grease. Fry in an iron kettle, the 
common skillet being too shallow for the purpose. Do not eat 
doughnuts between April and November. Crullers are better the 
day after they are made. If lard is not fresh and sweet, slice a raw 
potato, and fry before putting in the cakes. 



CRULLERS. 

Two coffee-cups sugar, one of sweet milk, three eggs, a heaping 
table-spoon butter, three tea-spoons baking-powder mixed with six 
cups flour, half a nutmeg, and a level tea-spoon cinnamon. Beat 
eggs, sugar and butter together, add milk, spices and flour; put 
another cup flour on molding-board, turn the dough out on it, and 
knead until stiff enough to roll out to a quarter inch thick ; cut 
in squares, make three or four long incisions in each square, lift 
by taking alternate strips between the finger and tnumb, drop 
into hot lard, and cook like doughnuts. Mrs. A. F. Ziegler, Co- 
lumbus, 

FRIED CAKES. 

One coffee-cup of not too thick sour cream, or one of sour 
milk and one table-spoon of butter, two eggs, a little nutmeg- 
and salt, one tea-cup sugar, one small tea-spoon soda dissolved; 
mix soft. Mrs. S. Watson, 

CORN MEAL DOUGHNUTS. 

A tea-cup and a half boiling milk poured over two tea-cups meal; 
when cool add two cups flour, one of butter, one and one-half of 
sugar, three eggs; flavor with nutmeg or cinnamon; let rise till 
very light ; roll about half an inch thick, cut in diamond shape, 

and boil in hot lard. 

CREAM DOUGHNUTS. 

Beat one cup each of sour cream and sugar and two eggs to- 
gether, add level tea-spoon soda, a little salt, and flour enough to 
roll. Mrs. Hattie Meade, 



96 CR ULLERS AND DO UGHNUTS. 

DOUGHNUTS. 

One egg, a cup rich milk," a cup sugar, three pints flour, three 
tea-spoons baking powder, (or one and a half measures Hereford's 
Bread Preparation;. These are made richer by adding one egg, 
and one tea-spoon butter. Mrs. Jenlcs, 

NORTH STAR DOUGHNUTS. 

One and a half cups sugar, one of sour milk, half cup butter, 
three eggs, a level tea-spoon soda, spice to taste, and flour to roll. 
Mrs. A. J. Palme*, 

RAISED DOUGHNUTS. 

Peel and boil four good sized potatoes ; mash fine, and pour boil- 
ing water over them until of the consistency of gruel ; let cool, add 
a yeast cake, and a little flour ; let rise till light, then add one pint 
sweet milk, one and a half cups sugar, one-fourth cup (large meas- 
ure) lard, a salt-spoon salt, a little nutmeg and cinnamon; stir in 
flour until stiff, let rise again, then add a half tea-spoon soda dis- 
solved in a little milk, pour out on molding board, mix stiff enough 
to cut out, and roll to half an inch thickness; cut in long strips two 
inches wide and divide diagonally into pieces three inches long, set 
where it is warm, let rise on the board until light, and then fry. 
These do not cook through as easily as others, and it is safer to drop 
in one, and, by breaking it open, learn the time required for them 
to fry. A very nice variation of this recipe may be made as follows: 
Roll part of the dough about half an inch thick, cut into small 
biscuit, let rise, and when light, roll down a little, lay a few raisins 
rolled in cinnamon in the center, wet the edges by dipping the finger 
in cold water and passing it over them ; draw them together and 
press firmly, and drop them in the hot fat. A tea-spoon of apple- 
butter or any kind of jam may be used instead of the raisins. 
When made with the raisins, they are the real German "Oily 
Koeks." Mrs. J. L. H., 

BERLIN PANCAKES. 

Roll out dough slightly sweetened and shortened, as if for very 
plain doughnuts; cut in circles like biscuit, put a tea-spoon currant 
jam or jelly on the center of one, lay another upon it. press the 
edges tightly together with the fingers, and fry quickly in boiling 



COOKIES AND JUMBLES. 97 

fat. They will be perfect globes when done, a little smaller than 
an orange. Mrs. L. S. Williston, Heidelberg, Germany. 

TRIFLES. 

A quart flour, a cup sugar, two table-spoons melted butter, a 
little salt, two tea-spoons baking powder, one egg, and sweet milk 
sufficient to make rather stiff; roll out in thin sheets, cut in pieces 
about two by four inches ; make as many cuts across the short way 
as possible, inserting the knife near one edge and ending the cut 
just before reaching the other. Pass two knitting-needles under 
every other strip, spread the needles as far apart as possible, and 
with them hold the trifles in the fat until a light brown. Only one 
can be fried at a time. Miss Ettie Dalbey, Harrisburg. 



COOKIES AND JUMBLES. 



These require a quick oven. A nice " finishing touch" can be 
given by sprinkling them with granulated sugar and rolling over 
lightly with the rolling pin, then cutting out and pressing a whole 
raisin in the center of each ; or when done a very light brown, brush 
over w r hile still hot with a soft bit of rag dipped in a thick syrup 
of sugar and w r ater, sprinkle with currants and return to the oven 
a moment. 



ADA'S SUGAR CAKES. 

Three cups sugar, two of butter, three eggs well beaten, one tea- 
spoon soda, flour sufficient to roll out. 

COOKIES. 

One cup butter, two of sugar, one of cold water, half tea-spoon 
soda, two eggs and just flour enough to roll. Mrs. Mary F. Orr. 

EGOLESS COOKIES. 

Two cups sugar, one of milk, one of butter, half tea-spoon nut- 
ineg, half tea-spoon soda, flour to make thick enough to roll. 



98 COOKIES AND JUMBLES. 

GOOD COOKIES. 

Two cups sugar, one of butter, one of sour cream or milk, three 
eggs, one tea-spoon soda; mix soft, roll thin, sift granulated sugar 
over them, and gently roll it in. Mrs. Judge West, Bellffontaine, Ohio. 

LEMON SNAPS. 

A large cup sugar, two-thirds cup butter, half tea-spoon soda 
dissolved in two tea-spoons hot water, flour enough to roll thin ; 
flavor with lemon. Mrs. E. L. C., Springfield. 

NUTMEG COOKIES. 

Two cups white sugar, three-fourths cup butter, two-thirds cup 
sour milk, nutmeg or caraway seed for flavor, two eggs, half tea- 
spoon soda, and six cups of flour, or enough to roll. Roll thin, and 
bake in a quick oven. 

PEPPER-NUTS. 

One pound sugar, five eggs, half pound butter, half tea-cup 
milk, two tea-spoons baking-powder, flour enough to roll. Mrs. 
Emma G. Rea. 

SAND TARTS. 

Two cups sugar, one of butter, three of flour, two eggs, leaving 
out the white of one ; roll out thin and cut in square cakes with a 
knife ; spread the white of egg on top, sprinkle with cinnamon and 
sugar, and press a blanched almond or raisin in the center. Miss 
Clara G. Phellis. 

COCOA-NUT JUMBLES. 

Two cups sugar, one cup butter, two eggs, half a grated cocoa' 
nut ; make just stiff enough to roll out ; roll thin. Mrs. Ida M. 
Donaldson, Springdale, Col. 

JUMBLES. 

One and a half cups white sugar, three-fourths cup butter, three 
eggs, three table-spoons sweet milk, half tea-spoon soda and one of 
cream tartar; mix with sufficient flour to roll; roll and sprinkle 
with sugar; cut out and bake. Mrs. Mollk Pilcher, Jackson, Mich. 



GINGER-BREAD. 99 



GINGER-BREAD. 



If in making ginger-bread the dough becomes too stiff before it is 
rolled out, set it before the fire. Snaps will not be crisp if made on 
a rainy day. Ginger-bread and cakes require a moderate oven, 
snaps a quick one. If cookies or snaps become moist in keeping, 
put them in the oven and heat them for a few moments. Always 
use New Orleans or Porto Rico molasses, and never syrups. Soda 
is used to act on the "spirit" of the molasses. In making the old- 
fashioned, soft, square cakes of ginger-bread, put a portion of the 
d!)ugh on a well-floured tin sheet, roll evenly to each side, trim off 
evenly around the edges, and mark off in squares with a floured 
knife or wheel cutter. In this way the dough may be softer than 
w T here it is necessary to pick up to remove from board after rolling 
and cutting. Always have the board well covered with flour before 
rolling all kinds of soft ginger-breads, as they are liable to stick, and 
should always be mixed as soft as they can be handled. 

ALUM GINGER-BREAD. 

Pint molasses, tea-cup melted lard, table-spoon ginger, table-spoon 
salt, tea-cup boiling water; in half the water dissolve table-spoon 
pulverized alum, and in the other half a heaping table-spoon soda; 
stir in just flour enough to knead, roll about half inch thick, cut in 
oblong cards, and bake in a tolerably quick oven. Mrs. Wm. 
Patrick, Midland, Mich. 

GINGER-BREAD. 

One gallon molasses or strained honey, one and a quarter pounds 
butter, quarter pound soda stirred in a half tea-cup sweet milk, tea- 
spoon alum dissolved in just enough water to cover it, flour to make 
it stiff enough to roll out ; put the molasses in a very large dish, 
add the soda and butter melted, then all the other ingredients ; mix 
in the evening and set in a warm place to rise over night ; in the 
morning knead it a long time like bread, roll into squares half an 
inch thick, and bake in bread-pans in an oven heated about right 
for bread. To make it glossy, rub over the top just before putting 



3650 






100 GINGER-BREAD. 

it into the oven the following : One well-beaten egg, the same amount 
or a little more sweet cream, stirring cream and egg well together. 
This ginger-bread will keep an unlimited time. The recipe is com- 
plete without ginger, but two table-spoons may be used if preferred. 
Over fifty years old, and formerly used for general muster days. 

EXCELLENT SOFT GINGER-BREAD. 

One and a half cups Orleans molasses, half cup brown sugar, 
half cup butter, half cup sweet milk, tea-spoon soda, tea-spoon all- 
spice, half tea-spoon ginger ; mix all together thoroughly, add three 
cups sifted flour and bake in shallow pans. Mrs. S. W 

SPONGE GINGER-BREAD. 

One cup sour milk, one of Orleans molasses, a half cup butter, 
two eggs, one tea-spoon soda, one table-spoon ginger, flour to make 
as thick as pound cake; put butter, molasses and ginger together, 
make them quite warm, add the milk, flour, eggs and soda, and 
bake as soon as possible. Mrs. M. M. M 

GINGER COOKIES. 

Two cups molasses, one of lard, one of sugar, two-thirds cup sour 
milk, table-spoon ginger, three tea-spoons soda stirred in the flour 
and one in the milk, two eggs. Miss Tina Lay, 

GINGER COOKIES. 

One egg, one cup sugar, one cup molasses, one table-spoon soda,, 
one of vinegar, one of ginger ; roll thin and bake quickly. 

GINGER CAKES. 

One quart Orleans molasses, pint lard or butter, pint buttermilk, 
two table-spoons soda, two table-spoons ginger, flour enough to make 
a stiff batter ; pour the molasses and milk boiling hot into a large 
tin bread-pan in which have been placed the ginger and soda (the 
pan must be large enough to prevent running over) ; stir in all the 
flour possible, after which stir in the lard or butter ; when cold y 
mold with flour and cut in cakes. Care must be taken to follow 
these directions implicitly or the cakes will not be good ; remember 
to add the lard or butter last, and buttermilk, not sour milk, must be 
used; boil the molasses in a skillet, and after pouring it into the 
pan, put the buttermilk in the same skillet, boil and pour it over 



GINGER-BREAD. 101 

the molasses, ginger and soda. This excellent recipe was kept as a 
secret for a long time by a professional baker. Mrs. R. M. Hen- 
derson. 

GINGER DROP-CAKES. 

Take three eggs, one cup lard, one of baking molasses, one of 
brown sugar, one large table-spoon ginger, one table-spoon soda 
dissolved in a cup of boiling water, five cups unsifted flour; drop 
table-spoons of this mixture into a slightly greased dripping-pan 
about three inches apart. Mrs. L. McAllister. 

BEST GINGER-DROPS. 

Half cup sugar, a cup molasses, half cup butter, one tea-spoon 
each cinnamon, ginger and cloves, two tea-spoons soda in a cup 
boiling water, two and a half cups flour ; add two well-beaten eggs 
the last thing before baking. Baked in gem-tins or as a common 
ginger-bread, and eaten wr arm with a sauce, they make a nice des- 
sert. Mrs. C. Hawks, 

GINGER-SNAPS. 

Two cups molasses, one of lard, one table-spoon soda, one of 
ginger, flour to roll stiff. Miss Mary Gallagher. 

GINGER-SNAPS. 

One pound and six ounces flour, four of sugar, eight of butter, 
six of preserved orange peel, half pint of molasses, one tea-spoon 
soda dissolved in two table-spoons boiling water, one tea-spoon cloves, 
two of ginger. Soften the butter and mix it with the sugar and 
molasses, add the spices, orange peel and soda, beat well and stir in 
the flour, flour the board and roll the paste as thin as possible, cut 
in circles and bake in a very quick oven. . This quantity makes 
one hundred and twenty-nine snaps, about three inches across. In 

the Kitchen. 

HOTEL GINGER-SNAPS. 

One gallon molasses, two pounds brown sugar, one quart melted 
butter, half cup each ground cloves, mace, cinnamon and ginger, 
one cup soda. Mrs. Hatti-e Clemmons. 

MOLASSES CAKE. 

One cup each of butter, sugar, sour milk and molasses, five cups 
flour, two eggs, one table-spoon soda, one of ginger. Mrs. A. J. 
Palmes. 



CREAMS AND CUSTARDS. 



For creams and mustards eggs should never be beaten in tin, btiv 
always in stone or earthen ware, as there is some chemical influence 
about tin which prevents their attaining that creamy lightness so 
desirable. Beat quickly and sharply right through the eggs, beat- 
ing whites and yolks separately. When gelatine is used for creams, 
it is better to soak it for dn hour in a little cold water or milk, set 
in a warm place ; (it is convenient to place in a bowl set in the 
top of the boiling tea-kettle to dissolve;) when dissolved, pour into 
the hot custard just after removing from the stove. For custards 
the common rule is four eggs, one cup sugar, and one small half 
tea-spoon salt to each quarj of milk. Bake in a baking-dish until 
firm in the center, taking care that the heat is moderate or the 
custard will turn in part to whey. The, delicacy of the custard 
depends on its being bake*! slowly. It is much nicer to strain the 
yolks, after they are beaten, through a femall wire strainer kept for 
this purpose by every good housekeeper. For boiled custards or 
floats the yolks alone may be used, or for economy's sake the entire 
eggs. Always place the milk to boil in a custard-kettle (made of 
iron with another iron kettle inside, the latter lined with tin), or, 
in a pan or pail set within a kettle of boiling water; when the milk 
reaches the boiling point, which is shown by a slight foam rising 
on top, add the sugar, which cools it so that the eggs will not curdle 
when added. Or, another convenient wav is to mix the beaten 

/ 

and strained yolks with the sugar in a bowl, then add gradually 
several spoons of the boiling milk, until the eggs and sugar are 

(102) 



CREAMS AND CUSTARDS. 103 

heated through, when they may be slowly stirred into the boiling 
milk. Let remain a few moments, stirring constantly until it 
thickens a little, but not long enough to curdle, then either set the 
pail immediately in cold water or turn out into a cold dish, as it 
curdles if allowed to remain in a hot basin ; add flavoring extracts 
after removing from the stove. Peach leaves or vanilla beans give 
a fine flavor, but must be boiled in the milk and then taken out 
before the other ingredients are added. Boiled custards are very 
difficult to make, and must have the closest attention until they 
are finished. The custards may be prepared as above, mixing the 
milk, eggs and sugar, and then placing in pan to steam instead of 
boiling. 

In making charlotte-russe it is not necessary to add gelatine. 
The filling may be made of well- whipped cream, flavored and 
sweetened, using a "whip-churn" or the "Dover Egg-beater" to 
do the whipping. Fill the mold (which should be first wet with 
cold water for charlotte-russe and blanc mange, and all creams) 
and set on ice to harden. If preferred, it may be made up in 
several small molds, one for each person. In the use of spices it 
is well to remember that allspice and cloves are used with meats, 
and nutmegs and cinnamon in combination with sugar. The white 
part of lemon rind is exceedingly bitter, and the outer peel only 
should be used for grating. A better way is to rub the rind off 
with hard lumps of sugar. The sugar thus saturated with the oil 
of the lemon is called " zest," and is used, pounded fine, for creams, 
etc. 

BOHEMIAN CREAMS. 

One quart cream, two table-spoons sugar, one ounce gelatine 
soaked in water until dissolved ; whip half the cream (rich milk 
may be substituted for cream) to a stiff froth ; boil the other half 
with the sugar and a vanilla bean until a flavor is extracted (or 
vanilla extract may be added just after it is removed from the fire), 
take off the fire, add the gelatine, and when cooled a little stir in 
the well-beaten yolks of the four eggs. As soon as it begins to 
thicken, stir steadily until smooth, when add the whipped cream, 
beating it in lightly. Mold and set on ice until ready to serve. 

To flavor with strawberries, strain two pounds berries through a 



104 CREAMS AND CUSTARDS. 

colander, sweeten to taste, add to the dissolved gelatine, set on ice, 
and when it thickens stir until smooth, add the whipped cream as 
above, and mold. 

To flavor with peach, boil a dozen and a half choice fruit, sweeten 
and strain through a colander ; add the dissolved gelatine and a tea- 
cup of cream, set on ice, and when it thickens stir until smooth, 
add the whipped cream, and mold. 

To flavor with pine-apple, cut fine, boil with half a pound puL 
verized sugar, strain through a colander, add the dissolved gela- 
tine, set on ice, and when it thickens stir until smooth, add the 
whipped cream, and mold. Canned pine-apples may be used in- 
stead of fresh. In all these never add whipped cream until the 
mass is cool and begins to thicken. Mrs. W. R. Jones, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

CHARLOTTE-RUSSE. 

Cut stale sponge-cake into slices about half an inch thick and 
line three molds with them, leaving a space of half an inch be- 
tween each slice ; set the molds where they will not be disturbed 
until the filling is ready ; take a deep tin pan and fill about one- 
third full of either snow or pounded ice, and into this set another 
pan that will hold at least four quarts. Into a deep bowl or pail 
(a whip-churn is better) put one and a half pints of cream (if the 
cream is thick take one pint of cream and a half pint of milk), 
whip tc a froth, and when the bowl is full, skim the froth into the 
pan which is standing on the ice, and repeat this until the cream is 
all froth ; then with the spoon draw the froth to one side, and you 
will find that some of the cream has p;one back to milk ; turn 

o ' 

this into the bowl again, and whip as before; when the cream is 
all whipped, stir into it two-thirds cup powdered sugar, one tea- 
spoon vanilla, and half a box gelatine, which has been soaked in 
cold water enough to cover it for one hour and then dissolved in 
boiling w r ater enough to dissolve it (about half a cup), stir from the 
bottom of the pan until it begins to grow stiff; fill the molds and 
set them on the ice in the pan for one hour, or until they are sent 
to the table. When ready to dish them, loosen lightly at the sides 
and turn out on a flat dish ; have the cream ice-cold when you be- 
gin to whip it, and it is a good plan to put a lump of ice into the 
eream while whipping it. If. Parloa. 



CREAMS AXD CUSTARDS. 105 

CHARLOTTE-RUSSE. 

Split two dozen lady-fingers (slices of sponge or other cake may 
be used), lay them in a mold, put one-third of a box of gelatine 
into half pint of milk, place it where it will be warm enough to 
dissolve. AVhip three pints of cream to a froth, and keep it cool, 
beat the yolks of three eggs, and mix with half pound powdered 
sugar, then beat the whites very stiff, and add to it, strain the gela- ; 
tine upon these, stirring quickly ; then add the cream, flavor with 
vanilla or lemon, pour over the cake, let stand upon ice two hours. 
Serve with whipped cream. Some add a layer of jelly at bottom 
of mold. Mrs. Ida M. Donaldson, Springdale, Col. 

CHARLOTTE-RUSSE. 

One ounce gelatine dissolved in two gills of boiling milk, whites 
of four eggs beaten to a stiff froth, one and a half cups white pow- 
dered sugar, one pint thick cream whipped to a froth, and rose-water 
or vanilla for flavoring ; line a large mold with thick slices of sponge- 
cake, mix the gelatine, sugar, cream and flavoring together, add 
lightly the frothed whites of the eggs, pour into mold, set away on 
ice till required for use. This is an easy and excellent mode of 
making this most delicate dessert. Mrs. V- G. Hush. 

HAMBURG CREAM. 

Stir together the rind and juice of two large lemons, and onecnp 
sugar, add the well-beaten yolks of eight eggs ; put all in a tin pail, 
set in a pot of boiling water, stir for three minutes, take from the 
fire, add the well-beaten whites of the eggs, and serve, when cold, 
in custard-glasses. Mrs. C. Fullington. 

ITALIAN CREAM. 

Soak one-third box gelatine half an hour in cold milk, put a quart 
milk on to boil, and when boiling stir in yolks of eight eggs well 
beaten, add one cup and a half of sugar and the gelatine; when the 
custard begins to thicken, take it off and pour into a deep dish in 
which the eight whites have been beaten to a stiff froth ; mix well 
together and flavor to taste ; put in molds, and allow four hours to 
cool. This cream is much more easily made in whiter than in sum- 
mer. Mrs. N. P. Wiks 



106 CREAMS AND CUSTARDS. 

ROCK CREAM. 

Boil one cup rice in a custard-kettle in sweet milk until soft, add 
two table-spoons loaf-sugar, a salt-spoon salt ; pour into a dish and 
place on it lumps of jelly ; beat the whites of five eggs and three 
table-spoons pulverized sugar to a stiif froth, flavor to taste, add one 
table-spoon rich cream, and drop the mixture on the rice. Miss 
Libbie S. Wilcox, Madison. 

RASPBERRY CREAM. 

One quart good cream, one pint fresh raspberries ; mash and rub 
the fruit through a fine sieve or strainer, to extract the seeds, bring 
the cream to a boil (having reserved one pint for froth), and add it 
to the berries while it remains hot, sweeten with powdered sugar to 
taste, let it become cold. Now raise cream which has been reserved 
to a froth with a beater, take off the froth and lay it on a sieve to 
drain ; fill dish or glasses with the cream and place froth on top. 
Very nice. Any kind of berries, jam or jelly is good, and can be 
used without straining. 

SPANISH CREAM. 

One box Coxe's gelatine dissolved in a pint of cold milk ; into two 
quarts boiling milk stir one and a half cups sugar and the yolks 
of eight eggs ; pour all upon the dissolved gelatine, stirring well. 
When cool add half a pint wine, or flavor with lemon or vanilla, 
place in dishes and cover with a meringue made of the beaten 
whites, the juice of one lemon, and one cup sugar; brown in oven 
two minutes and eat ice-cold. Susan R. Howard, Brooklyn, New 

York. 

TAPIOCA CREAM. 

Soak over night two table-spoons tapioca in one-half tea-cup milk 
(or enough to cover) ; bring one quart milk to boiling point ; beat 
well together the yolks of three eggs, half tea-cup sugar, and one 
tea-spoon lemon or vanilla for flavoring, add the tapioca, and stir 
the whole into the boiling milk, let boil once, turn into the dish, 
and immediately spread on the whites. Serve when cold. Mrs. R. 

M. Henderson. 

WHIPPED CREAM. 

Place cream over ice until thoroughly chilled, and whip with an 
egg-beater or whip-churn until it froths. While whipping place 



CREAMS AND CUSTARDS. 107 

froth on a sieve, and return to bowl to be re-whipped all that passes 
through. When cream is difficult to whip, add to it and beat with 
it the white of an egg. Sweetened and flavored this is a choice 
dessert alone, but it may be served in various ways. Baked apples, 
and fresh or preserved berries are delicious with it. Jelly-glasses, 
one-third full of jelly and filled up with cream, make a very whole- 
some and delicious dessert. 

WHIPPED CREAM. 

One and one-half pints good rich cream sweetened and flavored 
to taste, three tea-spoons vanilla ; whip to a stiff froth. Dissolve 
three-fourths ounce best gelatine in a small tea-cup hot water, and 
when cool pour into the cream ; stir thoroughly, pour in molds and 
set on ice, or in very cool place. Mrs. Emma Craig, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

APPLE CUSTARD. 

One pint of mashed stewed apples, one pint sweet milk, four eggs, 
one cup sugar and a little nutmeg; bake slowly. Mrs. G. W. 
Hensel, Quarryville Pa. 

APPLE SNOW. 

Pare, core and bring to boil in as little water as possible six tart 
apple cool, strain, beat well, and add the well-whipped whites 
of three eggs, sweeten to taste, beat well until a dish of snow 
is the result, flavor with lemon or manilla, or add the grated 
rind of a lemon ; serve with sweetened cream. Or, make custard of 
yolks, sugar, and a pint milk, place in a dish, and drop the froth 
on it in large flakes. Mrs. T. J. Buxton, Minneapolis, Minn. 

BLANC-MANGE. 

Dissolve three heaping table-spoons corn starch and three of sugar 
in one pint of milk ; add to this three eggs well beaten, and pour 
the mixture into one pint of boiling milk, stirring constantly until 
it boils again ; just before taking from the stove flavor to suit the 
taste and pour into cups or small molds ; when cool take out and 
place on a glass dish with a mold of jelly in the center. Serve a 
spoon of jelly and a sauce of sweetened cream with each mold. Or, 
put one quart milk (reserving three table-spoons with which mix 
three heaping table-spoons corn-starch) with a pinch of salt and five 



108 CREAMS AND CUSTARDS. 

table-spoons sugar. Whon milk is hot, pour in the mixed corn- 
starch, and stir until it is a thick batter; pour this on the well- 
beaten whites of four eggs, add two tea-spoons vanilla, pour into 
molds wet in cold water, and set on ice ; when cold, turn from the 
mold, and serve in a custard made as follows : Put one pint milk in 
a basin over boiling water, mix in a tea-cup two even tea-spoons 
corn-starch in two of cold milk, beat in the four yolks of eggs and 
two and a half table-spoons of sugar. When the milk is hot pour 
part of it into the cup and stir well, pour it back into the basin and 
stir until as thick as desired ; put on ice until chilled thoroughly. 
Blanc-mange may be colored green with spinage juice, or pink with 
the juice of strawberry, currant or cranberry, or a handsome yellow 
with the grated peel of an orange or lemon, moistened with the 
juice and strained through a cloth. Very pretty half-pint molds 
may be made as follows : Tilt the mold in a pan of snow or pounded 
ice, color one-fourth the blanc-mange pink, another fourth green ; 
wet the molds and pour into them a little of the colored blanc- 
mange, putting only one color into each mold and filling it so that 
when tilted the blanc-mange reaches nearly to the top and covers 
about two-thirds of the bottom ; when cold set mold level, and fill 
with the white blanc-mange, which has, meantime, been kept in so 
warm a place as not to harden. If the molds are made to imitate 
roses or fruit, the fruit may be green, and roses pink ; if corn, yel- 
low ; and various ways of combining colors and forms will suggest 
themselves to the ingenious housewife. 

CHOCOLATE BLANC-MANGE. 

Half box gelatine, soaked till dissolved in as much cold water as 
will cover it, four ounces sweet chocolate grated, one quart sweet 
milk, one cup sugar; boil milk, sugar and chocolate five minutes, 
add gelatine, and boil five minutes more, stirring constantly ; flavor 
with vanilla, put in molds to cool and eat with cream. If wanted 
for tea. make in the morning ; if for dinner, the night before. For 
a plain blanc-mange omit the chocolate. Mrs. Dr. Houston, Urbana. 

RASPBERRY BLANC-MANGE. 

Stew nice fresh raspberries, strain off the juice and sweeten it to 
taste, place over the fire, and when it boils stir in corn starch wet 



CREAitfS AND OUSTARDb. 109 

in cold water, allowing two table-spoons of corn starch for each pint 
of juice ; continue stirring until sufficiently cooked, pour into molds 
wet in cold water and set away to cool ; eat with cream and sugar. 
Other fruit can be used instead of raspberries. Mrs. J. P. Rea, 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

BOILED CUSTARD. 

One quart milk, two table-spoons corn starch, two eggs, one-fourth' 
tea-spoon salt, butter size of a hickory-nut ; wet the starch in a little 
of the milk, heat the remainder to near boiling, in a tin pail set in 
a pot of boiling water. The proper heat will be indicated by a froth 
or film rising to the top ; add the starch till it thickens, stirring con- 
stantly, then add the eggs well-beaten with four table-spoons of 
sugar, let it cook, stirring briskly, take off and beat w r ell ; flavor ; 
-served with grated cocoa-nut it is elegant. 

CHOCOLATE CUSTARD. 

Break two sections chocolate in a half-dozen pieces, put it in a 
pan over boiling water, with milk enough to barely cover it ; mash 
and stir perfectly smooth, then add the rest of the milk (one quart 
in all, reserving three table-spoons in which to dissolve the corn 
starch,) one cup sugar, yolks of six eggs, a heaping table-spoon corn 
starch ; beat the yolks, add the sugar and corn starch (dissolved in 
milk), stir all slowly in the boiling milk, in which the chocolate is 
dissolved, add a pinch of salt, and let cook a few minutes, stirring 
-constantly ; eat cold with white cake. Miss Bumie Johnson. 

FLOATING ISLAND. 

Make a custard of the yolks of six eggs, one quart milk, a small 
pinch of salt, sugar to taste ; beat and strain yolks before adding to 
the milk ; place custard in a large tin pan, and set in stove, stirring 
constantly until it boils, then remove, flavor with lemon or rose, and 
pour into a dish (a shallow, wide one is best), spread smoothly over 
the boiling hot custard the well-beaten whites, grating some loaf- 
sugar (some add grated cocoa-nut) on the top. Set the dish in a 
pan of ice-water and serve cold. Some prepare the whites by placing 
& table-spoon at a time on boiling water, lifting them out carefully, 
when cooked, with a skimmer and laying them gently on the float. 
This is the " old reliable recipe." Mrs. W. W. W. 



110 CREAMS AND CUSTAfiDS. 

GOOD BAKED CUSTARD. 

Eight well-beaten eggs, leaving two whites for the top, three pints 
milk ; sweeten and flavor to taste ; bake for two hours in a slow oven. 
Beat the reserved whites to stiff froth with two table-spoons sugar, 
spread over the top and return to oven to brown. 

GELATINE CUSTARD. 

To one-third package Coxe's gelatine, add a little less than one 
pint boiling water ; stir until gelatine is dissolved, add the juice of 
one lemon, and one and a half cups sugar; strain through a jelly, 
strainer into dish for the table, and set in a cool place. For custard, 
to one and a half pints milk add the yolks of four eggs (reserving 
the whites), and four table-spoons sugar; cook and flavor when cool. 
When required for the table, cut gelatine into small squares, and 
over them pour the custard. Add four table-spoons powdered sugar 
to the whites of four eggs well beaten, and when ready for the 
table place over the custard with a spoon. Mrs. W. A. James. 

LEMON CUSTARD. 

Beat the yolks of eight eggs till they are white, add pint boiling 
water, the rinds of two lemons grated, and the juice sweetened to- 
taste ; stir this on the fire till it thickens, then add a large glass of 
rich wine, and one-half glass brandy ; give the whole a good boil, 
and put in glasses. To be eaten cold. Or, put the thin yellow 
rinct of two lemons, with the juice of three, and sugar to taste, into 
one pint of warm w r ater. As lemons vary in size and juiciness, the 
exact quantity of sugar can not be given. Ordinary lemons re- 
quires three gills. It will be safe to begin with that quantity, more 
may be added if required. Beat the whites to a stiff froth, then 
the yolks ; then beat both together, pour in gradually while beat- 
ing the other ingredients ; put all in a pail, set in a pot of boiling 
water, and stir until thick as boiled custard ; strain it in a deep 
dish ; when cool place on ice. Serve in glasses. Mrs. Belle R. 
Liggett, Detroit, Mich. 

SNOW CUSTARD. 

Half a package of Coxe's gelatine, three eggs, two cups of sugar, 
juice of one lemon ; soak the gelatine one hour in a tea-cup of cold 
water, add one pint boiling water, stir until thoroughly dissolved, 



CREAMS AND CUSTARDS. Ill 

add two-thirds of the sugar and the lemon juice; beat the whites of 
the eggs to a stiff froth, and when the gelatine is quite cold, whip 
it into the whites, a spoonful at a time, from half an hour to an 
hour. Whip steadily and evenly, and when all is stiff, pour in a 
mold, or in a dozen egg-glasses previously wet with cold water, and 
set in a cold place. In four or five hours turn into a glass dish. 
Make a custard of one and one-half pints milk, yolks of eggs, and* 
remainder of the sugar, flavor with vanilla, and when the meringue 
or snow-balls are turned out of the mold, pour this around the 
base. Mrs Gov. Tliayer, Wyoming Temtory. 

MOONSHINE. 

This dessert combines a pretty appearance with palatable flavor, 
and is a convenient substitute for ice-cream. Beat the whites of six 
ggs in a broad plate to a very stiff froth, then add gradually six 
table-spoons powdered sugar (to make it thicker use more sugar up 
to a pint), beating for not less than thirty minutes, and then beat 
in about one heaping table-spoon of preserved peaches cut in tiny 
bits (or some use one cup jelly), and set on ice until thoroughly 
chilled. In serving, pour in each saucer some rich cream sweetened 
and flavored with vanilla, and on the cream place a liberal portion 
of the moonshine. This quantity is enough for seven or eight per- 
sons. Mrs. H. C. Meredith, 

ORANGE FLOAT. 

One quart water, the juice and pulp of two lemons, one coffee- 
cup sugar; when boiling, add four table-spoons corn starch, let boil 
fifteen minutes, stirring all the time ; when cold pour it over four 
or five peeled and sliced oranges, and over the top spread the beaten 
whites of three eggs ; sweeten and add a few drops of vanilla. 

Mrs. Wm. Skinner. 

HIDDEN MOUNTAIN. 

Six eggs, a few slices citron, sugar to taste, three-quarters of a 
pint of cream, a layer of any kind of jam ; beat the whites and 
yolks of the eggs separately, then mix and beat again, adding the 
citron, the cream and sugar; when well beaten put in a buttered 
pan and fry, cover with the jam and garnish with slices of citroa ; 
to be eaten cold. Mrs. J. C. Gould. 



112 CREAMS AFD CUSTARDS. 

ORANGE SOUFFLE. 

Peel and sliee six oranges, put in a glass dish a layer of oranges, 
then one of sugar, and so on until all the orange is used, and let stand 
two hours ; make a soft boiled custard of yolks of three eggs, pint 
of milk, sugar to taste, with grating of orange peel for flavor, and 
pour over the oranges when cool enough not to break dish ; beat 
whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, stir in sugar, and put over the 
pudding. Praised by all. Mrs. Mary A. Livermore, Melrose, Mass. 

PRUNE WHIP. 

Sweeten to taste and stew three-quarters of a pound of prunes ; 
when perfectly cold, add the whites of four eggs beaten stiff; stir all 
of this together till light, put in a dish, and bake twenty minutes ; 
when cold, serve in a larger dish, and cover well with good cream. 

VIRGINIA CARAMEL CUSTARD. 

To make a baked custard, separate the whites and yolks of five 
eggs, beat the yolks well with a quarter of a pound of sugar, add 
the well-beaten whites and mix well with a quart of milk. Flavor 
and then pour into a buttered mold. Set immediately into a pan 
of boiling hot water, in a moderately hot oven. About half an 
hour will be required to set it firmly. When nicely browned and 
puffed up, touch the middle with a knife blade; if it cuts as smooth 
as around the sides it is done ; take care not to overdo. Let cus- 
tard stand until uerfectly cold, turn out gently on a plate and dust 
thickly with sugar, place in upper part of a hot oven ; the sugar 
soon melts and browns. Another way is to butter the mold care- 
fully, sprinkle sugar over bottom and set on stove to brown (great 
care is necessary to prevent sticking), pour in custard and bake; 
when turned out the caramel will be on top. 

A thinner custard may be made with a less number of eggs, but 
it can not be carameled unless baked in individual cups. Less 
eggs may also be used by substituting a portion of corn starch, 
boiled rice, gelatine or something else to give firmness, but the 
quality of custard will be impaired. And if more than one or two 
additional eggs are used the custard is spoiled. Baking too rap- 
idly, or too long, injures custard, hence do not scald milk and eggs 
before setting in oven, as many recommend. By baking in boiling 
water the temperature is regular, and scorching prevented. 



CONFECTIONERY 



There are very few modern kitchens in which some cooking uten- 
sil may not be found convenient for making candy. A sauce-pan 
of tinned iron, with a handle and flaring sides, and a lip to facilitate 
the pouring of the contents, will be found best adapted to such use ; 
or a small iron or brass kettle will do if kept quite dean. 

Dissolve four pounds white sugar in one quart water ; place this 
in a porcelain kettle over a slow fire for half an hour, pour into it 
a small quantity of gelatine and gum-arabic dissolved together ; all 
the impurities which rise to the surface skim off at once. Instead 
of gelatine and gum-arabic, the white of an egg may be used as a 
substitute with good results. To make the clarifying process still 
more perfect, strain through a flannel bag. To make rock candy, 
boil this syrup a few moments, allow to cool, and crystallization 
takes place on the sides of the vessel. To make other candies, 
bring the syrup very carefully to such a degree of heat that the 
"threads," which drop from the spoon when raised into the colder 
air, will snap like glass. When this stage is reached, add a tea- 
spoon of vinegar or cream tartar to prevent ''graining," and pour 
into pans as directed in the recipes which follow. To make round 
stick candies, pull, and roll into shape with well-floured hands as 
soon as cool enough to be handled. In pulling candy, some grease 
the hands, others flour them slightly. Colored candies are often 
injurious, and sometimes even poisonous, and should be avoided. 

In baking macaroons and kisses, use washed butter for greasing 
the tins, as lard or salt butter gives an unpleasant taste. Bake in 

8 113) 



114 CONFECTIONERY. 

a moderate oven, or let dry in a cool oven for two hours. After 
buttering, sprinkling lightly with flour and then shaking it off, is 
an excellent way to prepare the pan. When powdered alrnouds 
are to be used, they should be thoroughly dried in an open oven, 
after blanching, and they will pulverize more easily. In making 
macaroons or drops, or pulling butter-scotch or taffy, grease hands 
lightly with butter to prevent sticking. Flouring the hands is apt 
to give an unpleasant taste to candy. 



ALMOND MACAROONS. 

Pour boiling water on half a pound almonds, take skins off and 
throw into cold water for a few moments, then take out and pound 
(adding a table-spoon essence lemon) to a smooth paste, add one 
pound of pulverized sugar and whites of three eggs, and work the 
paste well together with back of spoon ; dip the hands in water and 
roll mixture into balls the size of a nutmeg, and lay on buttered 
paper an inch apart ; when done, dip the hands in water and pass 
gently over the macaroons, making the surface smooth and shining; 
set in a cool oven three-quarters of an hour. If this recipe ia 
strictly followed, the macaroons will be found equal to any made 
by professional confectioners. Mrs. L. S. W. 

BUTTER-SCOTCH. 

Three pounds "coffee A" sugar, fourth pound butter, half tea- 
spoon cream tartar, eight drops extract of lemon ; add as much 
cold water as will dissolve the sugar ; boil without stirring till it 
will easily break when dropped in cold water, and when done, add 
the lemon ; have a dripping-pan well buttered and pour in one- 
fourth inch thick, and when partly cold, mark off in squares. If 
pulled, when partly cold, till very w r hite, it will be like ice-cream 
candy. Mrs. J. S. R. 

BALTIMORE KISSES. 

Beat the whites of four small eggs to a high, firm froth, stir into 
it half a pound pulverized sugar, flavor with essence lemon or rose, 
continue to beat until very light ; then drop half the size of an egg, 
and a little more than an inch apart, on well-buttered letter-paper ; 
lay the paper on a half-inch board and place in a moderate oven ; 
watch, and as soon as they begin to look yellowish take them out ; 



CONFECTIONERY. 115 

or, beat to a stiff froth the whites of two eggs, stirring into them 
very gradually two tea-cups powdered sugar and two table-spoons 
corn starch; bake on buttered tins fifteen minutes in a warm oven, 
or until slightly brown. Chocolate puff's are made by adding two 
ounces grated chocolate mixed with the corn starch. Mrs. W. W. W. 

CANDY OF ANY FLAVOR. 

Three and a half pounds refined sugar, one and a half pints 
w r ater, one tea-spoon cream tartar ; mix in a vessel large enough to 
hold the candy when expanded by the heat ; boil over a brisk fire, 
taking care that it does not burn. The heat should be applied at 
bottom and not at the sides. After boiling fifteen minutes, remove 
a small portion of the melted sugar with a spoon, and cool by 
placing in a saucer set in cold water. When cool enough, take a 
portion between thumb and finger, and if it forms a "string" or 
"thread" as they are separated, the process is nearly done, and 
great care must be used to control the heat so that the boiling may 
be kept up without burning. Test frequently by dropping*, bit into 
cold water placed near; if it becomes hard and brittle, snapping 
apart when bent, it is done and must be removed at once, and the 
flavoring stirred in. Then pour into shallow earthen dishes, thor- 
oughly but lightly greased, and cooled until it can be handled ; 
pull, roll into sticks or make into any desired shape. 

CENTENNIAL DROPS. 

White of one egg beaten to a stiff froth, quarter pound pulver- 
ized sugar, half tea-spoon baking-powder ; flavor with lemon ; butter 
tins and drop with tea-spoon about three inches apart ; bake in a 
slow oven and serve with ice-cream. This is also a very nice recipe 
for icing. Miss Alice Trimble, Mt. G-ilead. 

CHOCOLATE CARAMELS. 

One cup of chocolate shaved fine, one cup molasses, half cup 
milk, one cup sugar; when nearly done add a piece of butter size 
of a walnut. Stir until perfectly dissolved, but not after it begins 
to boil, as that will make it grain. It is done when it hardens and 
becomes brittle when dropped in cold water, but do not make too 
hard. Grease plates with butter, pour it on about half an inch 
thick, when nearly cool cut with a greased knife into small squares. 



116 CONFECTIONER Y. 

CHOCOL AT E C A RAM ELS. 

One and a half cups grated chocolate, four of brown sugar, one 
and a half of cold water, piece of butter size of an egg, table-spoon 
of very sharp vinegar ; flavor with two table-spoons vanilla just 
before removing from fire. Do not stir, but shake the vessel gently 
while cooking. Boil on the top of stove over a brisk fire until it 
becomes brittle when tried in water ; pour into a well buttered and. 
floured dripping-pan, and check off in squares while soft. Miss 
Emma Collins, 

CHOCOLATE DROPS. 

Two and a half cups pulverized or granulated sugar (or maple 
sugar may be used), one-half cup cold water; boil four minutes, 
place the sauce-pan in cold water, and beat till cold enough to make 
into little balls; take half a cake of Baker's chocolate, shave off 
fine and set it in a bowl set in top of boiling tea-kettle to melt, and 
when balls are cool enough, roll in the chocolate with a fork. This 
makes eighty. Or w r hile making into balls, mold an almond-meat 
into the center of each ball, roll in coarse sugar, and you have deli- 
cious "cream almonds." Or, mold the unbroken halves of walnut- 
meats into the soft sugar, and when cold, roll in the chocolate. 
When finished, take out and lay on battered paper until cold. 
Mrs. 0. M. Scott. 

COCOA-NUT CARAMELS. 

One pint milk, butter size of an egg, one cocoa-nut grated fine 
(or dessicated cocoa-nut may be used), three pounds white sugar, 
two tea-spoons lemon, boil slowly until stiff (some then beat to a 
cream), pour into shallow pans, and when partly cold cut in squares. 
Miss Nettie Breiuster, Madison. 

COCOA-NUT DROPS. 

One pound cocoa-nut, half pound powdered sugar, and the white 
of an egg ; work all together and roll into little balls in the hand ; 
bake on buttered tins. C. W. Cyphers, 

EVERTON ICE-CREAM CANDY. 

Squeeze the juice of one large lemon into a cup. Boil ore and 
one-half pounds moist white sugar, two ounces butter, one and a 
half tea-cups water, together with half the rind of the lemon, and 
when done (which may be known by its becoming quite crisp when 



CONFECTIONERY. Ill 

dropped into cold water) set aside till the boiling has ceased, and 
then stir in the juice of the lemon, butter a dish and pour in about 
an inch thick. When cool take out peel (which may be dried), 
pull until white, draw out into sticks and check about four inches 
long with a knife. If you have no lemons, take two table-spoons 
vinegar and two tea-spoons lemon extract. The fire must be quick 
and the candy stirred all the time. Mrs. J. 8. R. 

HICKORY-NUT MACAROONS. 

Take meats of hickory -nuts, pound fine and add mixed ground 
spice and nutmeg ; make frosting as for cakes, stir meats and spices 
in, putting in enough to make it convenient to handle ; Hour the 
hands and make the mixture into balls the size of nutmegs, lay them 
on buttered tins, giving room to spread, and bake in a quick oven. 
These are delicious. Mrs. Walter Mitchell, 

HICKORY-NUT CAKES. 

One egg, half cup flour, a cup sugar, a cup nuts sliced fine ; drop 
on buttered tins one tea-spoonful in a place, two inches apart. Or, 
roll and bake like sand tarts. Mrs. Lamb, Belief ontaine, 

HOREHOUND CANDY. 

Boil two ounces of dried horehound in a pint and a half water for 
about half an hour ; strain and add three and a half pounds brown 
sugar. Boil over a hot fire until it is sufficiently hard, pour out in 
flat, well-greased tin trays, and mark into sticks or small squares 
with a knife, as soon as it is cool enough to retain its shape. 

LEMON CANDY. 

Take a pound loaf-sugar and a large cup water, and after cooking 
over a slow fire half an hour, clear with 'a little hot vinegar, take 
off the scum as it rises, testing by raising with a spoon, and when 
the " threads" will snap like glass pour into a tin pan, and when 
nearly cold mark in narrow strips with a knife. Before pouring into 
the pans, chopped cocoa-nut, almonds, hickory-nuts, or Brazil-nuts 
cut in slices, may be stirred into it. Mrs. V. K. W. 

MERINGUES. 

One pound granulated sugar, whites of nine eggs. Whip eggs 
until dish can be inverted without their falling off 1 , and then simply 
add the sugar, incorporating it thoroughly, but stirring as little as 



118 CONFECTIONERY. 

possible. Prepare boards three-fourths of an inch thick, to fit oven, 
and cover them with strips of heavy brown paper about two and 
a half inches wide ; on these drop the mixture from the end of a 
dessert-spoon (or use the meringue-bag described in recipe for lady's 
fingers), giving the meringue the form of an egg, and dropping them 
about two inches apart on the paper, and bake till a light brown. 
Take up each strip of paper by the two ends, turn it gently on the 
table, and with a small spoon take out the soft part of each me- 
^ringue, strew over them some sifted sugar, and return to oven bot- 
tom side up to brown. These shells may be kept for weeks. When 
wanted for table, fill with whipped cream, place two of them together 
so as to inclose the cream, and serve. To vary their appearance, 
finely-chopped almonds or currants may be strewn over them before 
the sugar is sprinkled over, and they may be garnished with any 
bright-colored preserve. Great expedition is necessary in making 
them, as, if the meringues are not put into the oven as soon as the 
sugar and eggs are mixed, the former melts, and the mixture runs 
on the paper instead of keeping egg-shape. The sweeter the me- 
ringues are made the crisper will they be ; but if there is not suffi- 
cient sugar added they will be tough. Miss Sarah Gill, Columbus, 

MOLASSES CANDY. 

Take equal quantities brown sugar and Orleans molasses (or all 
molasses may be used), and one table-spoon sharp vinegar, and when 
it begins to boil skim well and strain, return to the kettle and con- 
tinue boiling until it becomes brittle if dipped in cold water, then 
pour on a greased platter. When cool enough, begin to throw up 
the edges and w r ork, by pulling until bright and glistening like 
gold ; flour the hands occasionally, draw into stick size, rolling to 
keep round, until pulled out and cold. With a greased knife press 
nearly through them at proper lengths, and they will easily snap ; 
flavor just before pouring out to cool. Sterling Robinson. 

AUNT TOP'S NUT-TAFFY. 

Two pints maple sugar, half pint water, or just enough to dis- 
solve sugar; boil until it becomes brittle by dropping in cold water; 
just before pouring out add a tablespoon vinegar ; having prepared 
the hickory-nut meats, in halves, butter well the pans, line with the 
meats, and pour the taffy over them. Edelle and Hattie Hush. 



CANNING FRUITS. 



Cleanse the cans thoroughly and test to see if any leak or are 
cracked. If tin cans leak, send them to the tinner ; if discolored 
inside they may be lined with writing-paper just before using. In 
buying stoneware for canning purposes, be sure that it is well glazed, 
as fruits canned in jars or jugs imperfectly glazed sometimes become 
poisonous. Never use defective glass cans, but keep them for storing 
things in the pantry; and in buying them, take care that they are 
free from flaws and blisters, else the glass will crumble off in small 
particles when subjected to heat. Self-sealers are very convenient, 
but the heat hardens the rubber rings, which are difficult to re- 
place, so that in a year or two they are unfit for use. For this 
reason many prefer those with a groove around the top for sealing 
with wax or putty. The latter is very convenient, as jars sealed 
with it can be opened readily with a strong fork or knife, and are 
much more easily cleaned than when wax-sealed. Putty may be 
bought ready for use, and is soon made soft by molding in the 
hand. In using it should be worked out into a small roll, and 
pressed firmly into the groove with a knife, care being taken to 
keep it well pressed down as the can cools. In canning, provide 
a wide-mouthed funnel (made to set into the can), and pour the 
fruit into a funnel from a bright tin dipper (if old or rusty it will 
discolor the fruit) or a small pitcher, heated before putting in the 
hot fruit to prevent breaking. Pour fruit as quickly as possible, 
and screw down top immediately. 

Fruit should be selected carefully, and all that is imperfect re- 
jected. Large fruits, such as peaches, pears, etc., are in the best 

319) 



120 CANNING FRUITS. 

condition to can when not quite fully ripe, and should be put up 
as soon as possible after picking ; small fruits, such as berries, 
should never stand over night if it is possible to avoid it. The 
highest-flavored and longest-keeping fruits are best put up without 
paring, after having carefully removed the down with a fine but 
stiff brush. Use only the best sugar in the proportion of half a 
pound of sugar to a pound of good fruit, varying the rule, of course, 
with the sweetness of the fruit. Or, in canning for pies omit sugar, 
as the natural flavor is better preserved without it, and some prefer- 
this method for all purposes. It is economical, and well worthy of 
experiment. Cans put up in this way should have a special mark so 
as to distinguish them from the rest. When ready to can, first place 
the jars (glass) in a large pan of warm water on the back of the stove, 
make ready the syrup in a nice clean porcelain kettle, add the fruit 
it is better to prepare only enough fruit or syrup for two or three 
cans at a time and by the time it is done, the water in the pan 
will be hot and the cans ready for use. Take them out of the 
water and set them on a hot platter, which answers the double pur- 
pose of preventing their contact with any cold surface like the table, 
and saving any fruit that may be spoiled. Fill as full as possible, 
and set aside where no current of air will strike them ; or, better, 
wring out a towel wet in hot water and set them on it ; let stand a 
moment or two or until wiped off, when the fruit will have shrunk 
away a little; fill up again with hot syrup, or if you have none, 
boiling water from the tea-kettle will do, and then seal. In can- 
ning peaches, the flavor is improved by adding tw r o or three whole 
peaches, or dropping in the center of the can a few of the stones. 
For peaches, pears and berries, some sweeten as for eating, let 
stand until sugar is dissolved (using no water), place on stove in 
porcelain kettle and keep at boiling point long enough to heat the 
fruit, and then can in glass jars as directed. 

There are several other ways of preparing glass cans for fruit, 
among them the following : Wring a towel from cold water, double 
and wrap closely about and under the can so as to exclude the air, 
and put a cold silver spoon inside and fill; or, put a tow r el in a 
steamer, set in the cans, and place over a kettle of cold w r ater, boil 
the water, and when ready to fill, remove the cans and wrap in a 



CANNING FRUITS. 121 

towel wrung from warm water, put a table-spoon rinsed in hot 
water inside, and fill ; or, wash the cans in tepid water, place an 
iron rod inside, and at once pour in the boiling fruit, but not too 
fast. In using glass cans with tops which screw on, be sure that 
the rubbers are firm and close-fitting, and throw away all that are 
imperfect. When the can is filled to overflowing, put on the top 
.at once and screw down tightly, and as the fruit and cans cool, 

o / ' 

causing contraction of the glass, turn down again and again until 
perfectly air-tight. Wrap as soon as cold with brown wrapping- 
paper, unless the fruit-closet is very dark. Light injures all 
fruit, but especially tomatoes, in which it causes the formation of 
-citric acid, which no amount of sugar will sweeten. The place 
where canned fruits are kept should also be dry and cool, for if 
too warm the fruit will spoil. In canning, use a porcelain-lined 
kettle, silver fork or broom splint and wire spoon or dipper; 
& steel fork discolors the fruit. 

Cans should be examined two or three days after filling, and if 

V ^J 

.syrup leaks out from the rim, they should be unsealed, the fruit 
thoroughly cooked and kept for jam or jelly, as it will have lost 
the delicacy of color and flavor so desirable in canned fruits. Pint 
cans are better for berries than quart. Strawberries keep their 
color best in stone jars; if glass cans are used for them, they should 
be buried in sand. If syrup is left after canning berries, it may, 
while thin, be flavored with vinegar, boiled a moment, and then 
bottled and corked for a drink mixed with ice-water. 

In using self-sealing cans the rubber ring must show an even 
edge all round, for if it slips back out of sight at any point, air 
will be admitted. On opening tin cans, remember to pour all the 
fruit out into an earthen or glass dish. If any part is not used at 
the time, re-cook, and return to dish, and it will keep for a day or 
two, many of the less perishable fruits longer. Wines, cider, shrubs, 
etc., must be bottled, well corked, sealed, and the bottles placed on 
their sides in a box of sand or sawdust. To can maple syrup, pour 
hot into cans or jugs, and seal well. 

The fine display of canned fruits at the Centennial Exhibition 
was prepared as follows: The fruits were selected with great care, 
of uniform size and shape, and all perfect. They were carefully 



122 



CANNING FRUITS. 



(I 



tl 



It 



Quant, 
sugar 
to qt. 

6oz. 
4 " 
6 " 
8 " 
10 " 
8 " 
8 " 
4 " 
6 " 
4 " 




Time for 
boiling 
fruit 

15 min. 
15 " 
25 " 
10 " 
6 " 
10 " 
20 " 
8 " 
15 " 


Quant, 
sugar 
to qt. 

4oz~ 
6 " 
8" 
5 " 
8 " 
8" 
none* 
8 " 
10" 


Pine apples sliced 


Siberian crab-apples.... 
Sour apples, quartered... 
Hi pe currants 


\Vild srrapes 











peeled with a thin, sharp, silver fruit-knife, which did not discolor 
them, and immediately plunged into cold water in an earthen or 
wooden vessel to prevent the air from darkening them. As SOOD 
as enough for one can was prepared, it was put up by laying the 
fruit piece by piece in the can, and pouring syrup, clear as crystal, 
over it, and then, after subjecting the whole to the usual heat, 
sealing up. 

The following table gives the time required for cooking and the 
quantity of sugar to the quart for the various kinds of fruit. 

Time for 
boiling 
fruit. 

Cherries 5 min. 

Raspberries 6 " 

Blackberries 6 " 

Strawberries 8 " 

Plums 10 

Whortleberries 5 

Pie-Plant, sliced 10 

Small sour pears, whole 30 
Bartlett pears, halved... 20 
Peaches 8 

CANNED BERRIES. 

Select those the skins of which have not been broken, or the 
juice will darken the syrup; fill cans compactly, set in a kettle of 
cold water, with a cloth beneath them, over an even heat; when 
sufficiently heated, pour over the berries a syrup of white sugar 
dissolved in boiling water (the richer the better for keeping, though 
not for preserving the flavor of the fruit), cover the cans closely to 
retain heat on the top berries. To insure full cans when cold, have 
extra berries heated in like manner to supply the shrinkage. If 
the fruit swims, pour off surplus syrup, fill with hot fruit, and 
fceal up as soon as the fruit at the top is thoroughly scalded. Mm 

L. Southwick. 

PLAIN CANNED BERRIES. 

Pick out stems or hulls if any if gathered carefully the berries 
will not need washing, put in porcelain kettle on the stove, adding- 
a small tea-cup water to prevent burning at first. When they 
come to a boil, skim well, add sugar to taste (for pies it may be 
omitted), let boil five minutes, fill in glass, stone, or tin cans, and 
seal with putty unless self-sealers are used. This rule applies to 



CANNING FRUITS. 123 

raspberrries, blackberries, currants, gooseberries, or any of the 

small berries. 

CANNED CURRANTS. 

Look them over carefully, stem and weigh them, allowing a 
pound of sugar to every one of fruit ; put them in a kettle, cover, 
and leave them to heat slowly and stew gently for twenty or thirty 
minutes; then add the sugar, and shake the kettle occasionally to 
make it mix with the fruit; do not allow it to boil, but keep as 
hot as possible until the sugar is dissolved, then pour it in cans and 
secure the covers at once. White currants are beautiful preserved 
in this way. Mrs. Win. Patrick, Midland, Mich. 

GREEN GOOSEBERRIES. 

Cook the berries in water until white, but not enough to break 
them ; put into cans with as little water as possible, fill up the can 
with boiling water and seal; when opened pour off water and cook 
like fresh berries. Mrs. 0. M. S. 

CANNED PEACHES. 

Pour boiling water over one peck of large clingstone peaches to 
remove the fuzz; make a syrup of three pounds sugar and one pint 
vinegar, using a little water if required to cover the peaches ; 
cook until pretty soft, and can as usual. Mrs. Frank Stahr, 

Lancaster, Pa. 

CANNED PEACHES. 

Have one porcelain kettle with boiling water and another with a 
-syrup made sweet enough with white sugar for the peaches ; pare, 
halve, and drop them into the boiling water, let them remain until 
& silver fork will pierce them, lift them out with a wire spoon, f.. 11 
can, pour in all the boiling syrup the can will hold, and seal imme- 
diately. Continue in this way, preparing and sealing only one can 
at a time, until done ; boil down the water in first kettle with the 
syrup, if any is left; if not, add more sugar, and quite a nice mar- 
malade will result. This manner of canning peaches has been 
thoroughly tested, and is pronounced by the experienced the best 
of all methods. Mrs. R. A. Sharp, Kingston. 

CANNED PEACHES STEAMED. 
To peel, place in a wire basket, to the handle of which a cord 

lias been tied, let down into boiling water for a moment, then into 



124 CANNING FRUITS. 

cold water, and strip off the skin (this saves both fruit and labor). 
The fruit must be at a certain stage to be prepared in this way, for 
if too green it will not peel, and if too ripe it will be too much 
softened by the hot water. After peeling, seed and place in a 
steamer over a kettle of boiling water, first laying a cloth in bottom 
of steamer ; fill about half full of fruit, cover tightly, make a syrup 
in a porcelain kettle for fruit alone, let the fruit steam until it can 
be easily pierced with a silver fork, drop gently for a moment into 
the hot syrup, place in the cans, fill, cover, and seal. The above 
recipe is for canning a few at a time. This recipe, with the excep- 
tion of mode of peeling, applies equally well to pears. 

CANNED PEACHES. 
Pare, halve and seed ; make a syrup of a pint granulated sugar 

to a quart water, place on stove in a porcelain kettle (enough for 
two quart cans). When syrup boils, drop in enough fruit for one 
can; watch closelv, testing with a silver fork, so that the moment 

*/ ' c-- 

they are done they may be removed. When the peaches are tender, 
lift very gently with a wire spoon, and place in the can previously 
heated, according to instructions for preparing glass cans. When 
full of peaches pour in the hot syrup, place the cover on and seal 
at once ; then add more peaches to the hot syrup for next can, and 
repeat the operation. If there are more peaches than will fill the- 
can, place them in another can and keep hot until more are ready, 
and so on until all are canned. Skim the syrup before adding- 
peaches, making only enough syrup at one time for two cans. - 

Mrs. W. W. W. 

CANNED PEARS. 

Prepare and can precisely like peaches in preceding recipe, except 
that they require longer cooking. When done they are easily pierced 
with a silver fork. 

CANNED PIE PLANT. 

Cut the pie plant in pieces, two inches long, put over a slow fire- 
with its weight in sugar ; when sugar is dissolved let it boil slowly 
until clear, but do not let it cook long enough to become dark col- 
ored. Put up in air-tight cans. 

CANNED PINE- APPLE. 

Peel and slice, make syrup in proportion of two and a half pounds 



CANNING FRUITS. 125 

best white granulated sugar to Dearly three pints of water; boil five 
minutes ; skim or strain ; add fruit and let it boil ; have cans hot ; 
fill and seal up as soon as possible. 

CANNED PLUMS. 

Wash and put whole into a syrup made in the proportion of a 
pint of water and a pound of sugar to every two pounds of fruit ; 
boil for eight minutes, can, and seal immediately. If pricked with- 
a fork before placing in syrup, they will be less liable to burst. 
Cherries are canned in the same way. 

KASPBERRIKS WITH CURRANT JUICE. 

Ten pounds of red or black raspberries, twelve pounds of granu- 
lated sugar, one quart currant juice. Make syrup of the sugar and 
juice ; when boiling add the fruit, and continue for ten minutes. 
Put in glass cans and fasten immediately. 

CANNED STRAWBERRIES. 

Fill glass jars with fresh whole strawberries, sprinkled with sugar 
in the proportion of half pound sugar to a pound of berries, lay 
covers on lightly, stand them in a wash boiler filled with water to- 
within an inch of tops of cans (the water must not be more than 
milk-warm when the cans are placed in it). When it has boiled 
for fifteen minutes, draw to back of stove, let steam pass off, roll 
the hand in a towel, lift out cans, and place on a table. If the 
berries are well covered with their own juice, take a table-spoon and 
fill up the first can to the very top of the rim from the second, wipe 
the neck, rub dry, and screw the top down firmly, observing care- 
fully the general directions for canning berries. Fill another from 
the second can, and so on until all are finished. Great care must be 
taken to keep the berries whole and round ; as the cans cool invert 
them occasionally, to prevent the fruit from forming in a mass at 

one end. 

CANNED STRAWBERRIES. 

For every quart of fresh strawberries, take one coffee-cup of white 
sugar; add a table-spoon or two of water to the fruit if there is no- 
juice in the bottom, to prevent burning before the heat brings out 
the juice. As soon as the fruit boils, add the sugar, and stir 
gently for a few minutes until it boils up again, and can immedi- 



126 CANNING FRUITS. 

\ 

ately. It is better not to cook any more fruit than can be put 
into one glass fruit-jar. Usually a few spoonfuls of the syrup will 
be left with which to begin the next can. Strawberries are consid- 
ered difficult to keep, but there need be no trouble if the fruit is 
fresh and the can is closed air-tight in glass, and kept as directed 
in general directions for canning fruits. Mrs. H. S. Huntington, 

Galesburg, III. 

CANNED CORN. 

Dissolve an ounce tartaric acid in half tea-cup water, and take 
one table-spoon to two quarts of sweet corn ; cook, and while boil- 
ing hot, fill the cans, which should be tin. When used turn into a 
colander, rinse with cold water, add a little soda and sugar while 
cooking, and season with butter, pepper and salt. Miss Lida Cart- 

mell. 

CANNED CORN AND TOMATOES. 

Scald, peel, and slice tomatoes (not too ripe) in the proportion 
of one-third corn to two-thirds tomatoes ; put on in a porcelain 
kettle, let boil fifteen minutes, and can immediately in tin or glass 
{if glass keep in the dark). Some take equal parts of corn and 
tomatoes, preparing them as above. Others, after cutting the corn 
from the cob, cook it twenty minutes, adding a little water and 
stirring often, then prepare the tomatoes as above, cooking in a 
separate kettle five minutes, and then adding them to the corn in ' 
the proportion of one-third corn to two-thirds tomatoes, mixing well 
until they boil up once, and then canning immediately. Mrs. D. 
Buxton. 

STRING-BEANS. 

String fresh string-beans, break in several pieces, cook in boiling 
water ten minutes, and can like tomatoes. Mrs. L. W. C., Cin- 
cinnati. 

CANNED TOMATOES. 

The tomatoes must be entirely fresh and not overripe ; pour over 
them boiling water, let stand a few minutes, drain off, remove the 
skins, and slice crosswise into a stone jar, cutting out all the hard 
or defective portions ; cook for a few minutes in their own juice, 
skimming off the scum which rises, and stirring with a wooden 
spoon or paddle ; have the cans on the hearth fillet with hot water; 



CANNING FRUITS. 127 

empty, and fill with hot tomatoes; wipe moisture from tops with 
soft cloth, put on and secure covers. If tin cans are used, press 
down covers, and pour hot sealing wax into grooves. If put up 
in glass, set away in a dark place. Either tin, glass or stone cans- 
may be used, and all may be sealed with putty instead of wax, it 
being more convenient. (See general instructions for canning fruit.) 

CANNED WATERMELON. 

Cut rind of ripe melons (first cutting off all green parts) into 
email pieces two or three inches long, and boil until tender enough 
to pierce with fork ; have a syrup made of white sugar, allowing 
half pound sugar to a pound fruit ; skim out melon and place in 
*yrup together with a few pieces of race ginger, let cook a few 
minutes, put in cans and seal hot. 

WARRANTED CANNED STRAWBERRIES. 

Put four pounds white sugar in a kettle, add a teacup cold 
water, let boil till perfectly clear, then add four quarts nice ber- 
ries. Boil ten minutes, keeping them covered with syrup, but 
avoid stirring in order to preserve their good appearance. Take 
out berries with a small strainer or skimmer, place in a crock and 
let the syrup boil ten minutes longer, then pour it over berries, 
and, when cool, fill the cans, putting a tablespoon of good brandy 
on top of each can, screw on lid tightly, and put in a dry dark 
place. This method is the only means of preserving the peculiar 
flavor of the strawberries. To prevent the second handling, put 
the hot berries in the cans (instead of the crock) till about three 
quarters full. When syrup has boiled , fill each can with it, let stand 
till cool, then cover with the tablespoon of brandy (take out a little 
juice if necessary) and screw on the lid. 

If after two or three weeks the least fermentation appears, put 
the cans in a boiler (on a small board to prevent contact with 
bottom), fill with cold water nearly to top of cans, loosen the lids, 
but do not take them off, let water boil for a little while, then take 
out cans, tighten the covers and the berries will keep over a year. 
Fully ripe currants and acid cherries canned in same manner, one 
pound of sugar to one of dressed fruit, are delicious. They never 
need a second boiling if carefully prepared. 



CATSUPS AND SAUCES. 



Always select perfect fruit; cook in porcelain, never in metal, 
lu making catsup, instead of boiling, some sprinkle the tomatoes 
with salt and let them stand over night, then strain and add spices, 
tc., and a little sugar. Bottle in glass or stone, and never use tin 
cans ; keep in a cool, dry, dark place. If, on opening, there is a 
leathery mold on top, carefully remove every particle of it, and the 
catsup will not be injured. To prevent this molding, some do not 
fill the bottles quite to the top with catsup, but fill up with hot 
vinegar. If there are white specks of mold all through the catsup 
it is spoiled. If, on opening and using a part, there is danger that 
the rest may sour, scald, and, if too thick, add vinegar. Sauces 
should always be made with great care in a pan set in hot water, 
having the sauce pan dean if a delicate flavor is desired, especially 
if the sauce is drawn butter. Butter and those sauces containing 
eggs should never boil. Wooden spoons must be used for stirring. 
An excellent thickening for soups, sauces and gravies is prepared 
as follows: Bring butter just to the boiling point in a small stew- 
pan, dredge in flour, stirring together until well cooked. This, 
when not cooked brown, is "White Koux," and when browned, 
" Brown Roux." Thin this with a part of the soup, sauce or gravy, 
and add it to the whole, stirring thoroughly. The flour may be 
browned before using if intended for brown gravies or sauces. 
Melted butt.::' may be used in place of oil in all recipes where the 
latter is named. 

Mint, when used in recipes, usually means " spearmint" 01 
'* green mint," though pennyroyal and peppermint are of the same 

(128) 



CATSUPS AND SAUCES. 129 

family. The young leaves of from one to six inches in length are 
the parts used. It grows on any good garden soil, but comes for- 
ward earlier in a warm, sunny spot. It is propagated by cuttings 
or dividing the roots of old plants in the spring, is very prolific, 
and ought to find a place in every garden. Those who have con- 
servatories should keep a root in pots, to use with spring lamb be- 
fore the leaves would appear in the open air. Mint leaves for 
drying should be cut from the stalks just before the plant blossoms, 
and spread out thinly in some dry, shady place, where they can 
dry slowly. When dry, put up in paper bags and keep in a dry 
place until wanted. 

CUCUMBER QATSUP. 

Three dozen cucumbers and eighteen onions peeled and chopped 
very fine ; sprinkle over them three-fourths pint table-salt, put the 
whole in a sieve, and let drain well over night; add a tea-cup mus- 
tard seed, half tea-cup ground black pepper; mix well, and cover 
with good cider vinegar. Mrs. Hattie Clemmons, Asheville, N. C. 

CURRANT CATSUP. 

Four pounds nice fully-ripe currants, one and a half pounds 
sugar, table-spoon ground cinnamon, a tea-spoon each of salt, 
ground cloves and pepper, pint vinegar ; stew currants and sugar 
until quite thick, add other ingredients, and bottle for use. 



GOOSEBERRY CATSUP. 

Nine pounds gooseberries, five pounds sugar, one quart vinegar, 
three table-spoons cinnamon, one and a half each allspice and cloves. 
The gooseberries should be nearly or quite ripe. Take off blossoms, 
wash and put them into a porcelain kettle, mash thoroughly, scald 
and put through the colander, add sugar and spices, boil fifteen 
minutes, and add the vinegar cold ; bottle immediately before it 
cools. Ripe grapes prepared by same rule, make an excellent cat- 
sup. Mrs. Col. W. P. Reid, Delaware, Ohio. 

TOMATO CATSUP. 
Half bushel tomatoes, four ounces salt, three ounces ground black 

pepper, one ounce cinnamon, half ounce ground cloves, one drachm 
9 



130 CATSUPS AND SAUCES. 

cayenne pepper, one gallon vinegar ; slice the tomatoes and stew In 
their own liquor until soft, and rub through a sieve fine enough to 
retain the seeds; boil the pulp and juice down to the consistency 
of apple-butter (very thick), stirring steadily all the time to prevent 
burning; then add the vinegar with which a small tea-cup sugar and 
the spices have been mixed, boil up twice, remove from fire, let 
cool and bottle. Those who like the flavor of onions may add about 
half a dozen medium-sized ones, peeled and sliced, fifteen minutes 
before the vinegar and spices are put in. Mrs. M. M. Munsdl* 
Delaware, 

TOMATO CATSUP. 

Take one bushel of firm ripe tomatoes the Feejee Island, known 
by their pink or purple color, and the "Trophy," are the best and 
richest varieties for catsup and canning. Wipe them off nicely with 
a damp cloth, cut out the cores, and put them in a porcelain-lined 
iron kettle or a genuine bell-metal one. Place over the fire, and 
pour over them about three pints of water, throw in two large 
handfuls of peach leaves, with ten or twelve onions or shallots cut fine. 
Boil until the tomatoes are done, which will take about two hours* 
then strain through a coarse-mesh sieve, pour the liquid back again 
into the boiling kettle and add half a gallon of good strong cider 
vinegar; have ready two ounces ground spice, two ounces ground 
black pepper, two ounces mustard (either ground or in the seed, a& 
you prefer), one ounce ground cloves, two grated nutmegs, two 
pounds light brown sugar, and one pint of salt ; mix these ingre- 
dients well together before putting in the boiler; then boil two 
hours, stirring continually to prevent burning. If you like the 
catsup "hot." add cayenne peppe; to your taste. When cool, fill 
bottles (reeded bottles are the nicest, they can be procured at the 
house furnisher's, and a set will last some time ; they look better 
than ones of all sizes and styles). Cork and seal with bottle- wax 
BO as to exclude the air. Keep in a cool, dry place for future use. 
This recipe is preferred to all others it has been used for years. 
It keeps well, and has been pronounced by competent judges supe- 
rior to all others. G. D., Baltimore, Md. 



CATSUPS AND SAUCES. 131 

BREAD SAUCE. 

Place a sliced onion and six pepper-corns in half a pint of milk 
over boiling water, until onion is perfectly soft ; pour it on half a 
pint of bread crumbs without crust, and leave it covered for an 
hour; beat it smooth, add pinch of salt, and two table-spoons 
butter rubbed in a little flour; add enough sweet cream or milk 
to make it the proper consistency, and boil a few minutes. It 
must be thin enough to pour. Mrs. J. L. T., Denver, Col. 

BREAD SAUCE. 

Half pint grated bread crumbs, one pint sweet milk, and one 
onion; boil until the sauce is smooth, take out onion and stir in 
two spoons butter with salt and pepper; boil once and serve with 
roast duck or any kind of game. Mrs. H. C. E. 

CRANBERRY SAUCE. 

After removing all soft berries, wash thoroughly, place for about 
two minutes in scalding water, remove, and to every pound fruit 
add three-quarters of a pound granulated sugar and a half pint 
water; stew together over a moderate but steady iire. Be careful 
to cover and not to stir the fruit, but occasionally shake the vessel, or 
.apply a gentler heat if in danger of sticking or burning. If atten- 
tion to these particulars be given, the berries will retain their shape 
to a considerable extent, which adds greatly to their appearance on 
the table. Boil from five to seven minutes, remove from fire, turn 
into a deep dish, and set aside to cool. If to be kept, they can be put 
up at once in air-tight jars. Or, for strained sauce, one and a half 
pounds of fruit should be stewed in one pint of water for ten or 
twelve minutes, or until quite soft, then strained through a colander 
or fine wire sieve, and three-quarters of a pound of sugar thoroughly 
?tiired into the pulp thus obtained; after cooling it is ready for use. 
Serve with roast turkey or game. When to be kept for a long time 
without sealing, more sugar may be added, but its too free use 
impairs the peculiar cranberry flavor. For dinner-sauce half a 
pound is more economical, and really preferable to three-quarters, 
as given above. It is better, though not necessary, to use a por- 
celain kettle. Some prefer not to add the sugar till the fruit is 
almost done, thinking this plan makes it more tender, and preserves 
the color better. C. Q. & E. W. Crane, Caldwell, N. J. 



132 CATSUPS AND SA UCES. 

CELERY SAUCE. 

Scrape the outside stalks of celery and cut in pieces an inch long, 
let stand in cold water half hour, then put in boiling water enough 
to cover, and cook until tender ; drain off water and dress with 
butter, salt, and milk or cream, thickened with a little flour : Or, 
make a dressing by adding to half pint milk or cream, the well- 
beaten yolks of two eggs, a bit of butter, and a little salt and 
pepper or grated nutmeg; bring just to boiling point, pour over 
stewed celery, and serve with roast duck. Mrs. A. Wilson. 

CREAM SAUCE. 

Heat one table-spoon butter in a skillet, add a tea-spoon flour, 
and stir until perfectly smooth, then add gradually one cup of cold 
milk, let boil up once, season to taste with salt and pepper, and 
serve. This is very nice for vegetables, omelets, fish, or sweet 

breads. 

CURRY POWDER. 

An ounce of ginger, one of mustard, one of pepper, three of cori- 
ander seed, three of turmeric, one-half ounce cardamom, quarter ounce 
cayenne pepper, quarter ounce cumin seed ; pound all fine, sift and 
cork tight. One tea-spoon of powder is sufficient to season any thing. 
This is nice for boiled meats and stews. Mrs. C. Fulllngton. 

CHILI SAUCE. 

Twelve large ripe tomatoes, four ripe or three green peppers, two 
onions, two table-spoons salt, two of sugar, one of cinnamon, three 
cups vinegar ; peel tomatoes and onions, chop (separately) very fine, 
add the peppers (chopped) with the other ingredients, and boil one 
and a half hours. Bottle and it will keep a long time. Stone jugs 
are better than glass cans. One quart of canned tomatoes may be 
used instead of the ripe ones. This Chili sauce is excellent and 
much better and more healthful than catsups. Mrs. E. W. Her- 

rick, 

CAPER SAUCE. 

To a pint of drawn butter, add three table-spoons of capers. 
Serve with boiled or roast mutton. Another method is the follow- 
ing: Fifteen minutes before the mutton is done, melt two table- 
spoons butter in a sauce-pan, stir into it one table-spoon flour ; whet 
thoroughly mixed add half a pint of the liquor in which the mut 



CATSUPS AXD SA UCES. 133 

ton is boiling, and half a pint of milk, season with pepper and salt, 
cook a few minutes (to swell the grains of the flour), and just be- 
fore serving (in order that their color may not be lost by standing) 
add two heaped table-spoons capers. 

CAPER BUTTER. 

Chop one table-spoon of capers very fine, rub through a sieve 
with a wooden spoon, and mix them with a salt-spoon of salt, 
quarter of a salt-spoon of pepper, and one ounce of cold butter. 
Put a layer of this butter on a dish, and serve fish on it. 

DRAWN BUTTER. 

Rub a small cup of butter into half a table-spoon flour, beating it 
to a cream, adding, if needed, a little salt; pour on it half a pint 
boiling water, stirring it fast, and taking care not to let it quite boil, 
as boiling makes it oily and unfit for use. The boiling may be pre- 
vented by placing the sauce-pan containing it in a larger one of boil- 
ing water, covering and shaking frequently until it reaches the 
boiling point. A great variety of sauces which are excellent to eat 
with fish, poultry, or boiled meats, can be made by adding different 
herbs, such as parsley, mint, or sweet marjoram, to drawn butter. 
First throw them into boiling water, cut fine, and they are ready to 
be added, when serve immediately, with two hard-boiled eggs, 
chopped fine. This makes a nice sauce to serve with baked fish. 
The chopped inside of a lemon with the seeds out, to which the 
chicken liver has been added, makes a good sauce for boiled chicken. 
For anchovy sauce, add two tea-spoons of anchovy extract or paste 
(kept by all grocers) to a half pint of drawn butter sauce, and 
stir well. For lobster sauce, chop the meat of the tail and claws 
of a good-sized lobster into pieces (not too small). Half an hour 
before dinner, make half a pint of drawn-butter, add the chopped 
lobster, a pinch of coral, another of cayenne, and a little salt. 
When done it should not 'be a solid mass, but the pieces of lobster 
should appear distinctly in the thin cream. 

GREEN TOMATO SAUCE. 

Cut up two gallons of green tomatoes; take three gills black 
mustard seed, three table-spoons dry mustard, two and a half of 
black pepper, one and a half allspice, four of salt, two of celery 



134 CATSUPS AND SAUCES. 

seed, one quart each of chopped onions and sugar, and two and 
a half quarts good vinegar, a little red pepper to taste. Beat the 
spices and boil all together until well done. 

HOLLANDAISE SAUCE. 

Beat half a tea-cup butter in a bowl to a cream, add yolks of two 
eggs, one by one, then juice of half a lemon, a pinch of cayenne 
pepper, half a tea-spoon salt; place this in a sauce-pan of boiling 
water, beat with an egg beater, for a minute or two, until it begins 
to thicken, then add one-half cup of boiling water, beating all the 
time. When like soft custard it is done. It will take five minutes 
to cook if the bowl is thin and the water boils all the time. 

LEMON SAUCE. 

Cut three slices of lemon into very small dice, and put them into 
drawn butter, let it come just to boiling point, and pour over boiled 

fowls. 

MAYONNAISE SAUCE. 

Mix in a two-quart bowl one even tea-spoon ground mustard, one 
of salt, and one and a half of vinegar ; beat in the yolk of a raw 
egg, then add very gradually half a pint pure olive-oil (or melted 
butter), beating briskly all the time. The mixture will become a 
very thick batter. Flavor with vinegar or fresh lemon-juice. 
Closely covered it will keep for weeks in a cold place, and is 
delicious. 

MINT SAUCE. 

Take fresh, young mint, strip leaves from stems, wash, drain on 
a sieve, or dry them on a cloth ; chop very fine, put in a sauce- 
tureen, and to three heaped table-spoons mint add two of pounded 
sugar ; let remain a few minutes well mixed together, and pour over 
it gradually six table-spoons of good vinegar. If members of the 
family like the flavor, but not the substance of the mint, the sauce 
may be strained after it has stood for two or three hours, pressing 
it well to extract all the flavor. It is better to make the sauce an 
hour or two before dinner, so that the vinegar may be impregnated 
with the mint. The addition of three or four table-spoons of the> 
liquor from the boiling lamb is an improvement. 



CATSUPS AND SA UCES. 135 

OYSTER SAUCE. 

Set a basin on the fire with half pint oysters, from which all bits 
of shell have been picked, and one pint boiling water; let boil three 
minutes, skim well, and then stir in half a cup butter beaten to a 
cream, with two table-spoons flour ; let this come to a boil, and serve 
with boiled turkey. Or, make drawn butter, add a few drops lemon- 
juice, a tablespoon of capers, or a few drops vinegar, add oysters 
drained of the liquor, and let come to boiling point. The sauce 
is richer if cream instead of water is used in making the drawn 
butter, but in this case do not add the lemon-juice or vinegar. 
Mrs. H. C. M. 

ONION SAUCE. 

Boil three or four white onions till tender, mince fine ; boil half 
pint milk, add butter half size of an egg, salt and pepper to taste, 
and stir in minced onion and a table-spoon of flour which has been 
moistened with milk. E. H. W. 

EOMAN SAUCE. 

Put one tea-cup water and one tea-cup milk on fire to scald, and 
when hot stir in a table-spoon flour, previously mixed smooth with a 
very little cold water, add three eggs well beaten and strained, 
season with salt and pepper, two table-spoons butter and a little 
vinegar ; boil four eggs hard, slice and lay over the dish ; pour over 
sauce, and serve with boiled fish. 3Irs. E. T. E. 

TARTARS SAUCE. 

Yolks of two eggs, gill of salad-oil (or melted butter), salt-spoon 
salt, half a salt-spoon pepper, a table-spoon good cider vinegar, half 
tea-spoon mustard, a table-spoon of gherkins. Beat together in a 
small bowl lightly the vinegar and yolks, add to these, drop by drop, 
the salad-oil or melted butter, taking care to stir the same way all 
the time; when this is done, season the mixture with pepper, salt 
and mustard ; add also the gherkins finely chopped (or capers may 
be substituted), and serve in a gravy boat with boiled salmon or 

cold meats. 

TOMATO SAUCE. 

Stew ten tomatoes with three cloves, and pepper and salt, for fif- 
teen minutes (some add a sliced onion and sprig of parsley), strain 
through a sieve, put on the stove in a saucepan in which a lump of 



136 CATSUPS AND SAUCES. 

butter the size of an egg and level table-spoon flour have been well 
mixed and cooked ; stir all until smooth and serve. Canned toma- 
toes may be used as a substitute. 

PREPARED MUSTARD. 

Take three tea-spoons ground mustard, one of flour (two if the 
mustard seems very strong) , half tea-spoon of sugar ; pour boiling 
water on these and mix into a smooth, thick paste ; when cold add 
vinegar enough to make ready for use, and serve with salt This 
resembles the French mustard. Mrs. Mary Herbert Huntington. 

To PREPARE HORSE-RADISH FOR WINTER. 

In the fall, mix the quantity wanted in the following proportions: 
A coffee-cup of grated horse-radish, two table-spoons white sugar, 
half tea-spoon salt, and a pint and a half cold vinegar ; bottle and 
seal. To make horse-radish sauce, take two table-spoons of the 
above, add one dessert-spoon olive oil (or melted butter or cream), 
and one of prepared mustard. From a Southern housekeeper. 

SHRIMP SAUCE. 

i 

Skin a tumbler of shrimps, boil skins in a tumbler of water ; 
strain this water in two-thirds tumbler butter previously rubbed 
into a heaped table-spoon flour, simmer a few minutes, add 
shrimps finely chopped, let stew until done. Little cooking is need- 
ed ; salt, pepper and catsup to taste. A good fish sauce. 

WALNUT CATSUP. 

Take forty black walnuts that you can stick a pin through, mash 
and put them in a gallon of vinegar, boil it down to three quarts 
and strain ; add a few cloves of garlic or onions, with any spice 
liked, and salt. When cool, bottle. Have good corks. Mrs. A. C. 

PEPPER VINEGAR. 

Fill a quart bottle with small peppers, green or ripe, put in two 
table-spoons of sugar, and fill with good cider vinegar. Good to 
eat with fish or meat, and invaluable in seasoning sauces. -Mrs. S. T. 



DRINKS. 



To avoid adulteration, buy coffee in the grain, either raw or in 
small quantities freshly roasted. The best kinds are the Mocha and 
Java, and some prefer to mix the two, having roasted them sepa- 
rately in the proportion of one- third of the former to two-thirds of 
the latter. West India coffee, though of a different flavor, is often 
very good. 

Roast coffee with the greatest care for here lies the secret of 
success in coffee-making and in small quantities, for there is a 
peculiar freshness of flavor when newly roasted. Pick over care- 
fully, wash and dry in a moderate oven, increase the heat and roast 
quickly, either in the oven 5 or on top of the stove or range; in the 
latter case, stir co nstantly, and in the oven stir of ten t with a wooden 
Bpoon or ladle kept for that purpose. The coffee must be thoroughly 
and evenly roasted to a dark rich brown (not black) throughout, and 
must be free from any burnt grains, a few of which will rum the 
flavor of a large quantity. It must be tender and brittle, to test 
which take a grain, place it on the table, press with the thumb, and 
if it can be crushed, it is done. Stir in a lump of butter while the 
coffee is hot, or wait until about half cold and then stir in a well- 
beaten egg. The latter plan is very economical, as coffee so pre- 
pared needs no further clarifying. Keep in a closely-covered tin or 
earthen vessel. Never attempt other work while roasting coffee, 
but give it the entire attention. Do not grind too fine, and only in 
quantities as needed, for the flavor is dissipated if it is long unused 
after grinding, even when under cover. If properly roasted, coffee 
will grind into distinct, hard, and gritty particles, and not into a 
powder. 

037) 



138 DRINKS. 

Physicians say that coffee without cream is more wholesome, par- 
ticularly for persons of weak digestion. There seems to be some 
element in the coffee which, combining with the milk, forms a 
leathery coating on the stomach, and impairs digestion. 

If soft water is used for making tea, tea should be added as soon 
as it boils, as boiling expels all the gases from the water, but if soft 
water can not be had, and hard water is used, boil it from twenty to 
thirty minutes before using. The boiling drives off the gases in 
this case, but it also causes the lime and mineral matters, which 
render the water hard, to settle, thus softening it. 



MAKING COFFEE. 

"One for the pot" and a heaping table-spoon of ground coffee 
for each person, is the usual allowance. Mix well, either with a 
part or the whole of an egg (or codfish skin, washed, dried, and 
cut in inch pieces, may be used instead of egg), and enough cold 
water to thoroughly moisten it, place in a well-scalded coffee-boiler, 
pour in half the quantity of boiling water needed, allowing one 
pint less of water than there are table-spoons of coffee. Roll a cloth 
tightly and stop up the nose or spout, thus keeping in all the coffee 
flavor. Boil rather fast five minutes, stirring down from the top 
and sides as it boils up, and place on back part of stove or range 
where it w T ill only simmer for ten or fifteen minutes longer. When 
ready to serve add the remainder of the boiling water. Or, another 
method of making coffee without clearing, is to stir the coffee 
directly into the boiling water, boil and simmer as above, then 
pour out a large cupful, and, holding it high over the pot, pour it 
in again ; repeat this, and set it on stove where it will keep hot, 
without simmering. The coffee will be clear, if instructions are 
carefully followed. Coffee boiled a long time is strong, but not so 
well flavored or agreeable as when prepared as above. 

To keep the coffee-pot or tea-pot thoroughly pure, boil a little 
borax in them, in water enough to touch the whole inside surface, 
once or twice a week, for about fifteen minutes. No dish-w r ater 
should ever touch the inside of either. It is sufficient to rinse them 
in two or three waters; this should be done as soon after they are 
used as possible ; drain dry, and when ready to use scald out in 



DRINKS. 139 

two waters. These precautions will aid in preserving the flavor of 
the tea and coffee. In selecting coffee, choose that which is dry 
and light; if it feels dense and heavy it is green. 

FILTERED COFFEE. 

The French coffee biggin furnishes the easiest means for filtering 
coffee. It consists of two cylindrical tin vessels, one fitting into the 
other ; the bottom of the upper one is a fine strainer, another coarser 
strainer is placed on this with a rod running upwards from its 
center; the finely ground coffee is put in, and then another strainer 
is slipped on the rod, over the coffee, the boiling water is poured 
on the upper sieve and falls in a shower upon the coffee, filtering 
through it to the coarse strainer at the bottom, which prevents the 
coffee from filling up the holes of the finer strainer below it. The 
coffee thus made is clear and pure. 

The National Coffee-pot is so widely known as not to need des- 
cription here, but the "glide wife "can improvise one equally as 
desirable and much simpler. Make a sack of fine flannel, or 
canton flannel, as long as the coffee-pot is deep, and a little larger 
than the top ; stlch up the side seam to within an inch and a half 
of the top, bend a piece of small but rather stiff wire in a circle and 
slip it through a hem made around the top of the sack, bringing 
the ends together at the opening left at the top of the side seam. 
Having put the coffee in the sack, lower it into trie cottee-pot wim 
the ends of the wire next the handle, spread the ends of the wire 
apart slightly, and push it down over the top of the pot. The top 
of the sack will then be turned down a little over the outside of the 
pot, a part of it covering the " nose," and keeping in all the aroma, 
the elasticity of the wire causing it to close tight around the pot, 
holding the sack close to its sides. Instead of a wire (which must 
be removed to wash the sack after using), a tape may be used by 
tying the ends after turning the top of sack down. When the sack, 
with the coffee in it is in its place, pour the boiling water over the 
coffee, close the lid tightly, and let simmer (not boil) fifteen min- 
utes to half an hour. In pouring for the table raise the sack off 
the nose but not out of the pot. This makes good coffee without 
eggs or any thing else to settle it. 



140 DRINKS. 

MAKING TEA. 

"Polly, put the kettle on, and we'll all take Tea." 

Of all "cups that cheer," there is nothing like the smoking-hot 
cup of tea, made with boiling water, in a thoroughly scalded tea-pot. 
Put into the pot the required amount of tea, pour over it boiling 
water, cover the tea-pot so that no steam may escape, and allow the 
tea to stand and infuse for seven minutes, when it should be poured 
at once into the cups. If allowed to infuse longer than this time, 
which is sufficient to draw out the strength of the leaf, the tannin 
is developed, which gives an acrid, bitter taste, and being a power- 
ful astringent, is destructive to the coating of the stomach. To 
insure "keeping hot" while serving, in a different tea-pot from 
that in which the tea is made, the simple contrivance known as the 
"bonnet" is warranted a sure preventive against that most in- 
sipid of all drinks a warmish cup of tea. It is merely a sack, 
with a loose gathering-tape in the bottom, large enough to cover 
and encircle the tea-pot, with a small opening to fit the spout, and 
a slit through which the handle will be exposed. Make it with odd 
pieces of silk, satin or cashmere, lined, quilted or embroidered ; 
draw this over the tea-pot as soon as the tea is poured into it ; draw 
up the gathering-string tightly at the bottom, and the tea will 
remain piping hot for half an hour. One tea-spoon of tea and one 
tea-cup of hot water is the usual allowance for each person. Freshly 
boiled soft water is the best for either tea or coffee. Alwavs have 

/ 

a water-pot of hot water on the waiter with which to weaken each 
cup if desired. Tea should never boil. The most elegant mode of 
serving tea is from the tea-urn, various forms and designs of which 
are made in silver and plated ware. The best tea-pot is that which 
retains heat longest, and this is a bright metal one, as it radiates the 
least heat, but the metal must be kept bright and polished. Serve 
both tea and coffee with the best and richest cream, but in the 
absence of this luxury, a tolerable substitute is prepared as follows: 
Take fresh, new milk, set in a pan or pail in boiling water where it 
will slowly simmer, but not boil or reach the boiling point, stir fre- 
quently to keep the cream from separating and rising to the top, 
and allow to simmer until it is rich, thick and creamy. In absence 



DEINKS. 141 

of b'_-ti} cream and milk, the white of an egg beaten to a froth, with 
a small bit of butter well mixed with it, may be used. In pouring 
coffee, it must be turned on gradually so as not to curdle it. 



ARMY COFFEE. 

Coffee or tea may be made quickly by placing the required quan- 
tity of cold water in the pot, and adding the coffee, tied up in aj 
sack of fine gauze, or piece of muslin ; bring to boiling point, boil 
five minutes and serve. Make tea in the same way, except that 
the tea is put loose in the water, and simply allowed to boil up once. 

COFFEE WITH WHIPPED CREAM. 

For six cups of coffee of fair size, take one cup sweet cream 
whipped light with a little sugar ; put into each cup the desired 
amount of sugar and about a table-spoon boiling milk ; pour the 
coffee over these and lay upon the surface of the hot liquid a large 
spoonful of the frothed cream, giving a gentle stir to each cup be- 
fore serving. This is known to some as meringued coffee, and is an 
elegant French preparation of the popular drink. Chocolate served 
in this wav is delicious. Marion Borland. 

* 

COFFEE FOR ONE HUNDRED. 
Take five pounds roasted coffee, grind and mix with six eggs ; 

make small muslin sacks, and in each place a pint of coffee, leaving 
room for it to swell ; put five gallons boiling water in a large coffee 
urn or boiler having a faucet at the bottom ; put in part of the sacks 
and boil two hours ; five or ten minutes before serving raise the lid 
and add one or two more sacks, and if you continue serving several 
times add fresh sacks at regular intervals, taking out from time to 
time those first put in and filling up with boiling water as needed. 
In this way the full strength of the coffee is secured and the fresh 
supplies impart that delicious flavor consequent on a few moments 
boiling. 

To make coffee for twenty persons, use one and a half pints 
ground coffee and one gallon of water. Mrs. C. S. Ogden. 

STEAMED COFFEE. 

Put coffee into the pot, pour the boiling water on it ; place this 
pot (which is made to fit) into the top of the tea-kettle, and let 
cook from ten to twenty minutes, while water in kettle is kept 



142 DRINKS. 

boiling all the time. This makes a clear, delicious coffee. Some 
persons hold that by first wetting the coffee with cold water, bring- 
ing it to boiling point, and then pouring in water, more of the strength 
is extracted. 

VIENNA COFFEE. 

Filter instead of boiling the coffee, allowing one table-spoon ground 
coffee to each person and " one for the pot;" put a quart of cream 
into a custard-kettle or pail set in boiling water, and put it where it 
will keep boiling; beat the white of an egg to a froth, and mix 
wejl with three table-spoons cold milk. As soon as the cream is 
hot, remove from fire, add the mixed egg and milk, stir together 
briskly for a minute, and then serve. 

Another method is to pour boiling water over the coffee, cover 
closely, boil one minute, remove tc the side of the stove a few min- 
utes to settle, and serve. Allow two heaping table-spoons coffee to 
a pint of water. The less time the coffee is cooked the more coffee 
is required, but the finer the flavor. The late Professor Blot pro- 
tested against boiling the coffee at all, as in his opinion the aroma 
was evaporated, and only the bitter flavor left. 

CHOCOLATE. 

Take six table-spoons scraped chocolate, or three of chocolate and 
three of cocoa, dissolve in a quart of boiling water, boil hard fifteen 
minutes, add one quart of rich milk, let scald and serve hot; this 
is enough for six persons. Cocoa can also be made after this recipe. 
Some boil either cocoa or chocolate only one minute and then serve,, 
while others make it the day before using, boiling it for one hour, 
and w r hen cool skimming off the oil, and when wanted for use, heat 
it to the boiling point and add the milk. In this way it is equally 
good and much more wholesome. Cocoa is from the seed of the 
fruit of a small tropical tree. There are several forms in which it 
is sold, the most nutritious and convenient being chocolate, the- 
next cocoa, then cocoa nibs, and last cocoa shells. The ground 
bean is simply cocoa; ground fine and mixed with sugar it is choco- 
late ; the beans broken into bits are " nibs." The shells are the 
shells of the bean, usually removed before grinding. The beans 
are roasted like coffee, and ground between hot rollers. 



DRINKS. 143 

VIENNA CHOCOLATE. 

Put into a coffee-pot set in boiling water, one quart of new milk 
(or a pint each of cream and milk) , stir into it three heaping table- 
spoons grated chocolate mixed to a paste with cold milk, let it boil 
two or three minutes, and serve at once. To make good chocolate, 

good materials are required. 

CIDER. 

Cider should be made from ripe apples only, and for this reason, 
and to prevent fermentation, it is better to make it late in the 
season. Use only the best-flavored grafted fruit, rejecting all that 
are decayed or wormy. The best mills crush, not grind, the apples. 
The utmost neatness is necessary throughout the process. Press and 
strain juice as it comes from the press through a woollen cloth into 
a perfectly clean barrel ; let stand two or three days if cool, if 
warm not more than a day ; rack once a week for four weeks, put 
in bottles and cork tightly. This will make perfect unfermented 
-cider. Do not put any thing in it to preserve it, as all so-called 
preservatives are humbugs. Lay the bottles away on their sides in 
sawdust. C. T. Carson, Mt. Pleasant Farm. 

BOTTLED CIDER. 

Take good sweet cider (if a' tart flavor is wished, let it just be- 
gin to ferment), put on stove, skim thoroughly (as the great secret is 
to remove all pumice from the cider), heat to boiling point, but do 
not allow it to boil, and then pour in bottles or jugs and seal while 
hot. Some put two or three raisins in each bottle or jug. This 
keeps all winter. It certainly makes a richer drink than when 
fresh, and as cider is pronounced a great remedy for colds, all 
should know this simple way of keeping it. 

GRANDMOTHER'S HARVEST DRINK. 

One quart of water, table-spoon sifted ginger, three heaping 
table-spoons sugar, half pint vinegar. 

EGGNOG. 

Stir half a cup of sugar (white), yolks of six eggs well beaten, 
into one quart of rich cream; add half a pint of brandy, flavor with 
nutmeg, and lastly add whites of the eggs well whipped. M. H. 



114 DRINKS. 

RASPBERRY SHRUB. 

Place red raspberries in a stone jar, cover them with good cider 
vinegar, let stand over night; next morning strain, and to one pint 
of juice add one pint of sugar, boil ten minutes, and bottle while 

hot. Mrs. Judge West. 

SYLLABUB. 

Place half a pint of port and six heaping table-spoons of white 
sugar in a bowl ; in another vessel put one quart of sweet milk or 
cream, lukewarm ; when sugar dissolves, pour in milk, holding it 
high, grate nutmeg over it. Mrs. M. E. Porter, Prince George 
Court House, Va. 

SODA BEER. 
Two pounds white sugar, whites of two eggs, two ounces tartaric 

acid, two table-spoons flour, two quarts water and juice of one 
lemon ; boil two or three minutes, and flavor to taste. When 
wanted for use, take a half tea-spoon soda, dissolve in half a glass 
of water, pour into it about two table-spoons of the acid, and it will 
foam to the top of the glass. Mrs. Geo. W. Sampson. 

LEMON SYRUP. 
Take the juice of twelve lemons, grate the rind of six in it, let it 

stand over night, then take six pounds of white sugar, and make a 
thick syrup. When it is quite cool, strain the juice into it, and 
saueeze as much oil from the grated rind as will suit the taste. A. 
table-spoonful in a goblet of water will make a delicious drink on a 
hot day, far superior to that prepared from the stuff commonly 
sold as lemon syrup. Miss Abbie G. Backus. 

ICED TEA. 

Prepare tea in the morning, making it stronger and sweeter than 

usual; strain and pour into a clean stone jug or glass bottle, and 
set aside in the ice-chest until ready to use. Drink from goblets 
without cream. Serve ice broken in small pieces on a platter nicely 
garnished with well-washed grape-leaves. Iced tea may be pre- 
pared from either green or black alone, but it is considered an im- 
provement to mix the two. Tea made like that for iced tea (or that 
left in the tea-pot after a meal), with sugar to taste, a slice or two 
of lemon, a little of the juice, and some pieces of cracked ice, 
makes a delightful drink. Serve in glasses. 



E Gr Gr S . 



The fresher they are the better and more wholesome, though 
new-laid eggs require to be cooked longer than others. Eggs over 
a week old will do to fry, but not to boil. In boiling, they are less 
likely to crack if dropped in water not quite to the boiling point. 
Eggs will cook soft in three minutes, hard in five, very hard (to 
serve with salads, or to slice thin seasoned well with pepper and 
salt and put between thin slices of bread and butter) in ten to 
fifteen minutes. There is an objection to the ordinary way of boil- 
ing eggs not generally understood. The white, under three min- 
utes rapid cooking, is toughened and becomes indigestible, and yet 
the yolk is left uncooked. To be wholesome, eggs should be cooked 
evenly to the center, and this result is best reached by putting the 
eggs into a dish having a tight cover (a tin pail will do), and 
pouring boiling water over them in the proportion of two quarts to 
a dozen eggs ; cover, and set away from the stove ; after cooking 
about seven minutes remove cover, turn the eggs, replace cover, 
and in six or seven minutes they will be done if only two or three 
eggs ; if more, in about ten minutes. The heat of the water cooks 
the eggs slowly to a jelly-like consistency, and leaves the yolk harder 
than the white. The egg thus cooked is very nice and rich. To 
fry eggs, after frying ham, drop one by one in the hot fat and dip 
it over them, until the white is set; dust with pepper and salt, and 
serve hot ; cook from three to five minutes, according to taste. 

Put eggs in water in a vessel- with a smooth level bottom, to tell 
good from bad ; those which lie gu the side are good, but reject 

10 (145) 



146 EGGS. 

those which stand on end as bad ; or, look through each egg sepa- 
rately toward the sun, or toward a lamp in a darkened room ; if the 
white looks clear, and the yolk can be easily distinguished, the egg 
is good; if a dark spot appears in either white or yolk, it is stale; 
if they appear heavy and dark, or if they gurgle when shaken 
gently, they are " totally depraved." The best and safest plan is 
to break each egg in a saucer before using. For preserving eggs 
for winter use, always secure fresh ones; after packing, cover closely 
and keep in a cool place. 

TO MAKE OMELETS. 

To make an omelet, beat the yolks lightly (twelve beats is said 
to be the magic number), as too much beating makes them thin 
and destroys the appearance of the omelet, then add the milk, the 
salt, pepper, and flour if any is used, and lastly the whites beaten 
to a stiff froth. Have the skillet as hot as it can be without 
scorching the butter ; put in a table-spoon of butter and pour in 
the omelet, which should at once begin to bubble and rise in flakes. 
Slip under it a thin, broad-bladed knife, and every now and then 
raise it up to prevent burning. As soon as the under side is hard 
enough to hold together, and the eggs begin to "set," fold over, 
shake the skillet so as to entirely free the omelet, carefully slide it 
on a hot platter, and serve at once. It should be cooked in from 
three to five minutes. To bake an omelet, place in the frying-pan 
on top of stove until it begins to "set" in the middle, then place in 
a rather hot oven ; when slightly browned, fold if you like, or turn 
a hot dish on top of the pan, upset the latter with a quick motion, 
and so dish the omelet with the under side uppermost. It should 
be baked in from five to ten minutes. Where a large quantity of 
eggs are used, instead of making into one large omelet, divide and 
make several, sending each to the table as soon as done. Three 
eggs make a good-sized omelet. Ham, chicken, and all kinds of 
meat omelets, are made by chopping the meat fine and placing 
between the folds before dishing. In making vegetable (asparagus, 
tomatoes, cauliflower, etc.) omelets, cook the vegetables as if for the 
table; place them in the center of the omelet just before folding. 

For a plain, easily-made omelet, take three table-spoons milk and 



14T 

a pinch of salt for each egg ; beat the eggs lightly for three or four 
minutes, pour them into a hot pan in which a piece of butter the 
size of a walnut has just been melted, cook three or four minutes, 
fold over and serve at once. Some scald a little parsley, pour off 
the water, chop it, and mix with the omelet just before pouring 
into the pan. Old cheese, grated and added to a plain omelet, is a 
favorite dish. To make a bread omelet, remove all crust from a 
large slice of light, white bread, moisten with sweet milk, rub 
through a sieve, add to the yolks, beat very thoroughly, and season 
with salt and pepper to taste, adding beaten whites last. 



BOILED EGGS. 

Put them on in cold water, and when it has boiled, the eggs will 
be done, the whites being soft and digestible, as they are not when 

put on in boiling water. 

BAKED EGGS. 

Break eight eggs into a well-buttered dish, put in pepper and 
salt, bits of butter, and three table-spoons cream ; set in oven and 
bake about twenty minutes ; serve very hot. 

BIRDS' NEST. 

Boil eggs hard, remove shells, surround with force-meat ; fry or 
bake them till nicely browned, cut in halves, and place in the dish 
with gravy. 

CURRIED EGGS. 

Slice two onions and fry in butter, add a table-spoon curry-powder 
and one pint good broth or stock, stew till onions are quite tender, 
add a cup of cream thickened with arrowroot or rice flour, simmer 
a few moments, then add eight or ten hard-boiled eggs, cut in slices, 
and beat them w-ell, but do not boil. J/rs. E. L. Fay, Washington 
Heights. 

ESCALOPED EGGG. 

Moisten bread-crumbs with milk or meat broth; place a layer of 
this in a well-buttered dish ; slice some hard-boiled eggs, and dip 
each slice in a thick-drawn butter sauce to which a well-beaten egg 
has been added; put a layer of them upon the crumbs, then a 
slight layer of minced ham, veal or chicken, then bread, etc., fin- 



148 EGGS. 

Lshing with dry, sifted bread-crumbs; bake until well heated; or, 
mix equal parts minced ham and fine bread-crumbs, season with 
salt, pepper and melted butter, adding milk to moisten till quite 
soft ; half fill buttered geni-pans or small patty-pans with this mix- 
ture, and break an egg carefully upon the top of ouch, dust with 
salt and pepper, sprinkle finely powdered crackers over all, set in 
the oven and bake eight minutes; serve immediately. 

FRIZZLED HAM AND EGGS. 

Take bits of either boiled or fried ham, chop fine, and place in 
skillet prepared with butter or beef drippings; take four to six well- 
beaten eggs, pour over ham, and when heated through, season well 
with pepper and salt ; stir together, cook until done brown, and turn 

over without stirring. 

PUFF OMELET. 

Stir into the yolks of six eggs, and the whites of three beaten very 
light, one table-spoon of flour mixed into a tea-cup of cream or milk, 
with salt and pepper to taste ; melt a table-spoon butter in a pan, 
pour in the mixture and set the pan into a hot oven; when it 
thickens, pour over it the remaining whites of eggs well beaten, 
return it to the oven and let it bake a delicate brown. Slip off on 
large plate, and eat as soon as done. Mrs. W. D. Hall, Hawley, 
Minn. 

POACHED EGGS. 

Break and drop them one at a time in salted water, to which 
some add a small lump of butter; some say drop in when simmer- 
ing, others when boiling, not letting it boil again after putting in 
the eggs; others have water boiling, salt, then place it where it 
will stop boiling, drop in eggs, and let simmer gently till done. Al- 
,\vays take great care in keeping the yolk whole. To preserve the 
egg round, muffin rings may be placed in the water, or stir with a 
spoon and drop in the eddy thus made, stirring till egg is cooked. 
To serve them, toast squares of bread three-quarters of an inch 
thick, put a very little melted butter upon each slice, place on a 
heated platter, lay an egg on each square, and sprinkle with pepper 
and salt. Some put a bit of butter on each egg. Serve with Wor- 
cester sauce if desired. Some poach eggs in milk, serving them in 



EGGS. 149 

sauce dishes with some of the milk, and seasoning with pepper and 
salt. 

PICKLED EGGS. 

Pint strong vinegar, half pint cold water, tea-spoon each of cinna* 
mon, allspice, and mace ; boil the eggs till very hard and take off 
the shell ; put 011 the spices tied in a white muslin bag, in the cold 
water, boil, and if the water wastes away, add enough so as to lea\*3 
a half pint when done; add the vinegar, and pour over the egg?, 
put in as many eggs as the mixture will cover, and when they are 
used, the same will do for another lot. Or, after boiling (hard) and 
removing shell, place in jar of beet pickles, and the white will be- 
come red ; cut in two in serving. 

SCRAMBLED EGGS. 

In a deep earthen pie-plate, warm sweet milk, allowing two table- 
spoons to each egg (or less, with a large number of eggs), add a bit of 
butter size of a walnut, and a little salt and pepper. When nearly 
to boiling point drop in the eggs, broken one at a time in a saucer ; 
with a spoon or thin-bladed knife gently cut the eggs, and scrape 
the mixture up from the bottom of the plate as it cooks. If it begins 
to cook dry and fast at the bottom, move the dish back instantly, for 
success depends wholly on cooking gently and evenly, proportions 
being of secondary importance. Take from stove before it has quite 
all thickened, and continue turning it up from bottom of dish a 
moment longer. If served in another dish (it keeps warmer served in 
same) have it well heated. The mixture should be in large flakes 
of mingled white and yellow, and as delicate as baked custard. 
Some prefer them scrambled without the milk. Mrs. L. S. Willis 
ton, Jamestown, N. Y. 

STUFFED EGGS. 

Cut in two, hard-boiled eggs, remove yolks, chop, and mix with 
them chopped cold chicken, lamb, or veal (some add a little minced 
onion or parsley and a few soaked bread-crumbs), season, and add 
gravy or the uncooked yolk of an egg, form, fill in the cavities, 
level, put the two halves together, roll in beaten egg and bread- 
crumbs, put in wire egg-basket, and dip in boiling lard; when 
slightly brown, serve with celery or tomato sauce 



EGGS. 

To KEEP EGGS. 

Put a two inch layer of salt in bottom of stone jar, then a layer 
oi' fresh eggs, small end down; then salt, then eggs, and so on till 
jar is full, with a layer of salt at top; cover and put in a cool place, 
but not where they will freeze. This is a simple, easy, and inex- 
pensive way, and has been tested for years. Or, dip the eggs in- 
melted wax, or a weak solution of gum, or in flax-seed oil, or rub 
over simply with lard, each of which renders the shell impervious 
to air, and pack away in oats or bran. For one's own use the latter 
is a good method, keeping the eggs perfectly, but it discolors the 
shells, and renders them unfit for market. 

Tiiere has always existed a great difference of opinion as to which 
end down eggs should be placed in packing for winter use. W. H. 
Todd, the well known Ohio breeder of poultry, gives what seems 
to be a sound reason for packing them larger end down. He says: 
" The air-chamber is in the larger end, and if that is placed down 
the yolk will not break through and touch the shell, and thereby 
spoil. Another thing, if the air-chamber is down, the egg is not as 
liable to shrink away. These are two important reasons deducted 
from experiments, and they materially affect the keeping of eggs.* 

WASHINGTON OMELET. 

Let one tea-cup milk come to a boil, pour it over one tea-cup 
bread-crumbs and let stand a few minutes. Break six eggs into a 
bowl ; stir (not beat) till well mixed ; then add the milk and bread ; 
mix ; season with salt and pepper and pour into a hot skillet, in 
which a large tablespoon of butter had been melted; fry slowly r 
?ut in squares, turn, fry to a delicate brown, and serve at once. 
Mrs. D. Buxton. 

To PRESERVE EGGS. 

Make a solution of lime in rain-water, and allow the eggs to re- 
main in it for several days. The lime will form a coating over the 
shells and in the pores. Pack the eggs thus prepared in sawdust 
or chopped straw. 



FISH 



Fish is easier of digestion but less nutritious than meats, if sal 
mon is excepted, which is extremely hearty food, and should be 
eaten sparingly by children and those whose digestion is not strong. 
Fish must be fresh, the fresher the better those being most perfect 

t 

which go straight from their native element into the hands of the 
cook. The white kinds are least nutritious; and the oily, such as 
salmon, eels, herrings, etc., most difficult of digestion. When fish 
are in season, the muscles are firm and they boil white and curdy; 
when transparent and bluish, though sufficiently boiled, it is a 
sign that they are not in season or not fresh. 

As soon as possible after fish are caught, remove all scales (these 
may be loosened by pouring on hot water), and scrape out entrails 
and every particle of blood and the white skin that lies along the 
backbone, being careful not to crush the fish more than is abso- 
lutely necessary in cleaning. Rinse thoroughly in cold water, using 
only what is necessary for perfect cleanliness, drain, wipe dry, and 
place on ice until ready to cook. To remove the earthy taste from 
fresh-water fish, sprinkle with salt, and let stand over night, or at 
least a few hours, before cooking; rinse off, wipe dry, and to com- 
pletely absorb all the moisture, place in a folded napkin a short 
time. Fresh-water fish should never be soaked in water except 
when frozen, when they may be placed in ice-cold water to thaw, 
and then cooked immediately. Salt fish may be soaked over night 
in cold water, changing water once or twice if very salt. To 
freshen fish, always place it skin-side up, so that the salt may 
have free course to the bottom of pan, where it naturally settles. 



152 FISH. 

Fish should always be well cooked, being both unpalatable and 
unwholesome when underdone. For boiling, a fish-kettle is almost 
indispensable, a,s it is very difficult to remove a large fish without 
breaking from an ordinary kettle. The fish-kettle is an oblong 
boiler, in which is suspended a perforated tin plate, with a handle at 
each end, on which the fish rests while boiling, and with which it is 
lifted out when done. From this tin it is easily slipped off to the 
platter on which it goes to the table. When no fish-kettle is at 
hand, wrap in a cloth, lay in a circle on a plate, and set in the 
kettle. When done the fish may be lifted out gently by the clotb 
and thus removed to the platter. 

In frying by dipping into hot fat or drippings (or olive oil is still 
better), a wire basket in which the fish is placed and lowered into 
the fat, is a great convenience. 

One of the most essential things in serving fish, is to have every 
thing hot, and quickly dished, so that all may go to the table at 
once. Serve fresh fish with squash and green pease, salt fish with 
beets and carrots, salt pork and potatoes and parsnips with either. 

In the East there is a great variety of fish in winter. The 
blue fish is excellent boiled or baked with a stuffing of bread, 
outter and onions. Sea-bass are boiled with egg-sauce, and gar- 
nished with parsley. Salmon are baked or boiled, and smelts are 
cooked by dropping into boiling fat. The sheap's-head, which re- 
quires most cooking of all fish, is always stuffed and baked. 

Nearly all the larger fresh fish are boiled, the medium-sized are 
baked or 'broiled and the small are fried. The very large ones are 
cut up and sold in pieces of convenient size. The method of cook- 
ing which retains most nourishment is broiling, baking is next best, 
and boiling poorest of all. Steaming is better than boiling. In 
baking or boiling place a fish as nearly as possible in the same 
position it occupies in the water. To retain it there, shape like the 
letter "S," pass a long skew r er through th.e head, body, and tail, 
or tie a cord around tail, pass it through body, and tie around the 
head. 

In cooking fish, care must be taken not to use the same knives or 
spoons in the preparation of it and other food, or the latter will be 
tainted with the fishy flavor. 



FISH. 153 

In boiling fish, allow five to ten minutes to the pound, according 
to thickness, after putting into the boiling water. To test, pass a 
knife along a bone, and if done the fish will separate easily. Re- 
ciove the moment it is done, or it will become "woolly" and in- 
sipid. The addition of salt and vinegar to water in which fish is 
boiled, seasons the fish, and at the same time hardens the water, 
eo that it extracts less of the nutritious part of the fish. In boil- 
ing fish always plunge it into boiling water, and then set where it 
will simmer gently until done. In case of salmon, put into tepid 
water instead of hot, to preserve the rich color. Garnishes for fish 
are parsley, sliced beets, fried smelts (for turbot), lobster coral (for 
boiled fish). For hints on buying fish, see "Marketing." 

BAKED FISH. 

Clean, rinse, and wipe dry a white fish, or any fish weighing three 
or four pounds, rub the fish inside and out with salt and pepper, fill 
with a stuffing made like that for poultry, but drier ; sew it up 
and put in a hot pan, with some drippings and a lump of butter, 
dredge with flour, and lay over the fish a few thin slices of salt 
pork or bits of butter, and bake an hour and a half, basting occa- 
sionally. Mrs. A. Wilson, Rye, New York. 

BAKED SHAD. 

Open and clean the fish, cut off head (or not as preferred) cut 
out the backbone from the head to within two inches of the tail, 
and fill with the following mixture: Soak stale bread in water, 
squeeze dry ; cut a large onion in pieces, fry in butter, chop fine, 
^,dd the bread, two ounces of butter, salt, pepper, and a little pars- 
ley or sage ; heat thoroughly, and when taken from the fire, add two 
yolks of well-beaten eggs; stuff, and, when full, wind the fish sev- 
eral times with tape, place in baking-pan, baste slightly with butter, 
and cover the bottom of pan with water; serve with the following 
sauce: Reduce the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs to a smooth paste, 
add two table-spoons olive-oil, half tea-spoon mustard, and pepper 
.and vinegar to taste. Miss H. D. M. 

BAKED SALMON, TROUT OR PICKEREL. 

Clean thoroughly, wipe carefully, and lay in a dripping-pan with 
foot water enough to prevent scorching (a perforated tin sheet or 



154 FISH. 

rack fitting loosely in the pan, or several muffin-rings may "be B<-6 
to keep the fish from the bottom of the pan, and the fish may be 
made to form a circle by tying head and tail together); bake slowly, 
basting often with butter and water. When done have ready a cup 
of sweet cream into which a few spoons of hot water have been 
poured, stir in two table-spoons melted butter and a little chopped 
parsley, and heat in a vessel of boiling water ; add the gravy from 
the dish and boil up once. Place the fish in a hot dish, and pour 
over the sauce. Mrs. Tlieo. Brown, Cape Girardeau, Mo. 



CODFISH A LA MODE. 

Tea-cup codfish picked up fine, two cups mashed potatoes, one 
pint cream or milk, two eggs well beaten, half tea-cup butter, salt 
and pepper ; mix well, bake in baking-dish from twenty to twenty- 
five minutes. Mrs. E. L. Fay., New York City. 

BOILED FISH. 

To boil a fish, fill with a rich dressing of rolled crackers seasoned 
with butter, pepper, salt and sage, wrap it in a well-floured cloth, 
tie closely with twine or sew, and place in well-salted boiling water. 
Place where it will simmer from eight to ten minutes to the pound,, 
according to size and thickness of fish. Mrs. Henry C. Farrar, 
Cleveland, Tenn. 

BOILED CODFISH. 

Soak over night, put in p, pan of cold water, and simmer two or 
three hours. Serve with drawn butter, with hard-boiled eggs sliced 
on it. Codfish is also excellent broiled. After soaking sufficiently 
grease the bars of the gridiron, broil, and serve with bits of butter 
dropped over it. This is a nice relish for tea. Mrs. Lewis Brown. 

BOILED FRESH COD. 

Put the fish in fish-kettle (or tie up in cloth) in boiling water with 
some salt and scraped horse-radish, let simmer till done, place a 
folded napkin on a dish, turn fish upon it, and serve with drawn- 
butter, oyster or egg-sauce. When cold, chop fine, pour over it 
drawn butter or egg-sauce, and add pepper to taste, warm thor- 
oughly, stirring to prevent burning, make up in rolls or any other 
form, and brown before the fire. 



FISH. 155 

BOILED SALT MACKEREL. 

After freshening wrap in a cloth and simmer for fifteen minutes : 
it will be almost done as soon as the water reaches the boiling point ; 
remove, lay on it two hard-boiled eggs sliced, pour over it drawn 
butter, and trim with parsley leaves. Boiling salt-fish hardens it. 

LOILED WHITE FISH. 

Dress the fish nicely, and cover in fi.sh-kettle with boiling water 
seasoned well with salt ; remove the scum as it rises, and simmer, 
allowing from eight to ten minutes time to every pound; when about 
half done, add a little vinegar or lemon juice, take out, drain, and 
dish carefully, pouring over it drawn butter; or garnish with sprigs 
ef parsley, and serve with egg-sauce. Mrs. M. Smith, Pittsburgh. 

BROILED WHITE FISH. 

Clean, split down the back, and let stand in salted water for 
-several hours ; wipe dry, and place on a well-greased gridiron over 
hot coals, sprinkling with salt and pepper. Put flesh side down at 
first, and when nicely browned,, turn carefully on the other. Cook 
for twenty or thirty minutes, or until nicely browned on both sides. 
Mrs. H. Colwell, Chicago, 111. 

BROOK TROUT. 

Wash and drain in a colander a few minutes, split nearly to the 
tail, flour nicely, salt, and put in pan, which should be hot but not 
burning ; throw in a little salt to prevent sticking, and do not turn 
until brown enough for the table. Trout are nice fried with slices 

of salt pork. 

CODFISH BALLS. 

Soak codfish cut in pieces about an hour in lukewarm water, 
remove skin and bones, pick to small pieces, and return to stove in 
cold water. As soon as it begins to boil, change the water, and 

o o 

bring to a boil again. Have ready potatoes boiled tender, well 
mashed, and seasoned with butter. Mix thoroughly with the pota- 
toes half the quantity of codfish while both are still hot. form into 
flat, thick cakes or round balls, fry in hot lard or drippings, or dip 
in hot fat, like doughnuts. The addition of a beaten egg before 
making into balls renders them lighter. Cold potatoes may be used, 
by reheating, adding a little cream and butter, and mixing while 
hot. Mrs. J. H. Shearer. 



156 FISH. 

CANNED SALMON. 

The California canned salmon is nice served cold with any of the- 
fish-sauces. For a breakfast dish, it may be heated, seasoned with 
salt and pepper, and served on slices of toast, with milk thickened 
with flour and butter poured over it. 

FISH CHOWDER. 

The best fish for chowder are haddock and striped bass, although 
any kind of fresh fish may be used. Cut in pieces over an inch 
thick and two inches square ; place eight good-sized slices of salt pork 
in the bottom of an iron pot and fry till crisp ; remove the pork,, 
leaving the fat, chop fine, put in the pot a layer of fish, a layer of 
split crackers, and some of the chopped pork with black and. red 
pepper and chopped onions, then another layer of fish, another of 
crackers and seasoning, and so on. Cover with water, and stew 
slowly till the fish is perfectly done ; remove from the pot, put in 
dish in which you serve it and keep hot, thicken the gravy with 
rolled cracker or flour, boil it up once and pour over the chowder. 
Some add a little catsup, port wine and lemon juice to the gravy 
just before taking up, but I think it nicer without them. Mrs* 
Wood/worth, Springfield, 

FRIED FISH. 

Clean thoroughly, cut off the head, and, if large, cut out the 
backbone, and slice the body crosswise into five or six pieces ; dip 
in Indian meal or wheat flour, o,r in a beaten egg, and then in bread 
crumbs (trout and perch should never be dipped in meal), put into 
a thick-bottomed skillet, skin side uppermost, with hot lard or drip- 
pings (never in butter, as it takes out the sweetness and gives a bad 
color), fry slowly, and turn when a light brown. The roe and the 
backbone, if previously removed, may be cut up and fried with the 
other pieces. A better way is to dredge the pieces in the flour, 
brush with beaten egg, roll in bread-crumbs, and fry in hot lard 
or drippings enough to completely cover them. If the fat is very hot, 
the fish will not absorb it, and will be delicately cooked. When 
brown on one side, turn over in the fat and brown the other, and 
when done let them drain. Slices of large fish may be cooked >i> 
the same way. Serve with tomatoe sauce or slices of lemon. 



FISH. 157 

KATY'S CODFISH. 

Soak pieces of codfish several hours in cold water, or wash thor- 
oughly, heat in oven and pick fine, and place in skillet with cold 
water ; boil a few minutes, pour off water and add fresh, boil again 
(if not very salt the second boiling is not necessary), and drain off 
as before ; then add plenty of sweet milk, a good-sized piece of but- 
ter, and a thickening made of a little flour (or corn starch) mixed 
with cold milk until smooth like cream. Stir well, and just before 
taking from the fire drop in an egg, stir very briskly, and serve. 
Mrs. Helen M. Stevenson. 

BAKED HERRING. 

Soak salt herring over night, roll in flour and butter, and place 
in a dripping-pan with a very little water over them; season with 
pepper. Mrs. E. J. Starr. 

POTTED FRESH FISH. 

Let the fish lie in salt water for several hours ; then for five pounds- 
fish take three ounces salt, two of ground black pepper, two of cin- 
namon, one of allspice, and a half ounce cloves ; cut fish in slices,, 
and place in the jar in which it is to be cooked, first a layer offish,, 
then the spices, flour and bits of butter sprinkled on, repeating till 
done. Fill the jar with equal parts vinegar and water, cover closely 
with a cloth well floured on top so that no steam can escape, and 
bake six hours. Let it remain in jar until cold, cut in slices, and 
serve for tea. Mrs. L. Brown. 

PAN-FISH. 

Place in pan with heads together, and fill spaces with smaller fish ; 
when ready to turn, put a plate over, drain off fat, invert pan, and 
the fish will be left unbroken on the plate. Put the lard back in 
the pan, and when hot, slip back the fish, and when the other side is 
brown, drain, turn on plate as before, and slide them on the platter 
to go to the table. This improves the appearance, if not the flavor. 
The heads should be left on, and the shape preserved as fully as 

possible. 

STEAMED FISH. 

Place tail of fish in its mouth and secure it, lay on a plate, pour 
Over it a half pint of vinegar, seasoned with pepper and salt; let 



158 FISH. 

stand an hour in the refrigerator, pour off the vinegar, and put in 
a steamer over boiling water ; steam twenty minutes, or longer if 
the fish is very large (when done the meat easily parts from the 
bone) ; drain well, and serve on a napkin garnished with curled 
parsley. Serve drawn butter in a boat. Mrs. E. S. Miller- 

STEWED FISH. 

Cut a fish across in slices an inch and a half thick, and sprinkle 
with salt; boil two sliced onions until done, pour off water, season 
with pepper, add two tea-cups hot water and a little parsley, and in 
this simmer the fish until thoroughly done. Serve hot. Good 
method for any fresh-water fish. 

TURBOT. 

Take a white fish, steam till tender, take out bones, and sprinkle 
with pepper and salt. For dressing, heat a pint of milk, and thicken 
with a quarter pound of flour ; when cool, add two eggs and a quarter 
pound of butter, and season with onion and parsley (very little of 
ach); put in the baking-dish a layer of fish, then a layer of sauce, 
till full, cover the top with bread-crumbs, and bake half an hour. 
Mrs. Robert A. Liggett, Detroit, 

To FRY EELS. 

Skin them, wash well, season with pepper and salt, roll each 
piece in fine Indian meal, fry in boiling lard ; or egg them, and roll 
in cracker-crumbs and fry. For sauce, use melted butter sharpened 

with lemon-juice. 

To PICKLE ROCK. 

Cook a rock-fish (cut in pieces) in water enough to cover. Put 
in a handful of salt, a little white pepper, one table-spoon of all- 
spice, a few cloves and mace. When fish is near done, add a quart 
of vinegar. In putting away, cover with liquor. Mrs. J. S. W. 

PICKLED SALMON. 

Soak salmon twenty-four hours, changing water several times. 
Put it in boiling water with a little vinegar ; w 7 hen done and cold, 
boil your vinegar with spice and pour over fish.- -Mrs. A. P., Vir- 
ginia. 



FRUITS. 



The arrangement of fresh fruits for the table affords play for the 
most cultivated taste and not a little real inventive genius. Melons,, 
oranges, and indeed all kind of fruits, are appropriate breakfast 
dishes; and a raised center-piece of mixed fruits furnishes a delicious 
dessert, and is an indispensable ornament to an elegant dinner-table. 
Melons should be kept on ice, so as to be thoroughly chilled when, 
served. Clip the ends of water-melons, cut them across in halves, 
set up on the clipped ends on a platter, and serve the pulp only,, 
removing it with a spoon ; or, cut across in slices, and serve with 
rind. Nutmeg melons should be set on the blossom end, and cut in 
several equal pieces from the stem down ward, leaving each alternate 
piece still attached ; the others may then be loosened, and the seeds- 
removed, when the melon is ready to servA Fruit should be cgr*- 
fully selected. Havana and Florida oranges are the best, but do not 
keep well, and on the whole, the Messina are preferable. A rough 
yellow skin covers the sweetest oranges, the smooth being more juicy 
and acid ; a greenish tinge indicates that they were picked unripe. 
The Messina lemons, " November cut," are the best, and come into 
market in the spring. Freestone peaches with yellow meat are the 
handsomest, but not always the sweetest. California pears take the 
lead for flavor, the Bartlett being the best. The best winter pear 
is the "Winter Nellis." The "Pound" pear is the largest, but is 
good only for cooking. Fine-grained pears are best for eating. A 
pyramid of grapes made up of Malagas, Dela wares, and Concords, 
makes a showy center-piece and a delicious dessert. The Malaga 
leads all foreign grapes, and comes packed in cork-dust, which is a 
non-conductor of heat and absorbent of moisture, and so is always in 

(159) 



160 FRUITS. 

good condition. Of native grapes, the Delaware keeps longest. In 
pine-apples the "Strawberry' is best, while the "Sugar-Loaf" 
ranks next, but they are so perishable that to keep even for a few 
days they must be cooked. When served fresh they should be cut 
in small squares and sprinkled with sugar. Buy cocoa-nuts cautiously 
in summer, heat being likely to sour the milk. In almonds, the 
Princess is the best variety to buy in the shell ; of the shelled, the 
"Jordan" is the finest, though the "Sicily" is good. For cake or 
confectionery, the shelled are most economical. In raisins, the " Seed- 
less "rank first for puddings and fine cakes, but the "Valencia" 
are cheaper, and more commonly used; for table use, loose "Mus- 
catels" and layer raisins (of which the "London Layer" is the 
choicest brand) take the preference. In melons, every section has 
its favorite varieties, any of which make a wholesome and luscious 
dessert dish. Sliced fruits or berries are more attractive and pala- 
table sprinkled with sugar about an hour before serving, and then 
with pounded ice just before sending to the table. An apple-corer, 
a cheap tin tube, made by any tinner, is indispensable in preparing 
apples for cooking. They are made in two sizes, one for crab-apples 
and the other for larger varieties. 

If the market is depended upon select the freshest berries; and 
sometimes it will be found that the largest are not the sweetest. If 
clean, and not gritty, do not wash them, but pick over carefully, 
place first a layer of berries then sprinkle sugar, and so on; set 
away in a cool place, and just before serving sprinkle with pounded 
ice. If they must be washed, take a dish of cold, soft water, poui 
a few in, and with the hand press them down a few times, until 
they look clean, then hull them. Repeat the process till all are 
hulled, sugar and prepare as above. Never drain in a colander. The 
Fren:;a serve large fine strawberries without being hulled. Pulver- 
ized sugar is passed, the strawberry is taken by the hull with the 
thumb and finger, dipped into the sugar, and eaten. When berries 
are left, scald for a, few minutes ; too much cooking spoils the flavor. 
Borne think many of the sour berries are improved by slightly cook- 
ing them with a little sugar before serving. If a part of the berries 
are badly bruised, gritty, etc. (but not sour or bitter), scald, and 
drain them through a fine sieve without pressing them. Sweeten 



FRUITS. 161 

the juice and serve as a dressing for puddings, short-cakes, etc., or 
can for winter use. 



AMBROSIA, OR FRUIT SALAD. 

Six sweet oranges peeled and sliced (seeds and as much of the 
core as possible taken out), one pine-apple peeled and sliced (the 
canned is equally good), and one large cocoa-nut grated; alter- 
nate the layers of orange and pine-apple with grated cocoa-nut, and 
sprinkle pulverized sugar over each layer. Or, use six oranges, six 
lemons, and two cocoa-nuts, or only oranges and cocoa-nuts, pre- 
pared as above. Other fruit salads can be similarly made. 

APPLE COMPOTE. 

Pare the apples, cut the core out, leaving them whole. Make a 
syrup, allowing three-fourths pound of sugar to a pound of fruit; 
when it comes to a boil put in the fruit and let cook until clear but 
remains whole. Remove the fruit to a glass bowl, and dissolve one- 
third of a box of gelatine in a half tea-cup of hot water, and stir 
briskly into the syrup, first taking off the fire. Then strain it over 
the apples, and set in a cool place to cool. When cold heap whipped 
cream over it. Some add sliced lemons to the syrup, and serve 
with a slice of the lemon on each apple. Mrs. A. H. Rhea, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

APPLE SAUCE. 

Pare, core and cut in quarters apples that do not cut to pieces 
easily, and put on to stew in cold water with plenty of sugar. 
Cover close and stew an hour or more. The addition of the sugar 
at first preserves the pieces whole. If they are preferred finely 
mashed, add sugj?r after they are done. 

BAKED APPLES. 

Cut out the blossoms and stems of tart apples, in the stem end 
nut some sugar ; bake till soft ; serve either warm or cold. Sweet 
>ipples require a longer time for baking than sour, and are better 
for adding a little water in pan when placed to bake. They require 
several hours, and when done are of a rich, dark brown color. If 
taken out too soon they are insipid. For an extra nice dish, pare 

and core tart apples, place in pan, put butter and sugar in cavity, 
11 



162 FRUITS. 

and sprinkle cinnamon over them, and serve warm with cream or 
milk. Or, pare and quarter tart apples, put a layer in earthen bak- 
ing-dish, add lumps of butter, and sprinkle with cinnamon, then a 
layer of apples, etc. , till dish is full ; bake till soft. Or, quarter 
and core sour apples without paring, put in baking-dish, sprinkle 
with sugar and bits of butter, add a little water, and bake until 
tender. The proportion of sugar is a gill, and butter half-size of 
an egg, to three pints of apples, and a gill and a half of water. 

ICED APPLES. 

Pare and core one dozen large apples, fill with sugar and a little 
butter and nutmeg; bake until nearly done, let cool, and remove to 
Another plate, if it can be done without breaking them (if not, pour 
off the juice). Ice tops and sides with caking-ice, and brown lightly; 
serve with cream. Mrs. R. C. Carson, Harrisburg. 

FRIED APPLES. 

Quarter and core apples without paring; prepare frying-pan by 
heating it and putting in beef-drippings, lay the apples in the pan, 
skin side down, sprinkle with a little brown sugar, and when nearly 
done, turn and brown thoroughly. Or, cut in slices across the core, 
and fry like pancakes, turning when brown; serve with granulated 
sugar sprinkled over them. 

BLACK CAPS. 

Pare and core tart apples with apple-corer, fill the center with 
sugar, stick four cloves in the top of each, and bake in deep pie- 
plates, with a little water. 

FRIED BANANAS. 

Peel and slice lengthwise, fry in butter, sprinkle with sugar, and 
serve. Thus prepared they make a nice dessert. The bananas 
must be ripe. 

ICED CURRANTS. 

Wash and drain dry, large bunches of ripe currants, dip into 
beaten whites of eggs, put on sieve so they will not touch each 
other, sift powdered sugar thickly over them, and put in a warm 
place till dry. Cherries and grapes may be prepared in the same way. 

GOOSEBERRY FOOL. 

Stew gooseberries until soft, add sugar, and press through a co- 
lander (earthen is best), then make a boiled custard, or sweeten- 



FRUITS 163 

enough rich cream (about one gill to each quart), and stir carefully 
into the gooseberries just before sending to table. Mrs. L. S. W. 

ORANGES IN JELLY. 

Boil the smallest-sized oranges in water until a straw will easily 
penetrate them, clarify half a pound of sugar for each pound of 
fruit, cut in halves or quarters, and put them to the syrup, set over 
a slow fire until the fruit is clear; th^n stir into it an ounce or more 
of dissolved isinglass, and let it boil for a short time longer. Be- 
fore taking it up try the jelly, and if it is not thick enough add 
cnore isinglass, first taking out the oranges into a deep glass dish, 
and then straining the jelly over them. Lemons may be prepared 
in the same manner. 

ORANGE PYRAMID. 

Cut the peel in six or eight equal pieces, making the incisions 
from the stem downward ; peel each piece down about half way, 
and bend it sharply to the right, leaving the peeled orange appar- 
ently in a cup, from which it is removed without much difficulty. 
Pile the oranges so prepared in a pyramid on a high fruit-dish, and 
you have an elegant center-piece. 

BAKED PEARS. 

Bake washed, unpeeled pears in pan with only a tea-spoon or 
two of water; sprinkle with the sugar, and serve with their own 

syrup. 

BAKED PIE-PLANT. 

Cut in pieces about an inch long, put in baking-dish in layers 
with an equal weight of sugar, cover closely and bake. 

BAKED PEACHES. 

Wash peaches which are nearly or quite ripe, place in a deep 
dish, sprinkle with sugar, cover and bake until tender. 

STEWED PIE-PLANT. 

Make a rich syrup by adding sugar to water in which long strips 
of orange peel have been boiled until tender, lay into it a single 
layer of pieces of pie-plant three inches long, and stew gently until 
clear. When done remove and cook another layer. This makes a 
handsome dessert-dish, ornamented with puff-paste cut in fancifuJ 
chapes. Use one orange to two and a half pounds pie-plant 



164 FRUITS. 

PEACH PYRAMID. 

Cut a dozen .peaches in halves, peel and take out stones, crack 
half the seeds, and blanch the kernels ; make a clear boiling syrup 
of one pound of white sugar, and into it put the peaches and ker- 
nels ; boil very gently for ten minutes, take out half the peaches, 
boil the rest for ten minutes longer, and take out all the peaches 
and kernels; mix with the syrup left in the kettle the strained juice 
of three lemons, and an ounce of isinglass dissolved in a little water 
and strained ; boil up once, fill a mold half full of this syrup or 
jelly, let stand until "set," add part of the peaches and a little 
more jelly, and when this is " set," add the rest of the peaches, and 
fill up the mold with jelly. This makes an elegant ornament. 
Miss E. Orissa Dolhear, Cincinnati. 

FROZEN PEACHES. 

Pare and divide large, fresh, ripe and juicy peaches, sprinkle 
over them granulated sugar, freeze them like ice-cream for an hour ; 
remove them just before serving, and sprinkle with a little more 
sugar. Canned peaches and all kinds of berries may be prepared 
in the same way. Mrs. A. G. Wikox, 

To KEEP PINE-APPLES. 

Pare and cut out the eyes of a ripe pine-apple, strip all the pulp 
from the core with a silver fork ; to a pint of this add a pound of 
granulated sugar, stir occasionally until sugar is dissolved, put in 
glass fruit-cans, and turn down the covers as closely as possible. 
This will keep a long time. 

BAKED QUINCES. 

AVash and core ripe quinces, fill with sugar, and bake in baking- 
dish with a little water. 

COMPOTE OF PEARS. 

Pare and quarter eight nice pears, and put in a porcelain sauce- 
pan with water enough to cook; put on lid, and cook fruit until 
tender, then remove to a platter ; make a syrup of a pound of 
sugar and a pint of pear-water ; add juice of two lemons and the 
grated rind of one, and put in the pears ; cook them for o. few min- 
utes in this syrup, then remove to the dish in which thev are to be 



FRUITS. 165 

molded. Soak an ounce of gelatine for an hour or two in enough 
water to cover it, and stir it into the hot syrup; let boil up once 
and turn it over fruit through a strainer. The mold should be 
dipped in cold water before putting in fruit. When cold, turn 
jelly into a dish and serve with whipped cream around the base $ OF 
pour sweet cream over it in saucers. 

MOCK STRAWBERRIES. 

Cut ripe peaches and choice well-flavored apples, in proportion 
of three peaches to one apple, into quarters about the size of a 
strawberry, place in alternate layers, sprinkle the top thickly with 
sugar, and add pounded ice; let stand about two hours, mix 
peaches and apples thoroughly, let stand an hour longer, and serve. 
Miss G. ., Newburyport, Mass. 

ORANGED STRAWBERRIES. 

Place a layer of strawberries in a deep dish ; cover the same 
thickly with pulverized sugar ; then a layer of berries, and so on, 
until all are used. Pour over them orange juice, in the proportion 
of three oranges to a quart of berries. Let stand for an hour, and 
just before serving sprinkle with pounded ice. Some use claret, 
grape or currant wine '"istead of orange juice. 

STRAWBERRIES WITH WHIPPED CREAM. 

Prepare in layers as above, cover w T ith one pint of cream, whites 
of three eggs and a tea-cup of powdered sugar, whipped together 
and flavored with strawberry juice. 

SNOW FLAKES. 

Grate a large cocoa-nut into a glass dish, and serve with cream* 
preserves, jellies or jams. 

PEACH MERINGUE. 

Put on to boil a quart of milk, omitting half a cup with which 
to moisten two table-spoons of corn starch ; when the milk boils, 
add the moistened corn starch ; stir constantly till thick, then re- 
move from the fire ; add one table-spoon butter, and allow the mix- 
ture to cool; then beat in the yolks of three eggs till the mixture 
seems light and creamy ; add half a cup of powdered sugar. Cover 
the bottom of a well -buttered baking-dish with two or three layers 



166 FRUITS. 

of rich, juicy peaches, pared, halved and stoned ; sprinkle over 
three table-spoons powdered sugar; pour over them the custard 
carefully, and bake twenty minutes, then spread with the light- 
beaten whites, well sweetened, and return to the oven till a light 
brcwn. To be eaten warm with a rich sauce, or cold with sweet- 
ened cream. 

PEACH CUSTARD. 

Equal parts rich sliced peaches, green corn pulp and water. 
Sweeten to <he taste, and bake twenty minutes. 

RASPBERRY FLOAT. 

Crush a pint of very ripe red raspberries with a gill of sugar; 
beat the whites of four eggs to a stiff froth and add gradually a gill 
of powdered sugar ; press the raspberries through a fine strainer to 
avoid the seeds, and by degrees beat in the juice with the egg and 
sugar until so stiff that it stands in peaks. 

FLORIDA GRAPE FRUIT. 
The fruit stores display a new clear-skinned lemon-colored fruit, 

i. / 

about three times as large as an orange, and bearing a geaeral 
resemblance to that fruit. Its flavor is sub-acid, but its juicy pulp 
is inclosed in a tough white membrane of intensely bitter taste ; 
when this membrane is removed, the fruit is delicious. To prepare 
it fir the table, cut the skin in sections and peel it off; separate the 
sections as you would those of an orange, and holding each one by 
the ends, break it open from the center, disclosing the pulp; tear 
this out of the bitter white membrane w r hich covers the sections^ 
carefully removing every part of it; k^ep the pulp as unbroken as 
possible, and put it into a deep dish with a plentiful sprinkling 
of fine sugar. Let it stand three or four hours, or over night, and 
then use the fruit. It is refreshing and wholesome^ especially for 
a bilious temperament. 

FIG SAUCE. 

Figs are very fine for dessert, stewed slowly until soft. Season with 
two ounces loaf-sugar to a pound of fruit; cook two hours; add a 
glass port or other wine, also lemon-juice if liked. Can be seasoned 
with a few bitter almonds or orange-peel. A Georgia housekeeper. 



GAME. 



Of game birds the woodcock outranks all in delicate tenderness 
and sweet flavor. The thigh is especially deemed a choice tidbit. 
The leg is the finest part of the snipe, but generally the breast is 
the most juicy and nutritious part of birds. 

White-meated game should be cooked to well-done ; dark-meated 
game rare. The flesh of wild animals is harder and more solid, 
and has a less proportion of fat and juices to the lean, and is there- 
fore less easy of mastication when eaten within a day, and more 
nutritious, and the flavor more concentrated. Their decided flavor 
recommends them to invalids or others who are satiated with ordi- 
nary food. Keeping game renders it more tender, and brings out 
its flavor. When birds have become tainted, pick clean as soon as 
possible and immerse in new milk for twenty-four hours, when they 
will be quite sweet and fit for cooking. 

Birds should be carefully dry-picked (removing all feathers that 
come off easily), plunged in a pan of boiling water and skinned, 
drawn, wiped clean, and all shot removed. Game should not be 
washed, unless absolutely necessarv for cleanliness. With care in 

/ / 

dressing, wiping will render them perfectly clean. If necessary to 
wash, do it quickly and use as little water as possible. The more 
plainly all kinds of game are cooked, the better they retain their 
fine flavor. They require a brisker fire than poultry, but take less 
time to cook. Their color, when done, should be a fine yellowish 
brown. Serve on toast. 

Broiling is a favorite method of cooking game, and all birds are 
exceedingly nice roasted. To broil, split down the back, open and 

(167) 



168 GAME. 

flatten the breast by covering with a cloth and pounding, reason 
with pepper, and lay the inside first upon the gridiron ; turn as 
soon as browned, and when almost done take off', place on a plat- 
ter, sprinkle with salt, and return to the gridiron. When done, 
place in a hot dish, butter both sides well, and serve at once. The 
time required is usually about twenty minutes. 

To roast, season with salt and pepper, place a lump of butter 
inside; truss, skewer, and place in oven. The flavor is best pre- 
served without stuffing, but a plain bread-dressing, with a piece of 
salt pork or ham skewered on the breast, is very nice. A delicate 
way of dressing is to place an oyster dipped in the well-beaten yolk 
of an egg or in melted butter, and then rolled in bread crumbs, in- 
side each bird. Allow thirty minutes to roast or longer if stuffed. 
Wild ducks, pheasants and grouse are always best roasted. 

To lard game, cut fat salt pork into thin, narrow strips, thread a 
larding-needle with one of the strips, run the needle under the skin 
and a little of the flesh of the bird, and draw the pork half way 
through, so that the ends of the strips exposed will be of equal 
length. The strips should be about one inch apart. The larding 
interferes with the natural flavor of the bird, hut renders it more 
juicy. Many prefer tying a piece of bacon on the breast instead. 

Pigeons should be cooked a long time, as they are usually quite 
lean and tough, and they are better to lie in salt water half an hour, 
or to be parboiled in it for a few minutes. They are nice roasted 
or made into a pie. 

If the " wild flavor" of the larger birds, such as pheasants, prairie 
chickens, etc., is disliked, they may be soaked over night in salt 
water, or two or three hours in soda and water, or parboiled with 
an onion or two in the water, and then cooked as desired. The 
coarser kinds of game, such as geese, ducks, etc., may lie in salt 
water for several hours, or be parboiled in it with an onion inside 
each to absorb the rank flavor, and afterwards thoroughly rinsed 
in clear water, stuffed and roasted ; or pare a fresh lemon without 
breaking the thin, white, inside skin, put inside the game for a day 
or two, renewing the lemon every twelve hourr:.-. This will absorb 
unpleasant flavors from almost all meat and game. Some lay slices 
of onion over game while cooking, and remove before serving. ID 



GAME. 169 

preparing &u wild ducks for invalids, it is a good plan to remove 
the skin, and keep a day or two before cooking. Squirrels should 
be carefully skinned and laid in salt water a short time before cook- 
ing; if old, parboil. They are delicious broiled, and are excellent 
cooked in any way with thin slices of bacon. Venison, as in the 
days of good old Isaac, is still justly considered a " savoury dish." 
The haunch, neck, shoulder and saddle should be roasted ; roast or 
broil the breast, and fry or broil the steaks with slices of salt pork. 
Venison requires more time for cooking than beefsteak. The hams 
are excellent pickled, smoked and dried, but they will not keep so- 
long as other smoked meats. 

The garnishes for game are fresh or preserved barberries, currant 
jelly, sliced oranges, and apple sauce. 



BROILED PHEASANT OR PRAIRIE CHICKEN. 
Scald and skin, cut off the breast and cut the rest up in joints, 
being careful to remove all shot ; put in hot water all except the 
breast (which will be tender enough without parboiling), and boil 
until it can be pierced with fork, take out, rub over salt, pepper, 
and butter, and broil with breast over brisk fire ; place a lump of 
butter on each piece, and set all in the oven a few minutes. For 
breakfast, serve on fried mush; for dinner on toast with a bit 
of current jelly over each piece. It may be served with toast 
cut in pieces about two inches square, over which pour gravy made 
by thickening the liquor in which the birds were boiled, with a 
little butter and flour rubbed together and stirred in while boiling. 
Squirrels may be prepared the same way. Mrs. W. W. Woods. 

BROILED QUAIL. 

Split through the back and broil over a hot fire, basting fre- 
quently with butter. When done place a bit of butter on each piece, 
and set in oven a few moments to brown. Serve on pieces of toast 
with currant jelly. Plovers are cooked in the same way. Pigeons 
should be first parboiled and then broiled. 

JUGGED HARE. 

Skin, wipe with a towel dipped in boiling water, to remove the 
loose hairs, dry thoroughly and cut in pieces, strew with pepper and 



170 GAME. 

salt, fry brown, season with two anchovies, a sprig of thyme, a 
little chopped parsley, nutmeg, mace, cloves, and grated lemon peel. 
Put a layer of the pieces with the seasoning into a wide-mouthed 
jug or a jar, then a layer of bacon sliced very thin, and so on till 
all is used; add a scant half pint of water, cover the jug close and 
put iii cold water, let boil three or four hours, according to the age 
of the hare; take the jug out of kettle, pick out the unmelted 
bacon and make a gravy of a little butter and flour with a little 
catsup. A tea-spoon of lemon peel will heighten the flavor. Mrs. 

Louise M. Lincoln. 

PRAIRIE CHICKENS. 

Cut out all shot, wash thoroughly but quickly, using some soda 
in the water, rinse and dry, fill with dressing, sew up with cotton 
thread, and tie down the legs and wings ; place in a steamer over 
hot water till done, remove to a dripping-pan, cover with butter, 
sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, place in the oven 
and baste with the melted butter until a nice brown ; serve with 
either apple-sauce, cranberries, or currant jelly. Mrs. Godard. 

QUAIL ON TOAST. 

Dry-pick them, singe them with paper, cut off" heads, and legs at 
first joint, draw, split down the back, soak in salt and water for 
five or ten minutes, drain and dry with a cloth, lard them with 
bacon or butter, and rub salt over them, place on broiler and turn 
often, dipping two or three times into melted butter; broil about 
twenty minutes. Have ready as many slices of buttered toast as 
there are birds, and serve a bird, breast upward, on each slice. 

Mrs. Emma L. Fay. 

ROAST QUAILS. 

Pluck and dress like chickens, wipe clean, and rub both inside 
and out with salt and pepper; stuff with any good dressing, and sew 
up with fine thread ; spread with butter and place in an oven with 
a good steady heat, turning and basting often with hot water sea- 
soned with butter, salt and pepper ; bake three-quarters of an hour. 
When about half done add a little hot water to the pan, and it is 
well to place a dripping-pan over them to prevent browning too 
much. Add to the gravy, flour and butter rubbed together, and 
water if needed. 



GAME. 171 

ROAST HAUNCH OF VENISON. 

in warm water and dry well with a cloth, butter a sheet of 
white paper and put over the fat, lay in a deep baking-dish with 
a very little boiling water, cover with a close-fitting lid or with a 
coarse paste one-half inch thick. If the latter is used, a thickness or 
two of coarse paper should be laid over the paste. Cook in a mod- 
erately hot oven for from three to four hours, according to the size 
of the haunch, and about twenty minutes before it is done quicken 
the fire, remove the paste and paper or dish-cover, dredge the joint 
with flour and baste well with butter until it is nicely frothed and of 
a delicate brown color ; garnish the knuckle-bone with a frill of white 
paper, and serve with a gravy made from its own dripping, having 
first removed the fat. Have the dishes on which the venison is 
served and the plates very hot. Always serve with currant jelly. 

ROAST GOOSE. 

The goose should /lot be more than eight months old, and the 
fatter the more tender and juicy the meat. A " green" goose (four 
months old) is the choicest. Kill at least twenty-four hours before 
cooking ; cut the neck olose to the back, beat the breast-bone flat 
with a rolling-pin, tie the wings and legs securely, and stuff* with the 
following mixture : three pints bread crumbs, six ounces butter or 
part butter and part salt pork, two chopped onions, one tea-spoon 
each of sage, black pepper and salt. Do not stuff very full, and 
stitch openings firmly together to keep flavor in and fat out. If the 
goose is not fat, lard it with salt pork, or tie a slice on the breast. 
Place in a baking-pan with a little water, and baste frequently with 
salt and water (some add onion and some vinegar), turning often so 
that the sides and back may all be nicely browned. When nearly 
done baste with butter and a little flour. Bake two hours, or more 
if old; when done take from the pan, pour off the fat, and to the 
brown gravy left add the chopped giblets which have previously 
been stewed till tender, together with the water they were boiled in ; 
thicken with a little flour and butter rubbed together, bring to a 
boil, an<i serve with currant jelly. Apple sauce and onion sauce 
are proper accompaniments to roast goose. Mrs. J. H. Shearer. 



172 GAME. 

ROAST DUCK. 

Ducks are dressed and stuffed in the same manner as above. 
Young ducks should roast from twenty -five to thirty minutes ; full- 
grown for an hour or more with frequent basting. Some prefer 
rhem underdone, served very hot, but thorough cooking will prove 
more generally palatable. Serve with currant jelly, apple sauce, 
and green pease. If old, parboil before roasting. 

Place the remains of a cold roast duck in a stew-pan with a pint 
of gravy and a little sage, cover closely, and let it simmer for half 
an hour ; add a pint of boiled green pease, stew a few minutes, 
remove to a dish, and pour over it the gravy and pease. 

BOILED DUCK. 

Dress and rub well inside with salt and pepper, truss and tie hi 
shape, drawing the legs in to the body, in which put one or two sage 
leaves, a little finely-chopped onion, and a little jellied stock or 
gravy ; rub over with salt and pepper ; make a paste in the propor- 
tion of one-half pound butter to one pound flour, hi which inclose 
the duck, tie a cloth around all, and boil two hours or until quite 
tender, keeping it well covered with boiling water. Serve by pour- 
ing round it brown gravy made as follows : Put a lump of butter 
of the size of an egg in a sauce-pan with a little minced onion ; cook 
until slightly brown, then adding a small table-spoon of flour, stir 
well, and when quite brown add a half pint stock or water ; let 
cook a few minutes, strain, and add to the chopped giblets, previ- 
ously stewed till tender. Mrs. L. S. Williston. 

REED BIRDS. 

Roasting by suspending on the little wire which accompanies the 
roaster, is the best method ; turn and baste frequently, or wash and 
peel with as thin a paring as possible large potatoes of equal size, 
cut a deep slice off one end of each, and scoop out a part of the po- 
tato ; drop a piece of butter into each bird, pepper and salt, and put 
it in the hollows made in the potatoes ; put on as covers the pieces 
cut off, and clip the other end for them to stand on. Set in a bak- 
ing pan upright, with a little water to prevent burning, bake slowly, 
and serve in the dish in which they were baked. 

Or, boil in a crust like dumplings. 



GAME. 173 

RABBITS. 

Rabbits, which are in the best condition in midwinter, may be 
fricasseed like chicken in white or brown sauce. To make a pie, first 
stew till tender, and make like chicken-pie. To roast, stuff with a 
dressing made of bread-crumbs, chopped salt pork, thyme, onion, 
and pepper and salt, sew up, rub over with a little butter, or pin on 
it a few slices of salt pork, add a little water in the pan, and baste 
often. Serve with mashed potatoes and currant jelly. 

SNIPE. 
Snipe are best roasted with a piece of pork tied to the breast, or 

they may be stuffed and baked. Mrs. M. B,. 

SALMI OF DUCK. 
Save remnants of cold duck or other game, trim meat off neatly, 

set aside; place all the remains (bones, gravy, etc.) in a sauce-pan 
and cover with cold water; bring gently to a boil; skim, add an 
onion that has been cut up and fried brown (not burned) ; simmer 
gently for about an hour, then set the sauce-pan in a cool place 
long enough to allow the fat to rise and "settle on top;" skim this 
off carefully it will be nice to fry potatoes with. Now return the 
sauce-pan to the fire, and when about to boil strain off the liquid ; 
set on again, add salt and skim. If the liquid looks cloudy, let it 
boil up, throw in a little cold water, and the scum will rise. Now 
put in the pepper and such spice as may be desired, also a bunch 
of herbs tied up in a piece of muslin, or very finely powdered. 
Take a large spoon of flour that has been baked in the oven and 
kept for gravy, mix it well with a lump of butter same size, put 
this and the meat all in together and stir well until it is just ready 
to boil again, but see that it does not boil; cover closely and set back 
where it may keep very hot without cooking. The safest plan is to 
put the sauce-pan in a vessel of hot water for ten or fifteen minutes. 

FRIED WOODCOCK. 
Dress, wipe clean, tie the legs, skin the head and neck, turn the 

beak under the wing and tie it ; tie a piece of bacon over it, and im- 
merse in hot fat for two or three minutes. Serve on toast. 

Another favorite way is to split them through the back and 
broil, basting with butter, and serving on toast. They may also be 
roasted whole before the fire for fifteen or twenty minutes. 



ICES AND ICE-CREAM. 



Perfectly fresh sweet cream makes the most delicious ice-cream. 
A substitute is a preparation of boiled new milk, etc. , made late in 
the evening if for dinner, in the morning if for tea, and placed on ice. 
One mixture is a custard made as follows : Take two quarts new milk, 
put on three pints to boil in a custard-kettle, or a pail set within a 
kettle of boiling water, beat yolks and whites of eight eggs sepa- 
rately, mix the yolks with the remaining pint and stir slmvly into the 
boiling milk, boil two minutes, remove from the stove, immediately 
add one and a half pounds sugar, let it dissolve, strain while hot 
through a crash towel, cool, add one quart rich cream and two table- 
spoons vanilla (or season to taste, remembering that the strength of 
the flavoring and also the sweetness is very much diminished by 
the freezing). Set the custard and also the whites (not beaten) in a 
oool place until needed, and about three hours before serving begin 
the preparations for freezing. Put the ice in a coarse coffee-sack, 
pound with an ax or mallet until the lumps are no larger than a 
small hickory-nut ; see that the freezer is properly set in the tub, 
the beater in and the cover secure ; place around it a layer of ice 
about three inches thick, then a laver of coarse salt rock salt is 

/ 

best then ice again, then salt, and so on until packed full, with a 
layer of ice last. The proportion should be about three-fourths ice 
and one-fourth salt. Pack very solid, pounding with a broom-handle 
or stick, then remove the cover and pour the custard to which you 
have just added the well-whipped whites into the freezer, filling two- 
thirds full to give room for expansion ; replace the cover and begin 
turning the freezer ; after ten minutes pack the ice down again, 
dram off most of the water, add more ice and turn again, repeat- 

(174- 



ICES AND ICE-CREAM. 175 

tng this operation several times until the cream is well frozen, and 
you can no longer turn the beater. (The above quantity ought to 
freeze in half an hour, but the more pure cream used the longer it 
takes to freeze.) Brush the ice and salt from and remove the 
cover, take out the beater, scrape the cream down from the sides 
of freezer, beat well several minutes with a wooden paddle, replace 
the cover, fill the hole with a cork, pour off all the water, pack 
again with ice (using salt at the bottom, but none at the top of tub), 
heap the ice on the cover, spread over it a piece of carpet or a thick 
woolen blanket, and set away in a cool place until needed ; or, if 
molds are used, fill them when you remove the beater, packing the 
cream in very tightly, and place in ice and salt for two hours. To 
remove the cream, dip the molds for an instant in warm water. 
When cream is used in making ice-cream, it is better to whip a part 
of it, and add just as the cream is beginning to set. 

Coffee ice-cream should be thickened with arrowroot; the flavor- 
ing for almond cream should be prepared by pounding the kernels 
to a paste with rose-water, using arrowroot for thickening. For 
ocoa-nut cream, grate cocoa-nut and add to the cream and sugar 
just before freezing. The milk should never be heated for pine- 
apple, strawberry, or raspberry cream. Berry flavors are made best 
by allowing whole berries to stand for awhile well sprinkled with 
sugar, mashing, straining the juice, adding sugar to it, and stirring 
it into the cream. For a quart of cream, allow a quart of fruit and 
a pound of sugar. In addition to this, add whipped cream and 
sweetened whole berries, just as the cream is beginning to set, in 
the proportion of a cup of berries and a pint of whipped cream to 
three pints of the frozen mixture. Canned berries may be used in 
the same way. A pint of berries or peaches, cut fine, added to a 
quart of ordinary ice-cream, while in process of freezing, makes a 
delicious fruit ice-cream. 

Freeze ice-cream in a warm place (the more rapid the melting of 
the ice the quicker the cream freezes), always being careful that no 
salt or water gets within the freezer. If cream begins to melt 
while serving, beat up well from the bottom with a long wooden 
paddle. Water-ices are made from the juices of fruits, mixed with 
water, sweetened, and frozen like cream. In making them, if they 



176 ICES ASD ICE-CREAM. 

are not well mixed before freezing, the sugar will sink to the bot- 
tom, and the mixture will have a sharp, unpleasant taste. It is a 
better plan to make a syrup of the sugar and water, by boiling 
and skimming when necessary, and, when cold, add the juice of the 
fruit. 

The following directions for making " self-freezing ice cream" are 
from " Common Sense in the Household." After preparing the 
freezer as above, but leaving out the beater, remove the lid care- 
fully, and with a long wooden ladle or flat stick beat the custard as 
you would batter steadily for five or six minutes. Replace the lid, 
pack two inches of pounded ice over it ; spread above all several 
folds of blanket or carpet, and leave it untouched for an hour ; at 
the end of that time remove the ice from above the freezer-lid, wipe 
off carefully and open the freezer. Its sides will be lined with a 
thick layer of frozen cream. Displace this with the ladle or a long 
knife, working every part of it loose ; beat up the custard again 
firmly and vigorously for fifteen or twenty minutes, until it is all 
smooth, half-congealed paste. The perfection of the ice-cream de- 
pends upon the thoroughness of the beating at this point. Put on 
the cover again, pack in more ice and salt, turn off the brine, cover 
the freezer entirely with the ice, and spread over all the carpet. 
At the end of two or three hours more, again turn off the brine and 
add fresh ice and salt, but do not open the freezer for two hours 
more. At that time take the freezer from the ice, open it, wrap a 
towel wet in hot water about the lower part, and turn out a solid 
column of ice-cream, close grained, firm, delicious. Any of the 
recipes for custard ice-cream may be frozen in this way. 

Ice-creams may be formed into fanciful shapes by the use of 
molds. After the cream is frozen, place in mold, and set ii> 
pounded ice and salt until ready to serve. Cream may be frozen 
without a patent freezer, by simply placing it in a covered tin pail y 
and setting the latter in an ordinary wooden bucket, and proceed 
exactly as directed for self-freezing ice-cream, packing into the space 
between them, very firmly, a mixture of one part salt to two parts 
of snow or pounded ice. When the space is full to within an inch 
of the top, remove cover. 



ICES' AND ICE-CREAM. 177 

CHOCOLATE ICE-CREAM. 

Scald one pint new milk, add by degrees three-quarters of a 
pound sugar, two eggs, and five table-spoons chocolate, rub smooth 
in a little milk. Beat "well for a moment or two, place over the 
fire and heat until it thickens well, stirring constantly, set off, add 
& table-spoon of thin, dissolved gelatine, and when cold, place in 
freezer ; when it begins to set, add a quart of rich cream, half of it 
well whipped. 

To make a mold of chocolate and vanilla, freeze in separate 
freezers, divide a mold through the center with card-board, fill each 
division with a different cream, and set mold in ice and salt for an 
hour or more. 

To make chocolate fruit ice-cream, when almost frozen, add a 
coffee-cup of preserved peaches, or any other preserves, cut in fine 

pieces. 

EGOLESS ICE-CREAM. 

A scant tea-cup flour to two quarts new milk ; put three pints on 
to boil (in tin pail set in a kettle of boiling water), mix the flour 
with the other pint till smooth, then stir it in the boiling milk ; let 
it boil ten or fifteen minutes, and, just before taking it from the fire, 
stir in one and a half pounds pulverized sugar (any good white 
sugar will do). Care must be taken to stir all the time after put- 
ting in the sugar, only letting it remain a moment, or just long 
enough to dissolve it ; take from stove, and strain at once through 
a crash towel. When cold, add one quart cream. Flavor with 
vanilla, in the proportion of one and a fourth table-spoons to a gallon. 

Mrs. Libbie Dolbear. 

FRUIT FRAPEES. 

Line a mold with vanilla ice-Gream, fill the center with fresh 
berries, or fruit cut in slices, cover with ico-cream, cover closely, 
and set in freezer for half an hour, with salt and ice well packed 
around it. The fruit must be chilled, but net frozen. Strawber- 
ries and ripe peaches are delicious thus prepared. Mrs. J. C. P., 

Stockbridge, 

ICE-CREAM. 

Three pints sweet cream, quart new milk, pint powdered sugar, 

the whites of two eggs beaten light, table-spoon vanilla; put in 
12 



178 ICES AXD ICE-CREAM. 

freezer till thoroughly chilled through, and then freeze. This is 
very easily made. Mrs. Cogswell, 

ICE-CREAM. 

One quart new milk, two eggs, two table-spoons corn starch ; 
heat the milk in a dish set in hot water, then stir in the corn starch 
mixed smooth in a little of the milk ; let it boil for one or two 
minutes, then remove from stove and cool, and stir in the egg and 
a half pound sugar. If to be extra nice, add a pint of rich cream, 
and one-fourth pound sugar, strain the mixture, and when cool add 
the flavoring, and freeze as follows: Prepare freezer in the usual 
manner, turn the crank one hundred times, then pour upon the 
ice and salt a quart boiling water from the tea-kettle. Fill up 
again with ice and salt, turn the crank fifty times one way and 
twenty-five the other (which serves to scrape the cream from sides 
of freezer) ; by this time it will turn very hard, indicating that the 
cream is frozen sufficiently. Mrs. Win. Herrick^ 

LEMON ACE -CREAM. 

Squeeze a dozen lemons, make the juice quite thick with white 
sugar, stir into it very slowly, three quarts of cream, and freeze. 
Orange ice-cream is prepared in the same way, using less sugar. 

PINE-APPLE ICE-CREAM. 

Three pints cream, two large ripe pine-apples, two pounds pow- 
dered sugar ; slice the pine-apples thin, scatter the sugar between 
the slices, cover and let the fruit stand three hours, cut or chop it 
up in the syrup, and strain through a hair-sieve or double bag of 
coarse lace; beat gradually into the cream, and freeze as rapidly as 
possible ; reserve a few pieces of pine-apple unsugared, cut into 
square bits, and stir through cream when half frozen, first a pint of 
well-whipped cream, and then the fruit. Peach ice-cream may be 
made in the same way. Mrs. L. M. T., 

STRAWBERRY ICE-CREAM. 

Sprinkle strawberries with sugar, wash well and rub through a 
sieve ; to a pint of the juice add half a pint of good cream, make 
it very sweet; freeze, and when beginning to set, stir in lightly one 
pint of cream whipped, and lastly a handful of whole strawberries 



ICES AND ICE-CREAM. 179 

tSTveetened. It may then be put in a mold and imbedded in ice, or 
kept in the freezer ; or mash with a potato-pounder m an earthen 
bowl one quart of strawberries with one pound of sugar; rub it 
through a colander, add one quart of sweet cream and freeze. Or, 
if not in the strawberry season, use the French bottled strawberries 
(or any canned ones), mix juice with half a pint of cream, sweeten 
and freeze ; when partially set add whipped cream and strawberries. 

KENTUCKY CREAM. 

Make a half gallon rich boiled custard, sweeten to taste, add two 
table-spoons gelatine dissolved in a half cup cold milk; let the cus- 
tard cool, put it in freezer, and as soon as it begins to freeze, add 
one pound raisins, one pint strawberry preserves, one quart whipped 
cream; stir and beat well like ice-cream. Blanched almonds or 
grated cocoa-nut are additions. Some prefer currants to raisins, 
and some also add citron chopped fine. Mrs. Gov. J. B. McCreary, 

Kentucky. 

APPLE ICE. 

Grate, sweeten and freeze well-flavored apples, pears, peaches or 
quinces. Canned fruit may be mashed and prepared in the same 

way. 

CURRANT ICE. 

Boil down three pints of water and a pound and a half sugar to 
one quart, skim, add two cups of currant juice, and when partly 
frozen, add the whites of five eggs. 

LEMON ICE. 

To one pint of lemon juice, add one quart of sugar, and one 
quart of water, in which the thin rind of three lemons has been 
allowed to stand until highly flavored. When partly frozen add 
the whites of four eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. 

ORANGE ICE. 

Boil three-quarters of a pound of sugar in one quart of water ; 
when cool add the juice of six oranges ; steep the rinds in a littla 
water, strain, and flavor to taste with it. The juice and rind of 
one or two lemons added to the orange is a great improvement. 

Freeze like ice-cream. 

STRAWBERRY ICE. 

Mash two quarts of strawberries with two pounds of sugar; let 



180 ICES AND ICE-CREAM. 

stand an hour or more, squeeze in a straining cloth, pressing out 
all the juice ; add an equal measure of water ; and when half frozen, 
add the beaten whites of eggs in the proportion of three eggs to 
a quart. R. L. C, Baltimore, Md. 

TEA ICE-CREAM. 

Pour over four table-spoons of Old Hyson tea, a pint of cream, 
scald in a custard-kettle, or by placing the dish containing it in a 
kettle of boiling water, remove from the fire, and let stand five 
minutes; strain it into a pint of cold cream, put on to scald again, 
and when hot mix with it four eggs and three-fourths pound sugar, 
well beaten together; let cool and freeze. Miss A. C. L., Pittsfield. 

WASHINGTON FRUIT ICE-CREAM. 

Take two dozen sweet and half a dozen bitter almonds ; blanch 
in scalding water, throw into a bowl of cold water; pound one at 
a time in a mortar, till they become a smooth paste free from the 
smallest lumps ; add frequently a few drops of rose-water or lemon- 
juice to make them light and prevent "oiling." Seed and cut a 
quarter pound of the best bloom raisins ; mix with them a quarter , 
pound of Zante currants, picked, washed and dried, and three 
ounces of chopped citron ; dredge well with flour. Take a half 
pint of very rich milk, split a vanilla bean, cut it into pieces two 
or three inches long, and boil it in the milk till the flavor of the 
vanilla is well extracted, then strain it out and mix the vanilla 
milk with a pint of rich cream, and stir in gradually a half pound 
of powdered loaf-sugar and a nutmeg grated. Then add the 
pounded almonds, and a large wine-glass of either marasquino. 
noyau, curacoa or the very best brandy. Beat in a shallow pan 
the yolks of eight eggs till very light, thick and smooth, and stir 
them gradually into the mixture. Simmer over the fire (stirring all 
the time), but take off just before it boils, otherwise it will curdle. 
At once stir in the fruit, set to cool, and then add a large tea-cup 
preserved strawberries or raspberries, half a dozen preserved apricots 
or peaches, half a dozen preserved green limes, and any other very 
nice and delicate sweetmeats ; add a pint whipped cream lightly tc 
the mixture; put the whole into a large melon-mold that opens in 
the middle, and freeze four hours in the usual way. Turn out when 
wanted and serve on a glass dish. Mrs. Gov. Graver, Oregon. 



JELLIES AND JAMS. 



Jellies were formerly reputed nourishing, digestible, and fit food 
for sick and delicate persons, but modern investigation places them 
second to the lean part of animals and birds. When made of gela- 
tine, they have no nutrition, and are simply u.sed to carry a pala- 
table flavor. 

Always make jellies in a porcelain kettle, if possible, but brass 
may be used if scoured very bright and the fruit is removed imme- 
diately on taking from the fire. Use the best refined or granulated 
sugar, and do not have the fruit, especially currants and grapes, 
overripe. 

To extract the juice, place fruit in kettle with just enough water 
to keep from burning, stir often, and let remain on the fire until 
thoroughly scalded ; or a better but rather slower method is to place 
it in a stone jar set within a kettle of tepid water, boil until the 
fruit is well softened, stirring frequently, and then strain a small 
quantity at a time through a strong c<ar>e flannel or cotton bag 
wrung out of hot water, after which let it drain, and squeeze it with 
the hands as it cools, emptying the bag and rinsing it off each time 
it is used. The larger fruits, such as apples and quinces, should be 
cut in pieces, cores removed if at all defective, water added to just 
cover them, boiled gently until tender, turned into bag and placed 
to drain for three or four hours, or over night. Make not over two 
or three pints of jelly at a time, as larger quantities require longer 
boiling. As a general rule allow equal measures juice and sugar. 
Boil juice rapidly ten minutes from the first moment of boiling, 
skim, add sugar, and boil ten minutes longer; or spread the sugar 

(181) 



182 JELLIES ASD JAMS. 

in a large dripping-pan, set in the oven, stir often to prevent burn- 
ing, boil the juice just twenty minutes, add the hot sugar, let boil 
up once, and pour into the jelly-glasses immediately, as a thin skin 
forms over the surface which keeps out the air ; cover with brandied 
tissue paper, cut to fit glass closely, cool quickly and set in a dry, 
cool, dark place. Jelly should be examined toward the end of sum- 
mer, and if there are any signs of fermentation, reboil. Jelly needs 
more attention in damp, rainy seasons than in others. To test jelly, 
drop a little in a glass of very cold water, and if it immediately 
falls to the bottom it is done ; or drop in a saucer, and set on ice or 
in a cool place; if it does not spread, but remains rounded, it is 
finished. Some strain through the bag into the glasses, but this 
involves waste, and if skimming is carefully done is not necessary. 
A little butter or lard, rubbed with' a cloth on the outside of glasses 
or cans, will enable one to pour in the boiling fruit or liquid, the 
first spoon or two slowly, without breaking the glass. If jelly is 
not very firm, let it stand in the sun covered with bits of window- 
glass or pieces of mosquito netting, for a few days. Never attempt 
to make jelly in damp or cloudy weather if firmness and clearness 
are desired. Use a wooden or silver spoon to stir, dip with earthen 
cup, and cook in porcelain-lined kettles. Currants and berries 
should be made up as soon as picked ; never let them stand over 
night. When ready to put away, cover with pieces of tissue or 
writing-paper cut to fit and pressed closely upon the jelly, and put 
on the lid or cover with thick paper, brushed over on the inside 
with the white of an egg and turned down on the outside of glass. 



APPLE OR BLACKBERRY JELLY. 

Prepare nice, tart, juicy apples as in general directions, using three 
quarters of a pint of sugar to a pint of juice. Prepare blackberry 
jelly according to general directions for berries. 

CALFS-FOOT JELLY. 

Cut across the first joint, and through the hoof, place in a lar^e 
sauce-pan, cover with cold water, and bring quickly to the boiling 
point; when water boils, remove them, and wash thoroughly in 
cold water. When perfectly clean put into a porcelain-lined sauce- 
pan, add cold water in the proportion of three pints to two calfs 



JELLIES AND JAMS. 18S 

feet, )at c<auce-pan over fire, and when water boils, set aside to a 
cooler place,, where it will simmer very slowly for five hours ; strain 
the liquor through a fine sieve, or a coarse towel, let it stand over 
night to set, remove the fat that has risen to the top, dip a towel in 
boiling water, and wash the surface, which will be quite firm. Now 
place in a porcelain -lined sauce-pan, and melt, add juice of two 
lemons, rinds of three cut into strips, one-fourth pound of cut loaf- 
sugar, ten cloves, and one inch of cinnamon stick. Put the whites 

O ' ' 

of three eggs, together with the shells (which must first be blanched 
in boiling water), into a bowl, beat them slightly, and pour them 
into the sauce-pan, continuing to use the egg-beater until the whole 
boils, when the pan should be drawn aside where it will simmer 
gently for ten minutes, skimming off all scum as it rises. While 
simmering, prepare a piece of flannel by pouring through it a little 
warm water; and when the jelly has simmered ten minutes, pour 
it through this bag into a bowl, and repeat the process of straining 
until it is perfectly clear, when add a half gill of sherry (or brandy, 
or brandy and sherry mixed in equal proportions), stir well, pour 
into molds, and place upon ice or in a cool place until jelly sets and 
becomes firm enough to turn out and serve. 

CURRANT JELLY. 

Do not pick from the stem, but carefully remove all leaves and 
imperfect fruit, place in a stone jar, and follow general directions; 
or place one pint currants, picked off the stem, and one pint sugar, 
in the kettle on the stove, scald well, skim out currants, and dry 
on plates; or make into jam with one-third currants and two-thirds 
raspberries, straining juice after sweetening, and cooking until it 
" jellies. '*' After currants are dried put them in stone jars and 
cover closely. Mrs. A. B. M. 

CRANBERRY JELLY. 

Prepare juice as in general directions, add one pound sugar to 
every pint, boil and s'kim, test by dropping a little into cold water 
(when it does not mingle with the water it is done), rinse glasses 
in cold water before pouring in the jelly to prevent sticking. The 
pulp may be sweetened and used for sauce. C G. & E. W. 
Crane, Caldivell, N. J. 



184 JELLIES ASD JAMS. 

CRAB APPLE JELLY. 

Wash and quarter large Siberian crabs, but do not core, cover 
to the depth of an inch or two with cold water, and cook to a 
mush; pour into a coarse cotton bag or strainer, and when cool 
enough, press or squeeze hard, to extract all the juice. Take a 
piece of fine Swiss muslin or crinoline, wring out of water, spread 
over a colander placed over a crock, and with a cup dip the juice 
slowly in, allowing plenty of time to run through ; repeat this pro- 
cess twice, rinsing out the muslin frequently. Allow the strained 
juice of four lemons to a peck of apples, and three quarters of a 
pound of sugar to each pint of juice. Boil the juice from ten to 
twenty minutes; while boiling sift in the sugar slowly, stirring con- 
stantly, and boil five minutes longer. This is generally sufficient, 
but it is always safer to "try it," and ascertain whether it will 
"jelly." This makes a very clear, sparkling jelly. Mrs. Carol 

Gaytes, Riverside, 111. 

COFFEE JELLY. 

Half box Coxe's gelatine soaked half an hour in a half tea-cup 
cold water (as little w y ater as possible), one quart strong coffee, 
made as if for the table and sweetened to taste ; add the dissolved 
gelatine to the hot coffee, stir well, strain into a mold rinsed with 
cold water just before using, set on ice or in a very cool place, and 
serve with whipped cream. This jelly is very pretty, formed in a 
circular mold with tube in center ; when turned out fill the space 
in center with whipped cream heaped up a little. Mrs. A. Wilson^ 

Rye,N. Y. 

EASTER JELLY. 

Color calf s-foot jelly a bright yellow by steeping a small quantity 
of dried saffron leaves in the water. Pare lemons in long strips 
about the width of a straw, boil in water until tender, throw them 
into a rich syrup, and boil until clear. Make a blanc-mange of 
cream, color one-third pink with poke -berry syrup, one-third greeu 
with spinach, and leave the other white. Pour out eggs from a hole 
a half inch in diameter in the large end, wash and drain the shells 
carefully, set them in a basin of salt to fill, and pour in the blanc- 
mange slowly through a funnel, and place the dish in a refrigerator 
for several hours. When ready to serve, select a round, shallow 



JELLIES AND JAMS. 185 

dish about as large as a hen's nest, form the jelly in it as a lining, 
scatter the strips of lemon peel over the edge like straws, remove 
the egg-shells carefully from the blanc-rnange, and fill the nest with 
them. Mrs. C. M. Coates, Philadelphia. 

FOUR-FRUIT JELLY. 

Take equal quantities of ripe strawberries, raspberries, currants, 
and red cherries, all should be fully ripe, and the cherries must be 
stoned, taking care to preserve the juice that escapes in stoning, and 
add it to the rest. Mix the fruit together, put it into a linen 
bag, and squeeze it thoroughly ; when it has ceased to drip, measure 
the juice, and to every pint allow a pound and two ounces of the 
best loaf-sugar, in large lumps. Mix the juice and sugar together; 
put them in a porcelain-lined preserving kettle, and boil for half an 
hour, skimming frequently, Try the jelly by dipping out a spoon- 
ful, and holding it in the open air ; if it congeals readily it is suffi- 
ciently done. Tins jelly is very fine. Mrs. E. S. Miller. 

GRAPE JELLY. 

Prepare fruit and rub through a sieve; to every pound of pulp 
add a pound of sugar, stir well together, boil slowly twenty minutes, 
then follow general directions; or, prepare the juice, boil twenty 
minutes, and add one pound of sugar to one pound of juice after it 
is reduced by boiling ; then boil ten or fifteen minutes. Or put on 
grapes just beginning to turn, boil, place in jelly-bag and let drain; 
to one pint juice add one pint sugar, boil twenty minutes, and just 
before it is done add one tea-spoon dissolved gum-arabic. Mrs. W. M. 

LEMON JELLY. 

Juice of six lemons, grated peel of two, two large cups sugar, one 
package Coxe's gelatine soaked in two cups cold water, two glasses 
pale sherry or white wine, one pint boiling water ; stir lemon-juice, 
peel, sugar and soaked gelatine together, and cover for an hour ; pour 
the boiling water over them ; stir until all is dissolved perfectly, add 
wine, strain through flannel, and pour in mold. If fruit yields less than 
& large coffee-cup juice, add more water, so the jelly may not be tough. 

ORANGE JELLY. 

Two quarts water, four ounces gelatine, nine oranges and three 
lemons, a pound sugar, whites of three eggs ; soak gelatine in a pint 



186 JELLIES AND JAMS. 

of water, boil the three pints water and sugar together, skim well, 
add dissolved gelatine, orange and lemon juice, and beaten whites; 
let come to a boil, skim off carefully all scum, boil until it jellies, 
and pour jelly into mold. Strain, scum and add to mold. 

PEACH JELLY. 

Crack one-third of the kernels and put them in the jar with the 
peaches, which should be pared, stoned and sliced. Heat in a pot 
of boiling water, stirring occasionally until the fruit is well broken. 
Strain, and to every pint of peach juice add the juice of a lemon. 
Measure again, and to every pint of peach juice add a pound of 
sugar. Heat the sugar very hot, and add when the juice has boiled 
twenty minutes. Let it come to a boil and take instantly from the 
fire. This is very fine for jelly cake. 

QUINCE JELLY. 

Rub the quinces with a cloth until perfectly smooth, cut in small 
pieces, pack tight in a kettle, pour on cold water until level with the 
fruit, boil until very soft ; make a three-cornered flannel bag, pour 
in fruit and hang up to drain, occasionally pressing on the top and 
sides to make the juice run more freely, taking care not to press hard 
enough to expel the pulp. There is not much need of pressing a 
bag made in this shape, as the weight of the fruit in the larger part 
causes the juice to flow freely at the point. To a pint of juice add 
a pint of sugar and boil fifteen minutes, or until it is jelly; pour 
into tumblers, or bowls, and finish according to general directions. 
If quinces are scarce, the parings and cores of quinces with good 
tart apples, boiled and strained as above, make excellent jelly, and 
the quinces are saved for preserves. Mrs. M. J. W. 
TRANSCENDENT CRAB-APPLE JELLY. 

Transcendents or any variety of crab-apples, may be prepared as 
cultivated wild plums, adding flavoring of almond, lemon, peach, 
pine-apple or vanilla to the jelly in the proportion of one tea-spoon 
to two pints, or more if it is wished stronger, just before it is done. 

PLUM JELLY. 

If plums are wild (not cultivated) put in pan and sprinkle with 
soda and pour hot water over them, let stand a few moments and 
stir through them ; take out and put on with water just to cover, or 
less if plums are very juicy ; boil till soft, dip out juice with a china 



JELLIES AND JAMS. 187 

cup ; then strain the rest through small salt-bags (by the way, keep 
them for jelly-bags as they are just the thing), do not squeeze them. 
Take pound for pound of juice and sugar, or pint for pint, and boil 
for eight or ten minutes. Jelly will be nicer if only one measure or 
& measure and a half is made at one time ; if more, boil longer ; 
some boil juice ten or fifteen minutes, then add sugar and boil five 
minutes longer. It can be tested by dropping in a saucer and 
placing on ice or in a cool place ; if it does not spread but remains 
rounded it is finished. If the plums are the cultivated wild 
plum, make as above without using the soda. Take the plums 
that are left and press through a sieve, then take pint for pint of 
sugar and pulp, boiling the latter half an hour and then adding 
sugar, boiling ten or fifteen minutes more. Half a pint sugar to a 
pint, makes a rich marmalade, and one-third pint to pint, boiling it 
longer, is nice canned, and used for pies, adding milk, eggs and 
sugar as for squash pies. 

Plum-apple jelly may be made by preparing the juice of apples 
and plums as above (a nice proportion is one part plums to two 
parts apples ; for instance, one peck of plums to two pecks apples) ; 
then mixing the juice and finish without flavoring. The marma- 
lade is made in the same way as above. Some add a little ginger 
root to it. One bushel of apples and one peck of plums make forty 
pints of jelly, part crab-apple and part mixed, and sixteen quart 
.glass cans of mixed marmalade. In making either kind of jelly the 
fruit may be squeezed and the juice strained twice through swiss 
x>r crinoline and made into jelly. The pulp can not then be used 
for marmalade. 

PIE-PLANT JELLY. 

Wash the stalks well, cut into pieces an inch long, put them into 
a preserving-kettle with enough water to cover them, and boil to a 
soft pulp; strain through a jelly-bag. To each pint of this juice 
add a pound of loaf-sugar; boil again, skimming often, and when 
it jellies on the skimmer remove it from the fire and put into jars. 



188 JELLIES AyD JAMS. 



JAMS. 



In making jams, the fruit should be carefully cleaned and thor- 
oughly bruised, as mashing it before cooking prevents it from becom- 
ing hard. Boil fifteen or twenty minutes before adding the sugar, 
as the flavor of the fruit is thus better preserved (usually allowing 
three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit), and then 
boil half an hour longer. Jams require almost constant stirring, 
and every house-keeper should be provided with a small paddle with 
handle at right angles with the blade (similar to an apple-butter 
" stirrer," only smaller), to be used in making jams and marmalades. 
Jams are made from the more juicy berries, such as blackberries, 
currants, raspberries, strawberries, etc.; marmalades from the firmet 
fruits, such as pine-apples, peaches and apricots. Both require tha 
closest attention, as the slightest degree of burning ruins the flavor. 
They must be boiled sufficiently, and have plenty of sugar to keep 
well. 

To tell when any jam or marmalade is sufficiently cooked, take 
out some of it on a plate and let it cool. If no juice or moisture 
gathers about it, and it looks dry and glistening, it is done thor- 
oughly. Put up in glass or small stone jars, and seal or secure like 
canned fruits or jellies. Keep jellies and jams in a cool, dry, and 
dark place. 

CURRANT JAM. 

Pick from stems and wash thoroughly with the hands, put into a 
preserving kettle and boil fifteen or twenty minutes, stirring often, 
and skimming off any scum that may arise ; then add sugar in the 
proportion of three-fourths pound sugar to one pound fruit, or, by 
measure, one coffee-cup of sugar to one pint mashed fruit ; boil thirty 
minutes longer, stirring almost constantly. When clone, pour in 
small jars or glasses, and either seal or secure like jelly, by first 
pressing paper, cut to fit the glasses, down close on the fruit, and 
then .larger papers, brushed on the inside with white of eggs, with 
the edges turned down over the outside of the glass. 



JELLIES AND JAMS. 189 

GOOSEBERRY JAM. 

Stew the berries in a little water, press through a coarse sieve 
return to the kettle, add three-fourths pound sugar to each pound 
of the pulped gooseberry ; boil three-quarters of an hour, stirring- 
constantly ; pour in jars or bowls, and cover as directed for cur- 
rant jams. Mrs. C. Meade, Tenn. 

GRAPE OR PLUM JAM. 

Stew in a little water, and press the fruit through a colander or 
coarse sieve, adding a little water to plums to get all the pulp 
through ; add sugar, and finish as in other jams. 

RASPBERRY JAM. 

Make by itself, or, better, combined with currants in the propor- 
tion of one-third currants to two-thirds raspberries ; mash the fruit 
well, and proceed as in currant jam. 

Make blackberry jam like raspberry, except that it should not be 
mixed with currants. 

Strawberry jam is made exactly like blackberry. 

FRENCH JAM. 

The addition of one pound of raisins to each gallon of currant 
jam converts this into very fine French jam. Mrs. S. C. , Paris, Ky. 

FRUIT JELLY. 

Take one box of gelatine, soak it one hour in a pint of cold water ; 
when well soaked pour on a pint of boiling water ; then put in a 
quart of any kind of fruit, strawberries, raspberries or cherries be- 
ing nice; add half cup sugar, one spoonful of extract of lemon* 
pour into a mold, and when cold eat with cream and sugar or 
whipped cream. It is delicious. Miss L. A. C., Ky. 

WINE JELLY. 

One ounce Coxe's gelatine, one pound loaf sugar; dissolve gela- 
tine in a pint boiling water, add sugar and a quart of white wine ; 
stir mixture very hard and pour in mold ; when congealed, wrap 
mold in a cloth dipped in warm water, turn out jelly and eat witk 
cream. Mrs. S. P. H., Ga. 



MEATS- 



Inattention to the temperature of the water and too early ap- 
plication of salt cause great waste in boiling meats. To make fresh 
meat rich and nutritious it should be placed in a kettle of boiling 
water (pure soft water is best), skimmed well as soon as it begins to 
boil again, and placed where it will slowly but constantly boil. The 
meat should be occasionally turned and kept well under the water, 
and fresh hot water supplied as it evaporates in boiling. Plunging 
in hot water hardens the fibrine on the outside, encasing and re- 
taming the rich juices and the whole theory of correct cooking, in 
a nut-shell, is to retain as much as possible of the nutriment of food. 
No salt should be added until the meat is nearly done, as it extracts 
the juices of the meat if added too soon. Boil gently, as rapid 
boiling hardens the fibrine and renders the meat hard, tasteless, 
and scarcely more nutritious than leather, without really hastening 
the process of cooking, every degree of heat beyond the boiling 
point being worse than wasted. There is a pithy saying : " The 
pot should only smile, not laugh." The bubbles should appear in 
one part of the surface of the water only, not all over it. This 
differs from "simmering,' as in the latter there is merely a sizzling 
on the side of the pan. Salt meat should be put on in cold water 
so that it may freshen in cooking. Allow twenty minutes to the 
pound for fresh, and thirty-five for salt meats, the time to be modi- 
fied, of course, by the quality of the meat. A pod of red pepper 
in the water will prevent the unpleasant odor of boiling from filling 
the house. 

(190; 



MEATS. 191 

Roasting proper is almost unknown in these days of stoves and 
ranges baking, a much inferior process, having taken its place. In 
roasting the joint is placed close to a brisk fire, turned so as to ex- 
pose every part to the heat, and then moved back to finish in a 
more moderate heat. The roast should be basted frequently with 
the drippings, and, when half cooked, with salt and water. 

To roast in oven, the preparations are very simple. The fire 
must be bright and the oven hot. The roast will need no washing 
if it comes from a cleanly butcher ; wiping with a towel dampened 
in cold water is all that is needed ; if washing is necessary, dash 
over quickly with cold water and wipe dry. If meat has been kept 
a little too long, wash in vinegar, wipe dry, and dust with a very 
little flour to absorb the moisture. Place in pan, on a tripod, or two- 
or three clean bits of wood laid cross-wise of pan, to keep it out of 
the fat. If meat is very lean, add a table-spoon or two of water;, 
if fat, the juices of the meat will be sufficient, and the addition of 
the water renders it juiceless and tasteless. While the meat is in 
the oven, keep the fire hot and bright, baste several times, and when 
about half done turn it, always keeping the thick part of the meat 
in the hottest part of the oven. Take care that every part of the 
roast, including the fat of the tenderloin, is cooked so that the text- 
ure is changed. 

If the fire has been properly made, and the roast is not large, it- 
should not require replenishing, but, if necessary, add a little fuei 
at a time, so as not to check the fire, instead of waiting until a 
great deal must be added to keep up the bright heat. Most 
persons like roast beef and mutton underdone, and less time is re- 
quired to cook them than for pork and veal or lamb, which must be 
very well done. Fifteen minutes to the pound and fifteen minutes 
longer is the rule for beef and mutton, and twenty minutes to 
the pound and twenty minutes longer for pork, veal and lamb. 
The directions for beef apply equally well to pork, veal, mutton 
and lamb. Underdone meat is cooked throughout, so that the 
bright red juices follow the knife of the carver; if it is a livid 
purple it is raw, and unfit for food. When done, the roast should 
be a rich brown, and the bottom of the pan covered with a thick 
glaze. Remove the joint, sift evenly over with fine salt,; and it i? 



192 MEATS. 

ready to serve. Never salt before or while cooking, as it draws 
out the juices. To prepare the gravy, pour off the fat gently, 
holding the pan steadily so as not to lose the gravy which underlies 
it; put pan on the stove, pour into it half a cup of boiling water 
(vary the quantity with the size of the roast ; soup of any kind is 
better than water if at hand), add a little salt, stir with a spoon 
until the particles adhering to the sides of the pan are removed and 
dissolved, making a rich, brown gravy (some mix flour and water, 
and add as thickening). 

In roasting all meats, success depends upon basting frequently 
(by dipping the gravy from the pan over the meat with a large 
spoon), turning often so as to prevent burning, and carefully regu- 
lating the heat of the oven. Allow fifteen to twenty-five minutes 
to the pound in roasting, according as it is to be rare or well done, 
taking into consideration the quality of the meat. Eoasts prepared 
with dressing require more time. In roasting meats many think it 
better not to add any water until the meat has been in the oven 
about half an hour, or until it begins to brown. 

Broiling is the most wholesome method of cooking meats, and is 
most acceptable to invalids. Tough steak is made more tender by 
pounding or hacking with a dull knife, but some of the juices are 
lost by the operation ; cutting it across in small squares with a sharp 
knife on both sides is better than either. Tough meats are also 
improved by laving for two hours on a dish containing three or 
four table-spoons each of vinegar and salad oil (or butter), a little- 
pepper, but no salt; turn every twenty minutes. The action of the 
oil and vinegar softens the fibers without extracting their juices. 
Trim off all superfluous fat, but never wash a freshly-cut steak. 
Never salt or pepper steak or chops before or while cooking, but if 
very lean, dip in melted butter. Place the steak on a hot, well- 
greased gridiron, turn often so that the outside may be seared at 
once; when done, which will require from five to ten minutes, dish 
on a hot platter, season with salt and pepper and bits of butter, 
cover with a hot platter and serve at once. A small pair of tongs 
are best t< turn steaks, as piercing with a fork frees the juices. If 
fat drips on the coals below, the blaze may be extinguished by 
sprinkling with salt, always withdrawing the gridiron to prevent the 



MEATS. 193 

steak from acquiring a smoky flavor. Always have a brisk fire, 
whether you cook in a patent broiler directly over the fire, or on a 
gridiron over a bed of live coals. Broiling steak is the very last 
thing to be done in getting breakfast or dinner ; every other dish 
should be ready for the table, so that this may have the cook's un- 
divided attention. A steel gridiron with slender bars is best, as the 
common broad, flat iron bars fry and scorch the meat, imparting a, 
disagreeable flavor. In using the patent broilers, such as the 
"American" and the later and better " Dover," care must be used 
to keep all doors and lids of stove or range closed during the pro- 
cess. The dampers which shut off the draft to the chimney should 
be thrown open before beginning, to take the flames in that direc- 
tion. Never take the lid from broiler without first removing it from 
over the fire, as the smoke and flames rush out past the meat and 
smoke it. 

Frying is properly cooking in fat enough to cover the article, and 
when the fat is hot, and properly managed, the food is crisped at 
the surface, and does not absorb the fat. The process of cooking in 
just enough fat to prevent sticking has not yet been named in Eng- 
lish, and is sauteing, but is popularly known as frying, and ought 
to be banished from all civilized kitchens. The secret of success in 
frying is what the French call the "surprise." The fire must be 
hot enough to sear the surface and make it impervious to the fat, 
and at the same time seal up the rich juices. As soon as the meat 
is browned by this sudden application of heat, the pan may be 
moved to a cooler place on the stove, that the process may be fin- 
ished more slowly. For instructions as to heating the fat, see what 
is said under head of "Fritters." When improperly done, frying 
results in an unwholesome and greasy mess, unfit for food, but with 
care, plenty of fat (which may be used again and again), and the 
right degree of heat, nothing is easier than to produce a crisp, de- 
licious, and healthful dish. 

To thaw frozen meat, place in a warm room over night, or lay it 
for a few hours in cold water the latter plan being the best. The 
ice which forms on the surface as it thaws is easily removed. If 
cooked before it is entirely thawed, it will be tough. Meat once 

frozen should not be allowed to thaw until just before cooking. 
13 



194 MEATS. 

The most economical way to cut a ham is to slice, for the same 
meal, from the large end as well as from the thickest part ; in thia 
way a part of best and a part of the less desirable is brought on, 
and the waste of the meal is from the poorest, as the best is eaten 
first. After cutting a ham, if not to be cut from again soon, rub 
the cut side with corn meal ; this prevents the ham from becoming 
rancid, and rubs off easily when the ham is needed again. 

Beef in boiling loses rather more than one-quarter ; in roasting it 
loses one-third ; legs of mutton lose one-fifth in boiling, and one- 
third in roasting, and a loin of mutton in roasting loses rather more> 
than a third. 

Beef suet may be kept a long time in a cool place without freez- 
ing, or by burying it deep in the flour barrel so as to entirely ex* 
elude the air. 

The garnishes for meats are parsley, slices of lemon, sliced carrot.* 
sliced beets, and currant jelly. 

For hints on buying meats, see " Marketing." 

BROILED BEEFSTEAK. 

Lay a thick tender steak upon a gridiron well greased with butter 
or beef suet, over hot coals; when done on one side have ready the 
warmed platter with a little butter on it, lay the steak, without 
pressing it, upon the platter with the cooked side down so that the 
juices which have gathered may run on the platter, quickly place it 
again on gridiron, and cook the other side. When done to liking, 
put on platter again, spread lightly with butter, season with salt 
and pepper, and place where it will keep warm (over boiling steam 
is best) for a few moments, but do not let butter become oily. 
Serve on hot plates. Many prefer to sear on one side, turn imme- 
diately and sear the other, and finish cooking, turning often; gnr- 
'nish with fried sliced potatoes, or with browned potato balls the size 
of a marble, piled at each end of platter. Mrs. W. W. W. 

FRIED BEEFSTEAK. 

When the means to broil are not at hand, the next best method 
is to heat the frying pan very hot, put in steak previously hacked, 
let remain a few moments, loosen with a knife and turn quickly 
several times ; repeat this, and when done transfer to a hot platter y 



MEATS. 195 

salt, pepper, and put over it bits of butter ; pile the steaks one on 
top of another, and cover with a hot platter. This way of frying 
is both healthful and delicate. Or, heat the skillet, trim off the fat 
from the steak, cut in small bits and set on to frv; meanwhile 

/ ' 

pound steak, then draw the bits of suet to one side and put in the 
teak, turn quickly over several times so as to sear the outside, take 
out on a hot platter previously prepared with salt and pepper, 
dredge well, return to skillet, repeating the operation until the 
steak is done; dish on a hot platter, covering with another platter, 
.and place where it will keep hot w 7 hile making the gravy. Place a 
table-spoon dry flour in the skillet, being sure to have the fat boiling 
hot, stir until brown and free from lumps (the bits of suet may be 
left in, drawing them tj one side until the flour is browned), pour 
in about half a pint boiling water (milk or cream is better), stir 
well, season with pepper and salt, and serve in a gravy tureen. 
Spread bits of butter over steak and send to table at once. This is 
more economical, but not so wholesome as broiling. 

BEEFSTEAK .SMOTHERED IN ONIONS. 

Slice the onions thin and drop in cold water: put steak in pan 
with a little suet. Skim out onions and add to steak, season with 
pepper and salt, cover tightly, and put over the fire. When the 
juice of the onions has dried up, and the meat has browned on one 
side, remove onions, turn steak, replace onions, and fry till done, 
being careful not to burn. 

BOILED CORNED BEEF. 

Soak over night if very salt, but if beef is young and properly 
corned this is not necessary; pour over it cold water enough to 
cover it well, after washing off the salt. The rule for boiling meats 
is twenty-five minutes to a pound, but corned beef should be placed 
on a part of the stove or range where it will simmer, not boil, un- 
interruptedly from four to six hours, according to the size of the 
piece. If to be served cold, some let the meat remain in the liquor 
until cold, and some let tough beef remain in the liquor until the 
next day, and bring it to the boiling point just before serving. Sim- 
mer a brisket or plate-piece until the bones are easily removed, fold 
over, forming a square or oblong piece, place sufficient weight on 



196 MEATS. 

top to press the parts closely together, and set where it will become 
cold. This gives a firm, solid piece to cut in slices, and is a delight- 
ful relish. Boil liquor down, remove the fat, season with pepper 
or sweet herbs, and save it to pour over finely minced scraps and 
pieces of beef; press the meat firmly into a mold, pour over it the 
liquor, and place over it a close cover with a weight upon it. When 
turned from the mold, garnish with sprigs of parsley or celery, and 
serve with fancy pickles or French mustard. Mrs. S. H. J. 

BEEF A LA MODE. 

In a piece of the rump, cut deep openings with a sharp knife ; 
put in pieces of pork cut into dice, previously rolled in pepper, salt,, 
cloves and nutmeg. Into an iron stew-pan lay pieces of pork, 
sliced onions, slices of lemon, one or two carrots and a bay-leaf; 
lay the meat on and put over it a piece of bread-crust as large a& 
the hand, a half-pint wine and a little vinegar, and afterwards an 
equal quantity of water or broth, till the meat is half covered; 
cover the dish close and cook till tender. Then take it out, rub the 
gravy thoroughly through a sieve, skim off the fat, add some sour 
cream, return to the stew-pan and cook ten minutes. Jnstead of 
the cream, capers or sliced cucumber pickles can be added to the 
gravy if preferred, or a handful of grated ginger-bread or rye 
bread. The meat can also be laid for some days before in a spiced 
vinegar or wine pickle. Mrs. L. S. Williston, Heidelberg, Germany* 

BOILED BEEF TONGUE. 

Wash clean, put in the pot with water to cover it, a pint of salt,, 
and a small pod of red pepper ; if the water boils away, add more 
so as to keep the tongue nearly covered until done ; boil until it 
can be pierced easily with a fork, take out, and if needed for pres- 
ent use, take off the skin and set away to cool ; if to be kept some 
days, do not peel until wanted for table. The same amount of salt 
will do for three tongues if the pot is large enough to hold them, 
always remembering to keep sufficient water in the kettle to cover 
all while boiling. Soak salt tongue over night, and cook in same 
way, omitting the salt. Or, after peeling, place the tongue in sauce- 
pan with one cup water, one-half cup vinegar, four table-spoon* 
sugar, and cook till liquor is evaporated. M. J. W. 



MEATS. 197 

RAGOUT OF BEEF. 

For six pounds of the round, take half dozen ripe tomatoes, cut 
up with two or three onions in a vessel with a tight cover, add half 
a dozen cloves, a stick of cinnamon, and a little whole black pepper; 
cut gashes in the meat, and stuff them with half pound of fat salt 
pork, cut into square bits ; place the meat on the other ingredients, 
and pour over them half a cup of vinegar and a cup of w r ater; 
cover tightly, and bake in a moderate oven ; cook slowly four or five 
hours, and, when about half done, salt to taste. When done, take 
out the meat, strain the gravy through a colander and thicken with 
flour. Mrs. D. W. R., Washington City. 

ROAST BEEF WITH PUDDING. 

Bake exactly as directed for ordinary roast for the table ; then 
make a Yorkshire pudding, to eat like vegetables with the roast, as 
follows : For every pint of milk take three eggs, three cups of flour, 
and a pinch of salt ; stir to a smooth batter, and pour into the drip- 
ping-pan under the meat, half an hour before it is done. Mrs. C. 

T. Carson. 

ROAST BEEF. 

Take a rib-piece or loin-roast of seven to eight pounds. Beafit 
thoroughly all over, lay it in the roasting dish and baste it with 
melted butter. Put it inside the well-heated oven, and baste fre- 
quently with its own fat. which will make it brown and tender. If, 
when it is cooking fast, the gravy is growing too brown, turn a 
glass of German cooking wine into the bottom of the pan, and 
repeat this as often as the gravy cooks away. The roast needs 
about two hours time to be done, and must be brown outside but 
inside still a little red. Season with salt and pepper. Squeeze a 
little lemon juice over it, and also turn the gravy upon it, after 
skimming off all fat. Mrs. L. S. Williston, Heidelberg, Germany. 

A BROWN STEW. 

Put on stove a rather thick piece of beef with little bone and 
some fat; four hours before needed, pour on just boiling water 
enough to cover, cover with a close-fitting lid, boil gently, and as 
the water boils away add only just enough from time to time to 
keep from burning, so that when the meat is tender, the water may 



198 MEATS. 

all be boiled away, as the fat will allow the meat to brown without 
burning ; turn occasionally, brown evenly over a slow fire, and make 
a gravy, by stirring flour and water together and adding to the 
drippings ; season with salt an hour before it is done. Mrs. Ceba 
Hull. 

STEWED BEEF. 

Take a piece of the rump, pound it till tender, lay in an iron 
vessel previously lined with slices of pork and onions, with a few 
pepper-corns, dredge it with salt, and baste with melted butter. 
Cover close, over a good heat, and when it has fried a nice brown, 
add one pint German cooking wine and as much more good soup 
stock, and stew it till soft. Before serving, take out the meat, skim 
off the fat, add a table-spoon of flour mixed smooth with broth, add 
gradually still more broth, strain it through a sieve and turn over the 
previously dished meat. The meat can be laid for some days before 
in vinegar, or in a spiced pickle, or be basted with either occasionally 
instead of lying in it. 

SPICED BEEF TONGUE. 

^Kub into the tongue a mixture of half a pint of sugar, a piece 
of saltpeter the size of a pea, and a table-spoon of ground cloves ; 
immerse it in a brine made of three-fourths pound salt to two quarts 
water, taking care that it is kept covered ; let lie two weeks, take 
out, wash well, and dry with a cloth ; roll out a thin paste made of 
flour and water, wrap the tongue in it, and put it in pan to bake ; 
bake slowly, basting well with lard and water ; when done, remove 
paste and skin, and serve. 

FRIED LIVER. 

Cut in thin slices and place on a platter, pour on boiling water 
and immediately pour it off (this seals the outside, takes away the 
unpleasant flavor, and makes it much more palatable) ; have ready 
in skillet on the stove, some hot lard or beef drippings, or both 
together, dredge the liver with rolled crackers or dried bread- 
crumbs rolled fine and nicely seasoned with pepper and salt, put 
in skillet, placing the tin cover on, fry slowly until both sides are 
dark-brown, when the liver will be thoroughly cooked. The time 
required is about a quarter of an hour. 



MEATS. 199 

LARDED LIVER. 

Lard a calf's liver with bacon or ham, season with salt and pep- 
per, tie a cord around the liver to keep in shape, put in a kettle 
with one quart of cold water, a quarter of a pound of bacon, one 
onion chopped fine, and one tea-spoon sweet marjoram ; let simmer 
slowly for two hours, pour off gravy into gravy-dish, and brown liver 
in kettle. Serve with the gravy. Mrs. E. L. Fay, Washington 
Heights, New York City. , 

FRIED TRIPE. 

Dredge with flour, or dip in egg and cracker crumbs, fry in hot 
butter, or other fat, until a delicate brown on both sides, lay it on a 
dish, add vinegar to the gravy, and pour over the tripe (or the 
vinegar may be omitted, and the gravy added, or the tripe may be 
served without vinegar or gravy). Or make a batter by mixing 
gradually one cup of flour with one of sweet milk, then add an egg 
well beaten and a little salt ; drain the tripe, dip in batter, and fry 
in hot drippings or lard. Salt pork and pig's-feet may be cooked 
by the same rule. In buying tripe get the " honey-combed." 

To fricassee tripe, cut it in narrow strips, add water or milk to it, 
and a good bit of butter rolled in flour, season with pepper and a 
little salt, let simmer slowly for some time, and serve hot garnished 

with parsley. 

SOUSED TRIPE. 

After preparing it according to directions in "How to cut and 
cure meats," place in a stone jar in layers, seasoning every layer 
with pepper and salt, and pour over boiling vinegar, in which, if 
desired, a few whole cloves, a sprinkle of mace, and a stick of 
cinnamon have been boiled; or cover with the jelly or liquor in 
which the tripe was boiled. When wanted for table, take out of 
jar, scrape off the liquid, and either broil, fricassee, fry in butter, 
or fry plain. Mrs. Eliza T. Carson, ML Pleasant Farm. 

TOAD-IN-THE-HOLE. 

Mix one pint flour and one egg with milk enough to make a bat- 
ter (like that for batter-cakes), and a little salt; grease dish well 
with butter, put in lamb chops, add a little water with pepper and 
salt, pour batter over it, and bake for one hour. 



200 MEATS. 

BOILED MUTTON WITH CAPER SAUCE. 

Have ready a pot of boiling water, and throw in a handful of 
salt ; wash a leg of mutton and rub salt through it. If it is to be 
rare, cook about two hours; if well done, three hours or longer, 
according to size. Boil a pint of milk, thicken with flour well 
blended, add butter, salt, pepper and two table-spoons of capers, or 
mint sauce if preferred. Mrs. E. L. F. 

LAMB STEWED WITH PEASE. 

Cut the neck or breast in pieces, put it in a stew-pan with some 
salt pork sliced thin, and enough water to cover it; cover close and 
let stew until the meat is tender, then skim free from scum, add a 
quart of green pease shelled, and more hot water, if necessary ; 
cover till the pease are done tender, then add a bit of butter rolled 
in flour, and pepper to taste ; let simmer for a few minutes and 

serve. 

MUTTON CHOPS. 

Season with salt and pepper, put in skillet, cover closely, and fry 
five minutes, turning over once ; dip each chop in beaten egg, then 
in cracker or bread-crumbs, and fry till tender or nicely browned on 
each side; or put in oven in a dripping-pan, with a little water, 
salt and pepper; baste frequently and bake until brown. To broil 
lamb chops, trim neatly, broil over a clear fire, season with pepper 
and salt, and serve with green pease. 

LEG OF MUTTON A LA VENISON. 

Remove all rough fat from a leg of mutton, lay in a deep 
earthen dish, and rub into the meat very thoroughly the following 
mixture : One table-spoon salt, one each of celery , salt, brown 
sugar, black pepper, made mustard, allspice, and sweet herbs mixed 
and powdered. After these have been rubbed into all parts of 
meat, pour over it slowly a tea-cup good vinegar, cover tightly and 
set in a cool place for four or five days, turning ham, and basting 
it with liquid three or four times a day. To cook, leave in a clean 
kettle a quart boiling water, have in kettle an inverted tin-pan or 
rack made for the purpose; on it lay ham just as taken out of 
pickle ; cover kettle tightly, and stew for four hours. Do not allow 
water to touch the meat. Add a tea-cup of hot water to the pickle, 



MEATS. 201 

and baste the ham with it. When ready to serve, thicken the 
liquid in the kettle with flour, strain through a fine strainer, and 
serve the meat with it and a relish of currant jelly. 

FROGS. 

Frogs may be broiled, or made into a fricassee seasoned with 
tomato catsup. The hind legs alone are eaten, and are a great 

delicacy. 

FRICATELLI. 

Chop raw fresh pork very fine, add a little salt, plenty of pepper, 
and two small onions chopped fine, half as much bread as there is 
meat, soaked until soft, two eggs; mix well together, make into 
oblong patties, and fry like oysters. These are nice for breakfast; 
if used for supper, serve with sliced lemon. Mrs. W. F. Wilcox. 

BONED HAM. 

Having soaked a well-cured ham in tepid water over night, boil 
it till perfectly tender, putting it on in warm water ; take up in a 
wooden tray, let cool, remove bone carefully, press the ham again 
into shape, return to boiling liquor, remove pot from fire, and let 
the ham remain in it till cold. Cut across and serve cold. Miss 

L. L. Richmond. 

BOILED HAM. 

Pour boiling water over it and let stand until cool enough to wash, 
scrape clean (some have a coarse hair-brush on purpose for cleaning 
hams), put in a thoroughly cleansed boiler with cold water enougn 
to cover; bring to the boiling point and then place on back part of 
stove to simmer steadily for six or seven hours or till tender when 
pierced with a fork (if the ham weighs twelve pounds) ; be care- 
ful to keep water at boiling point, and not to allow it to go much 
above it. Turn the ham once or twice in the water ; when done 
take up and put into a baking-pan to skin ; dip the hands in cold 
water, take the skin between the fingers and peel as you would an 
orange; set in a moderate oven, placing the lean side of the ham 
downward, and if you like, sift over pounded or rolled crackers ; 
bake one hour. The baking brings out a great quantity of fat, 
leaving the meat much more delicate, and in warm weather it wil] 
keep in a dry, cool place a long time ; if there is a tendency to mold, 
set it a little while into the oven again. Or, after the ham is boiled 



202 MEATS. 

and peeled, cover with the white of a raw egg, and sprinkle sugar 
or fine bread-crumbs over it ; or cover with a regular cake-icing, 
place in the oven and brow r n ; or, quarter two onions, stick whole 
allspice and black pepper in the quarters, with a knife make slits 
in the outside of the ham in which put the onions, place in dripping- 
pan, lay parsley around, and bake till nicely browned. Or, after 
boiling and peeling, dust with sugar, and pass a hot knife over it 
until it forms a caramel glaze, and serve without baking. A still 
nicer way is to glaze with strong meat jelly or any savory jelly at 
hand, boiled down rapidly (taking great care to prevent burning) 
until it is like glue. Brush this jelly over the ham when cool, and 
it makes it an elegant dish. The nicest portion of a boiled ham 
may be served in slices, and the ragged parts and odds and ends 
chopped fine for sandwiches, or by adding three eggs to one pint 
of chopped ham a delicious omelet may be made. If the ham is 
very salt, it should lie in water over night. 

BROILED HAM. 

Cut the ham in slices of medium thickness, place on a hot grid- 
iron, and broil until the fat readily flows out and the meat is slightly 
browned, take from the gridiron with a knife and fork, drop into a 
pan of cold water, then return again to the gridiron, repeat several 
times, and the ham is done ; place in a hot platter, add a few lumps 
of butter, and serve at once. If too fat, trim off a part ; it is almost 
impossible to broil the fat part without burning, but this does not 
impair the taste. Pickled pork and breakfast bacon may be broiled 
in the same way. Mrs. A. E. Brand, 

DELICIOUS FRIED HAM. 

Place the slices in boiling water and cook till tender; put in fry- 
ing-pan and brown, and dish on a platter; fry some eggs by dripping 
gravy over them until done, instead of turning ; take up carefully and 
lay them on the slices of ham. Mrs. J. F. W 

BAKED PIG. 

Take a pig about six weeks old, nicely prepared, score in squares, 
and rub lard all over it; make a dressing of two quarts of corn 
meal salted as if for bread, and mix to a stiff bread with boiling 
water; make into pans and bake. After this is baked brown, break 
it up, and add to it one-fourth pound of butter, pepper to taste, 



MEATS. 203 

and thyme. Fill the pig till plump, sew it up, and place it on its 
knees in the pan, which fill with as much water as will cook it. 
Baste it very frequently with the gravy, also two red pepper pods. 
Turn while baking same as turkey, and continue to baste till done. 
Some use turkey-dressing instead of above. Mrs. M. L. Blanton, 
I Nashville, Tenn. 

SPARE-RIB POT-PIE. 

Cut the spare-ribs once across and then in strips three or four 
inches wide, put on in kettle with hot water enough to cover, stew 
until tender, season with salt and pepper, and turn out of kettle ; 
replace a layer of spare-ribs in the bottom, add a layer of peeled 
potatoes (quartered if large), some bits of butter, some small squares 
of baking-powder dough rolled quite thin, season again, then another 
layer of spare-ribs, and so on until the kettle is two-thirds full, 
leaving the squares of crust for the last layer ; then add the liquor 
in which the spare-ribs were boiled, and hot water if needed, cover, 
boil half to three-quarters of an hour, being careful to add hot water 
go as not to let it boil dry. The crust can be made of light biscuit 
dough, without egg or sugar, as follows : Roll thin, cut out, let rise, 
and use for pie, remembering to have plenty of water in the kettle, 
so that when the pie is made and the cover on, it need not be re- 
moved until dished. If, after taking up, there is not sufficient 
gravy, add hot water and flour and butter rubbed together ; season 
to taste, and serve. To warm over potrpie, set it in a dripping-pan 
in the oven, add lumps of butter with gravy or hot water; more 
squares of dough may be laid on the top. Mrs. W. W. W. 

PlGS'-FEET SOUSE. 

Cut off the horny parts of feet and toes, scrape, clean, and w r ash 
thoroughly, singe off the stray hairs, place in a kettle with plenty 
of water, boil, skim, pour off water and add fresh, and boil until the 
bones will pull out easily ; do not bone, but pack in a stone jar with 
pepper and salt sprinkled between each layer; cover with good 
cider vinegar. When wanted for the table, take out a sufficient 
quantity, put in a hot skillet, add more vinegar, salt, and pepper 
if needed, boil until thoroughly heated, stir in a smooth thicken- 
ing of flour and water, and boil until flour is cooked ; serve hot as 
a nice breakfast dish. Or, when the feet have boiled until perfectly 



204 MEATS. 

tender, remove the bones and pack in stone jar as above ; slice 
down cold when wanted for use. Let the liquor in which the feet are 
boiled stand over night ; in the morning remove the fat and pre- 
pare and preserve for use as directed in the Medical Department. 

PIG'S-HEAD CHEESE. 

Having thoroughly cleaned a hog's or pig's head, split it in two, 
take out the eyes and the brain; clean the ears, throw scalding 
water over the head and ears, then scrape them well ; when very 
clean, put in a kettle with water to cover it, and set it over a rathei 
quick fire ; skim it as any scum rises ; when boiled so that the flesh 
leaves the bones, take it from the water with a skimmer into a large 
wooden bowl or tray ; then take out every particle of bone, chop the 
meat fine, season to taste with salt and pepper (a little pounded 
sage may be added), spread a cloth over the colander, put the meat 
in, fold cloth closely over it, lay a weight on it so that it may press 
the whole surface equally (if it be lean use a heavy weight, if fat, 
a lighter one) ; when cold take off weight, remove from colander, 
and place in crock. Some add vinegar in proportion of one pint to 
a gallon crock. Clarify the fat from the cloth, colander, and liquor 
of the pot, and use for frying. 

FRIED PORKSTEAKS. 

Fry like beefsteaks, with pepper and salt ; or sprinkle with dry 
powdered sage if the sausage flavor is liked. Mrs. B. A. Fay. 

FRIED SALT PORK. 

Cut in rather thin slices, and freshen by letting lie an hour or two 
in cold water or milk and water, roll in flour and fry till crisp (if 
in a hurry, pour boiling water on the slices, let stand a few minutes, 
drian, roll in flour and fry as before) ; drain off most of the grease 
from frying-pan, stir in while hot one or two table-spoons of flour P 
about half a pint new milk, a little pepper, and salt if not salt 
enough already from the meat ; let boil and pour into gravy dish. 
This makes a nice white gravy when properly made. 

ROAST PORK. 

A small loin of pork, three table-spoons bread-crumbs, one onion, 
half a tea-spoon chopped sage, half tea-spoon salt, half tea-spoon 
pepper, one ounce chopped suet, one table-spoon drippings. Sepa- 



MEATS. 205 

rate each joint of the loin with the chopper, and then make an in- 
cision with a knife into the thick part of the pork in which to put 
the stuffing. Prepare the stuffing by mixing the bread-crumbs 
together with the onion, which must have previously been finely 
chopped. Add to this the sage, pepper, salt and suet, and when all 
is thoroughly mixed, press the mixture snugly into the incision 
already made in the pork, and sew together the edges of the meat 
with needle and thread, to confine the stuffing. Grease well a sheet 
of kitchen paper, w r ith drippings, place the loin into this, securing 
it with a wrapping of twine. Put to bake in a dry baking-pan, in 
a brisk oven, basting immediately and constantly as the grease draws 
out, and roast a length of time, allowing twenty minutes to the 
pound and twenty minutes longer. Serve with apple-sauce or apple- 
fritters. Miss M. L. Dods. 

ROAST SPARE-RIB. 

Trim off the rough ends neatly, crack the ribs across the middle, 
rub with salt and sprinkle with pepper, fold over, stuff with turkey- 
dressing, sew up tightly, place in dripping-pan with pint of water, 
baste frequently, turning over once so as to bake both sides equally 
until a rich brown. 

YANKEE PORK AND BEANS. 

Pick over carefully a quart of beans and let them soak over 
night ; in the morning wash and drain in another water, put on to 
boil in cold water with half a teaspoon of soda ; boil about thirty 
minutes (when done the skin of a bean will crack if taken out and 
blown upon), drain, and put in an earthen pot first a slice of pork 
and then the beans, with two or three table-spoons of molasses. 
When the beans are in the pot, put in the center half or three- 
fourths of a pound of well-washed salt pork with the rind scored in 
slices or squares, and uppermost, season with pepper and salt if 
needed ; cover all with hot water, and bake six hours or longer in 
a moderate oven, adding hot water as needed ; they can not be 
baked too long. Keep covered so that they will not burn on the 
top, but remove cover an hour or two before serving, to brown the 
top and crisp the pork. This is the Yankee dish for Sunday breakfast. 
It is often baked the day before, allowed to remain in the oven all 



206 MEATS. 

night, and browned in the morning. Serve in the dish in which 
they are cooked, and always have enough left to know the luxury 
of cold beans, or baked beans warmed over. If salt pork is too 
robust for the appetites to be served, season delicately with salt, 
pepper, and a little butter, and roast a fresh spare-rib to serve with 

them. 

FRIED VEAL CUTLETS. 

Make a batter of half pint of milk, a well-beaten egg, and flour-, 
fry the veal brown in sweet lard or beef-drippings, dip it in the 
batter and fry again till brown ; drop some spoonfuls of batter in 
the hot lard after the veal is taken up, and serve them on top of 
the meat ; put a little flour paste in the gravy with salt and pepper, 
let it come to a boil and pour it over the whole. The veal should 
be cut thin, pounded, and cooked nearly an hour. Cracker crumbs 
and egg may be used instead of batter, but the skillet should then 
be kept covered, arid the veal cooked slowly for half an hour over 
a moderate fire. If a gravy is wanted sprinkle a little flour in the 
pan, add salt and pepper and a little water, let come to a boil, and 
pour over the cutlets; or, pound well, squeeze juice of lemon over 
the slices, let stand an hour or two, dip in beaten egg and then in 
fine bread-crumbs (if no stale bread is at hand dry slices in a cool 
oven), plunge at once into hot fat enough to cover. The slices wiU 
brown before they are thoroughly cooked, and the pan should be 
drawn aside to a cooler place to " finish" more slowly. 

Fish may be fried in the same way; when done the meat will sep- 
arate readily from the bone when a knife is inserted. They may be 
dipped in milk and then in flour, instead of in egg and bread- 
crumbs ; sift salt evenly over the meat or fish just before serving. 
The bread-crumbs should be fine; if coarse, they crumble off with 
the egg in cooking. 

VEAL LOAF. 

Chop fine three pounds of leg or loin of veal and three-fourths 
pound salt pork, chopped finely together; roll one dozen crackers, 
put half of them in the veal with two eggs, season with pepper and 
a little salt if needed; mix all together and make into a solid form; 
then take the crackers that are left and spread smoothly over the 
outside ; bake one hour, and eat cold. Gov. Tilden, N. Y. 



MEATS. 207 

ROAST LOIN OF VEAL. 

Wash and rub thoroughly with salt and pepper, leaving in the 
kidney, around which put plenty of salt; roll up, let stand two 
hours ; in the meantime make dressing of bread-crumbs, salt, pep- 
per, and chopped parsley or thyme moistened with a little hot 
water and butter some prefer chopped salt pork also add an egg. 
Unroll the veal, put the dressing well around the kidney, fold, and 
secure well with several yards white cotton twine, covering the 
meat in all directions ; place in the dripping-pan with the thick 
side down, put to bake in a rather hot oven, graduating it to 
moderate heat afterward ; in half an hour add a little hot water to 
the pan, baste often ; in another half hour turn over the roast, and 
when nearly done, dredge lightly with flour, and baste with melted 
butter. Before serving, carefully remove the twine. A four-pound 
roast thus prepared will bake thoroughly tender in about two hours. 
To make the gravy, skim off fat if there is too much in the drippings, 
dredge some flour in the pan, stir until it browns, add some hot 
water if necessary, boil a few moments and serve in gravy-boat. 
This roast is very nice to slice down cold for Sunday dinners. 
Serve with green pease and lemon jelly. 

STEWED KIDNEY. 

Boil kidneys the night before till very tender, turn meat and 
gravy into a dish and cover over. In the morning, boil for a few 
moments, thicken with flour and water, add part of an onion chopped 
very fine, pepper, salt, and a lump of butter, and pour over toasted 
bread well buttered. Mrs. E. L. F. 

VEAL STEW. 

Boil two and a half pounds of the breast of veal one hour in 
water enough to cover, add a dozen potatoes, and cook half an hcur ; 
before taking off the stove, add one pint of milk and flour enough 
to thicken ; season to taste. If preferred, make a crust as for 
chicken-pie, bake in two pie-pans, place one of the crusts on the 
platter, pour over the stew, and place the other on top. Kate Thomp- 
son, Mittersburg, Ky. 



208 MEATS. 

SWEET-BREADS. 

These are great delicacies. There are two in a calf, one from 
neck called " throat sweet-bread," the other from near the heart 
called "heart sweet-bread." The latter is most delicate. Select 
the largest. The color should be clear and a shade darker than the 
fat. Before cooking let the sweet- breads lie for half an hour in 
luke-warm water, then throw 7 into boilmg water to blanch and 
harden, and then into cold water to cool ; after which draw off the 
outer casing, remove the little pipes, and cut into thin slices. Sweet- 
breads do not keep well, and should be fresh, and must be kept in 
a cold, dry place. They should be thoroughly cooked. In lard- 
ing sweet-bread, take deep, long stitches, or they will break out. 

To broil, prepare as above, spread plenty of butter over them, 
and broil on a gridiron over hot coals, turning often. 

To fricassee, cut up the remnant of a cooked sweet-bread in small 
pieces, prepare a gravy by melting two table-spoons butter and 
stirring in a table-spoon flour, and adding a tea-cup of soup stock 
or water; lay pieces of sweet-bread in pan with gravy, season with 
pepper and salt, ?.nd boil up once. Garnish with sliced lemon or 
pieces of fried bread. If sweet-breads are fresh, cut into thin slices, 
let simmer slowly in the gravy for three-quarters of an hour, and 
add a well-beaten egg, two table-spoons cream, and a spoonful 
chopped parsley; stir all together for a few minutes, and serve im- 
mediately. 

To fry, parboil five minutes, wipe dry, lard with narrow strips of 
salt fat pork with a larding-needle, put a very little butter or lard 
into a frying-pan, lay in the sweet-breads when it is hot, and fry to 
a crisp brown, turning often. Or, slice thin, sprinkle over grated 
nutmeg and chopped parsley, dip into a batter made of one cup 
milk, one egg, one cup of flour, a pinch of salt, and a half tea- 
spoon baking-powder, and fry like fritters. 

To roast, parboil large ones, and, w T hen cold, lard with salt pork 
as above. Roast brown in a moderate oven, basting often with 
butter and water. Serve with white sauce or tomato sauce poured 
over them. For sweet-breads with green pease, lard five sweet-breads 
with strips of salt pork (project evenly about half an inch on the 
upper side), put on the fire with a half pint water, and let stew 



MEATS. 

slowly for half an hour, take out and put in a small dripping-pan 
with a little butter and a sprinkle of flour; brown slightly, add half 
a gill of mingled milk and water, and season with pepper ; heat a 
half pint of cream, arid stir it in the gravy in the pan. Have pease 
ready boiled and seasoned, place the sweet-breads in the center of 
the dish, pour the gravy over them, and put pease around them. 

VEAL WITH OYSTERS. 

Fry two pounds tender veal cut in thin bits, and dredged with 
flour, in sufficient hot lard to prevent sticking ; when nearly done 
add one and a half pints of fine oysters, thicken with flour, season 
with salt and pepper, and cook until done. Serve hot in covered dish. 

STUFFED HEART. 

Take a beef's or sheep's or veal's heart, wash deeply and thoroughly 
so as to remove all blood, make the two cells into one by cutting 
through the partition with a long, sharp knife, being careful not to 
cut through to the outside ; make a stuffing of bread crumbs same 
as for roast turkey, fill the cavity, cover with greased paper or cloth 
to secure stuffing, and bake in a deep pan with plenty of water, for 
two hours or longer, basting and turning often, as the upper part 
particularly is apt to get dry. While heart is roasting, put the valves 
or " deaf ears," which must be cut off after washing, into a sauce- 
pan, with pint of cold water and a sliced onion. Let simmer slowly 
one hour ; melt in saucepan tablespoon of butter, add a tablespoon 
flour, then the strained liquor from valves, and serve as gravy. 

VEAL OR CHICKEN POT-PIE. 

Put two or three pounds veal (a piece with ribs is good), cut in a 
dozen pieces, in a quart of cold water; make a quart of soda-bis- 
cuit dough, take two-thirds of dough, roll to a fourth of an inch 
thick, cut in strips one inch wide by three long ; pare and slice six 
potatoes ; boil veal till tender, take out all but three or four pieces, 
put in two handfuls of potatoes and several strips of dough, then 
add pieces of veal and dough, seasoning with salt, pepper, and a 
little butter, until all the veal is in pot; add boiling water enough 
to cover, take rest of dough, roll out to size of pot, cut several holes 
to let steam escape, and place over the whole. Put on a tight lid 

and boil (gently} twenty or thirty minutes without uncovering. 

K 



PASTRY 



Butter or lard for pastry should be sweet, fresh and solid. 
When freshly-made butter can not be hud, wash well, kneading 
while under cold water, changing the water two or three times, and 
then wiping dry with a napkin. The board on which the butter is 
rolled should be hard and smooth, and never used for any other 
purpose. 

A very nice paste for family use may be made by reducing the 
quantity of shortening to even so little as a half pound to a quart 
of flour, especially when children or dyspeptics are to be considered. 
With the exception of mince-pies, which are warmed over before 
serving, all pies should be eaten the day they are baked. In warm 
weather, when not ready to bake immediately after making up 
paste, keep it in the ice-chest till wanted, several days if necessary, 
and, in any event, it is better to let it thus remain for one or two 
hours. Roll always with a well-floured rolling-pin. 

To prevent the juice of pies from soaking into the under crust, 
beat an egg well, and with a bit of cloth dipped into the egg, rub 
over the crust before filling the pies. 

For a more wholesome pie-crust shortening, boil beans or potatoes 
'until soft, make into a broth, work through a colander, mix as much 
into the flour as can be done and preserve sufficient tenacity in the 
dough. Knead moderately stiff, and roll a little thicker than crust 
shortened with lard. It is a good plan to make a puff-paste for the 
top crust, and for the under crust use less shortening. 

When using green currants, pie-plant, gooseberries, or other fruits 
which require the juice to be thickened, fill the lower crust, sprinkle 

(210) 



PASTRY. 211 

corn starch evenly over, and put on the upper crust. This pre- 
vents the juice from running over, and, when cold, forms a nice 
jelly. Do not sprinkle with sugar until the fruit is placed in the 
crust, as the sugar sets the juice free. In all pies with top crust, 
make air-holes, or the crust will burst. These may be arranged in 
any fanciful shape, and are best made by the point of the bowl of 
an inverted tea-spoon pressed through the crust while on the board, 
and gently drawn apart when taken up to put over the fire. Mer- 
ingue, for pies or puddings, is made in the proportion of one table- 
spoon sugar to white of one egg, with flavoring added. Never fill 
pies until just before putting them in the oven. Always use tin 
pie-pans, since, in earthen pans, the under crust is not likely to be 
well baked. Just before putting on the upper crust, wet the rim 
of the lower with the finger dipped in water, or with a thick paste 
of flour and water, or egg and flour, and press the two crusts firmly 
together; this will prevent that bane of all pastry cooks a burst 
pie. Bake fruit pies in a moderate oven, having a better heat at 
the bottom than at the top of the oven, or the lower crust will be 
clammy and raw. When done, the crust will separate from the 
pan, so that the pie may be easily removed. Remove at once from 
the tins, or the crust will become "soggy." 

The secret of success in making puff-paste is to secure the great- 
est possible number of layers of butter and dough (alternately) as 
the result of folding and rolling. This is best accomplished, as will 
readily be perceived, by increasing the quantity of butter; the more 
you use, the greater the number of layers before the butter is ex- 
hausted by absorption into the dough. On the other hand, too 
much butter produces equally bad results ; a quantity of butter 
equal to the flour is the most, and three-fourths pound of butter 
to a pound of flour the least, that can be used in puff-paste with 
good results. For pastry for the family table the proportion of 
butter may be reduced to one-fourth as much butter as flour, and 
lard or suet may be substituted for butter. 

In making puff-paste, it is a mistake to suppose that lessening the 
quantity of butter is economical. For instance, tartlets cut one- 
fourth of an inch thick from paste made with half a pound of but- 
ter to a pound of flour, will not be any thicker or higher when 



212 PASTRY. 

baked than those cut from paste half as thick made with 
three-fourths pound butter to a pound of flour. Thus, by using one- 
fourtli more butter double the bulk results, besides the satisfaction 
of having good light pastry. In washing or egging pastry, be care- 
ful not to allow the egg or milk, or whatever is used, to run down 
over the edges, or, as it sets by the heat of the oven, it will bind 
the edges and prevent them from opening fully. In rolling, use 
the rolling-pin as lightly as possible, and take care that the pressure 
is even. The layers will be even or uneven just in proportion as 
the pressure is even or uneven. Be careful not to break the dough, 
or the butter will be forced through, and thus destroy the evenness 
of the layers. If the dough breaks, cover it with a piece of "plain 
dough," dust it well with flour, and continue rolling. (It is well 
to keep a piece of plain dough in reserve for this purpose.) 

AUNTY PHELPS' PIE CRUST. 

To one pint of sifted flour, add one even tea-spoon baking powder, 
and sweet cream enough to wet the flour, leaving crust a little stiff. 
This is enough for two pies. 

GOOD COMMON PASTE. 

One coffee-cup lard, three of sifted flour, and a little salt. In 
winter soften the lard a little (but not in summer), cut it well into 
the flour with a knife, then mix with cold water quickly into a 
moderately stiff dough, handling as little as possible. This makes 
four common-sized covered pies. Take a new slice of paste each 
time for top crust. After rolling spread with a tea-spoon, butter, 
fold and roll again, using the trimmings, etc., for under crust. 
Miss Katy Eupp. 

GRAHAM PASTE. 

Mix lightly half a pound Graham flour, half a pint sweet cream, 
half a teaspoon salt, roll, and bake like other pastry. 

PUFF PASTE. 

Take three-fourths pound of butter (be sure that it is of the best 
quality), free it from salt (by working it in water), form it in a 
square lump, and place it in flour for half an hour to harden ; place 
one pound of flour in a bowl, take two ounces of butter and rub it 
** fine " into the flour, wet the flour into dough with cold water, 



PASTEY. 213 

making it aa neat- ab possible the same consistency as the butter 
(so that At. two will roll out evenly together) ; now place the dough 
on the pastry board, dust it under and over with flour, and roll it 
out in a piece say twelve inches long and six wide ; now flour butter 
well, and roll that out in a sheet about eight inches long and five 
wide, (this will cover about three-fourths of the dough, leaving one- 
fourth of the dough, and about half an inch around the sides and 
top edge, without butter). Place the sheet of butter on the dough 
as described ; take half a iea-spoon cream tartar, mix it with twice 
its bulk of flour, and sprinkle it evenly over the butter; now fold 
the one-fourth not covered with butler, over on the butter, then 
fold the other part with the butter on it over on that, and you will 
then have three layers of dough ai?d two of butter. Roll out to its 
original size, dust with flour, fold it as before, roll out again, dust 
with flour, and fold again; repeat twice more, giving it four rollings 
and foldings ; when rolled out for the last time, cut it through in 
two even pieces, and place one on the other, and the paste is ready 
to roll in any shape desired. 

In w r arm weather it is necessary to place it in a cool place after 
every second rolling ; in very warm weather after each rolling, and 
sometimes on ice. A good, firm, tough butter is best for the pur- 
pose. Take care not to use carbonate of soda or saleratus instead 
of cream tartar ; use a sharp cutter to cut out tartlets ; give a rapid 
downward cut so that it will cut, not drag through, so that the 
layers may not be pressed together, so as to prevent their opening 
readily when baking, thus preventing the tartlets from raising fully. 
After they are cut, place them on the pans or in the patty-pans 
upside down, because the cutter in dividing the paste presses down 
ward toward the board, closing the layers, and if placed in oven 
right side up, the edges pressed somewhat closely together can not 
open fully, consequently do not rise well, but, if inverted, the layers 
open more evenly at the edges. C. H. King, Orange, N. J. 

PUFF PASTE. 

One heaping pound superfine sifted flour, one of butter, winch 
has first been folded in a napkin and gently pressed to remove all 



214 PASTRY. 

moisture; place the flour on board (or marble slab is better), make 
a well in center, squeeze in juice of half a lemon, and add yolk of 
one egg, beaten with a little ice-water ; stir with one hand and drop 
in ice- water with the other, until the paste is as hard as the butter ; 
roll paste out in a smooth square an inch thick, smooth sides with 
a rolling-pin, spread the butter over half the paste; lay the other 
half over like an old-fashioned turn-over, leave it for fifteen min- 
utes in a cold place, then roll out in a long strip, keeping the edges 
smooth, and double it in three parts, as follows: Fold one-third over 
on the middle third, roll it down, then fold over the other outside 
third, roll out in a long strip and repeat the folding process rolling 
across this time so that the butter may not run "in streaks" by 
being always rolled the same way ; let it lie for fifteen minutes, and 
repeat this six times, allowing fifteen minutes between each rolling 
to cool, otherwise the butter will "oil," and the paste is ready for 
use. Handle as little as possible through the whole process. All 
the flour used must be of the very best quality, and thoroughly 
sifted. The quantity of water depends on the capacity of the flour 
to absorb it, which is quite variable. Too little makes the paste 
toug 1 !, and too much makes it thin, and prevents the flakiness so 
desirable. Rich paste requires a quick oven. This may be made 
in one-fourth the quantity given above, and is then much more 
easily handled. Mrs. V. G. Hush, Minneapolis, Minn. 

PASTE WITH SUET. 

Roll a half-pound of the best suet, with very little membrane 
running through it, on a board for several minutes, removing all 
tne skin and fibers that appear when rolling ; the suet will be a 
pure and sweet shortening, looking like butter; or the suet may 
be chopped fine and the fibers removed. Rub the suet into a 
pound of flour, add a tea-spoon salt, and mix it with a half 
pint of ice-water ; roll out for the plates, and put on a little butter 
in flakes, rolling it in as usual. Some add a tea-spoon baking- 
powder. 

APPLE MERINGUE PIE. 

Pare, slice, stew and sweeten ripe, tart and juicy apples, mash 
and season with nutmeg, (or stew lemon peel with them for flavor), 
fill crust and bake till done ; spread over the apple a thick meringue 



PASTET. 215 

made by whipping to froth whites of three eggs for each pie, sweet- 
ening with three table-spoons powdered sugar ; flavor with vanilla, 
beat until it will stand alone, and cover pie three-quarters of an 
inch thick. Set back in a quick oven till well " set," and eat cold. 
In their season substitute peaches for apples. 

APPLE CUSTARD PIE. 

Peel sour apples and stew until soft, and not much water is left 
in them, and rub through a colander. Beat three eggs for each 
pie. Put in in proportion of one cup butter, and one of sugar for 
three pies. Season with nutmeg. Mrs. D. G. Cross. 

DRIED APPLE PIE. 

Very good pies may be made of the " Alden " dried apples, by 
stewing in a very little water ; sweeten and make like any other. 
The home dried apples are best when stewed very soft, and mashed 
through a colander. When stewing put in two or three small pieces 
of lemon or orange peel (previously dried and saved for cooking 
purposes); flavor with a very little spice of any kind. Sweeten and 
season before putting into the pie-pan. A beaten egg may be stirred 
in. Bake with two crusts, rolled thin, and warm slightly before 

eating. 

SLICED-APPLE PIE. 

Line pie-pan with crust, sprinkle with sugar, fill with tart apples 
sliced very thin, sprinkle sugar and a very little cinnamon over 
them, and add a few small bits of butter, and a table-spoon 
water; dredge in flour, cover with the top crust, and bake 
half to three-quarters of an hour; allow four or five table-spoons 
sugar to one pie. Or, line pans with crust, fill with sliced apples, 
put on top crust and bake; take off top crust, put in sugar, bits of 
butter and seasoning, replace crust and serve warm. It is delicious 
with sweetened cream. Crab-apple pie, if made of "Transcend- 
ents," will fully equal those made of larger varieties of the apple. 

Mrs. D. Buxton. 

BANANA PIE. 

Slice raw bananas, add butter, sugar, allspice and vinegar, or 
boiled cider, or diluted jelly; bake with two crusts. Cold boiled 
sweet potatoes may be used instead of bananas, and are very nice. 



216 PASTRY. 

CORN STARCH PIES. 

One quart milk, yolks of two eggs, two table-spoons corn starch, 
two cups sugar; mix starch in a little milk, boil the rest of the 
milk to a thick cream, beat the yolks and add starch, put in the 
boiled milk and add sugar ; bake with an under crust, beat whites 
with two table-spoons sugar, and put on top of pies, and, when 
done, return to oven and brown. Mrs. J. W. Grubbs, Richmond, 

CREAM PIE. 

Beat thoroughly together the white of one egg, half tea-cup sugar, 
and table-spoon of flour; then add tea-cup rich milk (some use part 
cream), bake with a bottom crust, and grate nutmeg on top. Mrs. 

Luther Liggett. 

CREAM PIE. 

Pour a pint cream upon a cup and a half powdered sugar; let 
stand until the whites of three eggs have been beaten to a stiff 
froth ; add this to the cream, and beat up thoroughly, grate a little 
nutmeg over the mixture, and bake in two pies without upper 
crusts. Mrs. Henry C. Meredith, 

WHIPPED CREAM PIE. 

Sweeten with white sugar one tea-cup very thick sweet cream, 
made as cold as possible without freezing, and flavor with lemon 
or vanilla to taste; beat until as light as eggs for frosting, and keep 
cool until the crust is ready ; make crust moderately rich, prick well 
with a fork to prevent blistering, bake, spread on the cream, and 
to add finish put bits of jelly over the top. The above will make 
two pies. Mrs, A. M. Alexander, Harrisburg. 

CRUMB PIE. 

Soak in a little warm water one tea-cup bread-crumbs half an 
hour, add three table-spoons sugar, half a table-spoon butter, half a 
cup of cold water, a little vinegar, and nutmeg to suit the taste; 
bake with two crusts, made the same as for other pies. Miss Syl- 
via J. Courier. 

COCOA-NUT PIE. 

One pint milk, a cocoa-nut, tea-cup sugar, three eggs ; grate cocoa- 
nut, mix with the yolks of the eggs and sugar, stir in the milk, 
filling the pan even full, and bake. Beat whites of eggs to froth. 



PASTRY. 217 

stirring in three table-spoons pulverized sugar, pour over pie and 
bake to a light brown. If prepared cocoa-nut is used, one heaping 
tea-cup is required. Miss N. B. Brown, Washington City. 

CUSTARD PIE. 

Heat one quart good rich milk in a tin-pan set in a skillet of hot 
water; take five eggs, four large table-spoons sugar, and a little 
salt, beat sugar and eggs a little, and pour in the milk ; flavor to 
suit the taste and have oven hot when put in to bake. Then cook 
slowly so as not to boil, as that spoils it ; test with a knife, when 
done it will not stick to blade. Without the crust, this makes a 
delicious baked custard. Bake in a deep tin Mrs. C. B. Boody, 
J&rkhoveti, 

CUSTARD PIE. 

For a large pie, take three eggs, one pint of milk, half cup sugar, 
and flavor. The crust for custard pies may be baked (not too hard) 
before putting in the custard ; prick it before putting it in oven to 
prevent blistering. This prevents it from becoming soggy. Mrs. 

N. S. Long. 

CHESS PIE. 

Three eggs, two-thirds cup sugar, half cup butter (half cup milk 
may be added if not wanted so rich) ; beat butter to a cream, then 
add yolks and sugar beaten to a froth with the flavoring ; stir all 
together rapidly, and bake in a nice crust. When done, spread 
with the beaten whites, and three table-spoons sugar and a little 
flavoring. Return to oven, and brown slightly. This makes one 
pie, which should be served immediately. Mrs. J. Carson, Glendale. 

GREEN CURRANT PIE. 

Line an inch pie-dish with good pie-crust, sprinkle over the bot- 
tom two heaping table-spoons sugar and two of flour (or one of corn 
starch) mixed ; then pour in one pint green currants washed clean, 
and two table-spoons currant jelly ; sprinkle with four heaping 
table-spoons sugar, and add two table-spoons cold water ; cover and 
bake fifteen or twenty minutes. Miss S. Alice Melching. 

RIPE CURRANT PIE. 

One cup mashed ripe currants, one of sugar, two table-spoons 
Water, one of flour beaten with the yolks of two eggs ; bake, frost 



218 PASTRY. 

the top with the beaten whites of the eggs and two tablespoons 
powdered sugar, and brown in oven. Mrs. W. E. H., 

CHERRY PIE. 

Line a pie-tin with rich crust ; nearly fill with the carefully 
seeded fruit, sweeten to taste, and sprinkle evenly with a tea-spoon 
corn-starch or a table-spoon flour, add a table-spoon of butter cut 
into small bits and scattered over the top ; wet edge of crust, put on 
upper crust, and press the edges closely together, taking care to pro- 
vide holes in the center for the escape of the air. Pies from black- 
berries, raspberries, etc., are all made in the same way, regulating 
the quantity of the sugar by the tartness of the fruit. 

LEMON PIE. 

One lemon grated, one cup sugar, the yolks of three eggs, small 
pieces butter, three table-spoons milk, two tea-spoons corn starch ; 
beat all together and bake in a rich crust; beat the whites with 
three table-spoons sugar, place on the pie when done, and then 
brown in the oven. Mrs. W. E. Scobey. 

LEMON PIE. 

Four eggs, one and a half cups sugar, two-thirds cups water, two 
table-spoons flour, one lemon. Beat the yolks of eggs until very 
smooth (beat the yolks a long time and whip the whites well), add 
the grated peel of lemon and the sugar, beat well, stir in the flour, 
and add the lemon juice (if lemons are small two may be necessary), 
and lastly the water; stir well, and pour in pie-pans lined with* 
paste. When baked, take from oven, and spread over them the 
whites of the eggs beaten dry and smooth with four table-spoons 
pulverized sugar ; return to oven and brown slightly. The above 
recipe is for two pies. Mrs. Virginia C. Meredith. 

APPLELESS MINCE-MEAT. 

Chop fine eight pounds green tomatoes, add six pounds sugar, one 
ounce each of cloves, cinnamon and allspice, simmer slowly till 
tomatoes are clear, then put away in a covered jar. For pies in 
winter, take in the proportion of two-thirds tomatoes and one-third 
meat, and season with butter, boiled cider, sugar if needed, etc., as. 
regular mince pies would be seasoned. 



PASTRY. 219 

MINCE-MEAT. 

Take five or six pounds scraggy beef a neck piece will do and 
put to boil in water enough to cover it; take oft' the scum that 
rises when it reaches the boiling point, add hot water from time to 
time until it is tender, then remove the lid from the pot, salt, let 
boil till almost dry, turning the meat over occasionally in the liquor, 
take from the fire, and let stand over night to get thoroughly cold; 
pick bones, gristle, or stringy bits from the meat, chop very fine, 
mincing at the same time three pounds of nice beef suet ; seed and 
cut four pounds raisins, wash and dry four pounds currants, slice 
thin a pound of citron, chop fine four quarts good-cooking tart ap- 
ples; put into a large pan together, add two ounces cinnamon, one 
of cloves, one of ginger, four nutmegs, the juice and grated rinds 
-of two lemons, one table-spoon salt, one tea-spoon pepper, and two 
pounds sugar. Put in a porcelain kettle one quart boiled cider, or, 
Tbetter still, one quart currant or grape juice (canned when grapes 
are turning from green to purple), one quart nice molasses or syrup, 
,and, if you have any syrup left from sweet pickles, add some of 
that, also a good lump of butter ; let it come to boiling point, and 
pour over the ingredients in the pan after having first mixed them 
well, then mix again thoroughly. Pack in jars and put in a cool 
place, and, when cold, pour molasses over the top an eighth of an 
inch in thickness, and cover tightly. This will keep two months. 
For baking, take some out of a jar, if not moist enough add a little 
hot water, and strew a few whole raisins over each pie. Instead of 
foiled beef, a beefs-heart or roast meat may be used ; and a good 
proportion for a few pies is one- third chopped meat and two- thirds 
-apples, with a little suet, raisins, spices, butter, and salt. 

The above is a good formula to use, but, of course, may be varied 
to suit different tastes or the material at hand. If too rich, add 
more chopped apples ; in lieu of cider, vinegar and water in equal 
proportions may be used ; good preserves, marmalades, spiced 
pickle?, currant or grape jelly, canned fruit, dried cherries, etc., 
may take the place of raisins, currants and citrons. Wine or 
brandy is considered by many a great improvement, but if 
causeth thy brother to offend " do not use it. Lemon and vanilla 
extracts are often used, also preserved lemon or orange peel. The 



220 PASTE Y. 

mince-meat is better to stand over night, or several days, before 
baking into pies, as the materials will be more thoroughly incorpo- 
rated. Many prefer to freeze their pies after baking, heating them as 

needed. 

MINCE-MEAT. 

1 Two bowls chopped apples, one of chopped meat, with one-fourth 
pound suet, grated rind and juice of one lemon, two tea-cups mo 
lasses, one large tea-spoon each of cinnamon and cloves, one nut- 
meg, one pound raisins, half pound currants, one-fourth pound 
citron cut fine, one quart cider, and sugar and salt to taste. Mrs. J. 
R. Wilcox, New Haven, 

MOCK MINCE-PIE. 

Twelve crackers rolled fine, one cup hot water, half cup vinegar, 
one cup molasses, one of sugar, one of currants, one of raisins, spice 
to taste; measure with a 'tea-cup. Some use one cup dried bread- 
crumbs, and also add a small cup butter. This is for four pies. 
Mrs. Annie E. Gillespie, 

ORANGE PIE. 

Grated rind and juice of two oranges, four eggs, four table-spoons 
sugar, and one of butter ; cream the butter and sugar, add the 
beaten eggs, then the rind and juice of the oranges, and, lastly, the 
whites beaten to a froth, and mixed in lightly. Bake with an under 
crust. Gov. Stearns, Florida. 

PlE-FLANT PlE. 

Mix half tea-cup white sugar and one heaping tea-spoon flour 
together, sprinkle over the bottom crust, then add the pie-plant cut 
up fine ; sprinkle over this another half tea-cup sugar and heaping 
tea-spoon flour; bake fully three-quarters of an hour in a slow oven. 
Or, stew the pie-plant, sweeten, add grated rind and juice of a 
lemon and yolks of two eggs, and bake and frost like lemon pie. 

Mrs. D. Biixton. 

PEACH PIE. 

Bake in two separate tins an under and upper crust in a quick oven 
fifteen minutes; when done place in the lower crust one quart peaches 
prepared by slicing, and adding three table-spoons each of sugar and 
cream, cover with the top crust, and place in oven for five minute*. 



PASTRY. 221 

Treat strawberries, raspberries, etc., in the same way. Mrs. F. L. 

T., New Orleans. 

PEACH PIE. 

Line a pie-tin with puff-paste, fill with pared peaches in halves- 
or quarters, well covered with sugar ; put on upper crust and bake ; 
or make as above without upper crust, bake until done, remove 
from the oven, and cover with a meringue made of the whites of 
two eggs, beaten to a stiff froth with two table-spoons powdered 
sugar; return to oven and brown slightly. Canned peaches may 
be used instead of fresh, in the same way. 

DRIED-PEACH PIE. 

Stew peaches until perfectly soft, mash fine, and add, for two 
pies, half tea-cup sweet cream, and one tea-cup sugar; bake with 
two crusts. Or, omit cream, and add half tea-cup boiling water, 
and butter size of a hickory-nut. 

POTATO PIE. 

A common-sized tea-cup of grated raw potato, a quart sweet milk; 
Jet milk boil and stir in grated potato ; when cool add two or three 
eggs well beaten, sugar and nutmeg to taste ; bake without upper 
crust ; eat the day it is baked. This recipe is for two pies. Miss 
Sarah Thomson, Delaware. 

POTATO PIE. 

Boil either Irish or sweet potatoes until well done, mash and rub 
through a sieve ; to a pint of pulp, add three pints sweet milk, 
table-spoon melted butter, tea-cup sugar, three eggs, pinch of salt, 
and nutmeg or lemon to flavor. Use rich paste for under crust. 
Mrs. R. C. Carson, Harrisburg. 

PUMPKIN PIE. 

Stew pumpkin, cut into small pieces, in a half pint water ; and,, 
when soft, mash with potato-masher very fine, let the water dry 
away, watching closely to prevent burning or scorching ; for each 
pie take one well-beaten egg, half cup sugar, two table-spoons pump-, 
kin, half pint rich milk (a little cream will improve it), a little 
salt; stir well together, and season with cinnamon or nutmeg; bake 
with under crust in a hot oven. Some steam pumpkin instead of 
stewing it. Mrs. A. B. Morey. 



222 PASTRY. 

PINE-APPLE PIE. 

A cup of sugar, a half cup butter, one of sweet cream, five eggs, 
one pine-apple grated ; beat butter and sugar to a cream, add beaten 
yolks of eggs, then the pine-apple and cream, and, lastly, the beaten 
whites whipped in lightly. Bake with under crust only. Mrs. Wm. 
Smith, Jacksonville, Florida. 

PRESERVE PUFFS. 

Roll out puff-paste very thin, cut into round pieces, and lay jam 
on each, fold over the paste, wet edges M'ith white of an egg, and 
close them ; lay them on a baking sheet, ice them, and bake about 
fifteen minutes. Mrs. H. A. E. 

PLUM COBBLER. 

Take one quart of flour, four table-spoons melted lard, half tea- 
spoon salt, two tea-spoons baking-powder ; mix as for biscuit, with 
either sweet milk or water, roll thin, and line a pudding-dish or 
dripping-pan, nine by eighteen inches ; mix three table-spoons flour 
and two of sugar together, and sprinkle over the crust; then pour 
in three pints canned damson plums, and sprinkle over them one 
coffee-cup sugar ; wet the edges with a little flour and water mixed, 
put on upper crust, press the edges together, make two openings by 
cutting two incisions at right angles an inch in length, and bake in 
a quick oven half an hour. Peaches, apples, or any kind of fresh 
or canned fruit, can be made in the same wav. Miss S. Alice 
Melching. 

SOUTHERN TOMATO PIE. 

For one pie, peel and slice green tomatoes, add four table-spoons 
vinegar, one of butter, three of sugar ; flavor with nutmeg or 
cinnamon ; bake with two crusts slowly. This tastes very much 
like a green apple pie. Mrs. Ceba Hull. 

VINEGAR PIE. 

One egg, one heaping table-spoon flour, one tea-cup sugar; beat 
all well together, and add one table-spoon sharp vinegar, and one 
tea-cup cold water ; flavor with nutmeg and bake with two crusts. 
Mrs. B. A. Fay. 



PASTE Y. 223 

BINA'S STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE. 

Two heaping tea-spoons baking powder sifted into one quart flour, 
scant half tea-cup butter, two table-spoons sugar, a little salt, 
enough sweet milk (or water) to make a soft dough ; roll out almost 
as thin as pie-crust, place one layer in a baking-pan, and spread 
with a very little butter, upon which sprinkle some flour, then add 
another layer of crust and spread as before, and so on until crust is 
all used. This makes four layers in a pan fourteen inches by seven. 
Bake about fifteen minutes in a quick oven, turn out upside down, 
take off the top layer (the bottom when baking), place on a dish, 
spread plentifully with strawberries (not mashed) previously sweet- 
ened with pulverized sugar, place layer upon layer, treating each 
one in the same way ; and when done you will have a handsome 
cake, to be served warm with sugar and cream. The secret of 
having light dough is to handle it as little and mix it as quickly as 
possible. Shortcake is delicious served with charlotte-russe or 
whipped cream. Raspberry and peach shortcakes may be made in 

the same way. 

ORANGE SHORTCAKE. 

One quart flour, two table-spoons butter, two tea-spoons baking 
powder thoroughly mixed with the flour ; mix (not very stiff) with 
cold water, work as little as possible, bake, split open, and lay 
sliced oranges between ; cut in squares and serve with pudding 
sauce. Berries may be used instead of oranges. Mrs. Canby, Belle- 
fontaine. 

APPLE TARTS. 

Pare, quarter, core, and boil in a half tea-cup of water until very 
soft, ten large tart apples ; beat till very smooth, then add the yolks 
of six eggs or three whole eggs, juice and grated rind of two lemons, 
half cup butter, one and a half cups sugar, or more if not sweet 
enough ; beat all thoroughly, line little tart-tins with puff-paste, 
and fill with the mixture, bake five minutes in a hot oven. If 
wanted very nice, take the whites of the six eggs (when the yolks 
of six are used), mix with six table-spoons pulverized sugar, spread 
on the top of the tarts, return to oven and brown slightly. 

For almond tarts, beat to a cream the yolks of three eggs and a 
quarter of a pound of sugar, add half a pound of shelled almonds 



224 PASTRY. 

pounded slightly, put in tart-tins lined with puff-paste; bake eight 
minutes. 

For cocoa-nuts, dissolve half pound sugar in quarter of a pint 
water, add half a grated cocoa-nut, let this boil slowly for a few 
minutes, and when cold, add the well-beaten yolks of three eggs 
and the white of one ; beat all well together, and pour into patty- 
pans lined with a rich crust; bake a few minutes. 

When removed from oven, cover the tarts with a meringue made 
of the whites of the three eggs, mixed with three table-spoons sugar ; 
return to oven, and brown delicately. 

TART SHELLS. 

Roll out thin a nice puff-paste, cut out with a glass or biscuit 
cutter, with a wine-glass or smaller cup cut out the center of two 
out of three of these, lay the rings thus made on the third, and 
bake immediately ; or shells may be made by lining patty-pans with 
paste. If the paste is light, the shells will be fine, and may be 
used for tarts or oyster patties. Filled with jelly and covered with 
meringue (table-spoon sugar to white of one egg), and browned in 
oven, they are very nice to serve for tea. 

A KENTUCKY GIRL'S PUMPKIN PIE. 

Cut pumpkin in halves, remove seeds, bake in a dripping-pan 
{skin side of pumpkin downward), with a slow fire, until pulp can 
readily be scraped from skin ; mash fine, and while hot add to each 
quart pumpkin two table-spoons butter ; when cold, sweeten to 
taste ; add one pint cream or new milk, yolks of three eggs, well 
beaten and strained, cinnamon and allspice to taste (ginger, if pre- 
ferred), one wine-glass of brandy; stir well, and just at the last 
add whites of eggs, well whipped. The brandy can be omitted 
and not injure recipe. Many like a table-spoon of lemon extract 
and less spice. If lemon is used, omit brandy. Bake in deep pie- 
plates in a quick oven. L. A. . C. t Lexington, Ky. 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 



No ingredient of doubtful quality should enter into the composi- 
tion of puddings. Suet must be perfectly sweet, and milk should be 
fresh and without the least unpleasant flavor. Suet when over kept 
and milk soured or curdled in the slightest degree, ruins a pudding 
which would otherwise be most delicious. Dried currants, such as 
are sold in the market, need very careful and thorough washing 
(after which they must be dried in a napkin), and raisins should be 
rubbed in a coarse towel to remove steins and all dirt from the out- 
side, and afterward carefully seeded. Almonds and spices must be 
very finely pounded, and the rinds of oranges or lemons rasped or 
grated lightly off (the white part of the peel has no flavor and is an 
injury). 

In making puddings, always beat the eggs separately, straining 
the yolks and adding the whites the last thing. If boiled milk is 
used, let it cool somewhat before adding the eggs; W 7 hen fruit is 
added, stir it in at the last. Puddings are either baked, boiled or 
steamed ; rice, bread, custard, and fruit puddings require a mod- 
erate heat ; batter and corn starch, a rather quick oven. Always 
bake them as soon as mixed. Add a pinch of salt to any pud- 
ding. 

Boiled puddings are lighter when boiled in a cloth and allowed 
full room to swell, but many use either a tin mold or bowl with 
cloth tied over it ; grease the former well on the inside with lard or 
butter, and in boiling do not let the water reach quite to the top. 
The pudding-bag should be made of firm drilling, tapering from 
top to bottom, and rounded on the corners; stitch and fell the 
15 (225) 



226 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

seams, which should be outside when in use, and sew a tape to the 
seam, about three inches from top. Wring the bag out of hot 
water, flour the inside well, pour in the pudding (which should be 
well beaten the instant before pouring), tie securely, leaving room- 
to swell (especially when made of Indian meal, bread, rice, or 
crackers), and place in a kettle with a saucer at the bottom to pre- 
vent burning; immediately pour in enough boiling water to entirely 
cover the bag, which must be turned several times, keeping it boiling, 
constantly, filling up from the tea-kettle when needed. If the pud- 
ding is boiled in a bowl, grease, fill, and cover with a square of 
drilling wrung out of hot water, floured and tied on. To use a pan, 
tie a cloth tightly over the rim, bringing the ends back together, 
and pinning them over the top of the pan ; the pudding may then 
be lifted out easily by a strong fork put through the ends or cor- 
ners of the cloth. Open bag a little to let steam escape, and serve 
immediately, as delay ruins all boiled pudding. For plum pud- 
dings, invert the pan w T hen put in the kettle, and the pudding will 
not become water-soaked. When the pudding is done, give what- 
ever it is boiled in a quick plunge into cold water, and turn out at 
once, serving immediately. As a general rule, boiled puddings re- 
quire double the time required for baked. Steaming is safer than 
either boiling or baking, as the pudding is sure to be light and 
wholesome. Put on over cold water and do not remove cover while 
steaming. In making sauces, do not boil after the butter is added. 
Use brown or powdered sugar for sauces. In place of wine or 
brandy, flavor with juice of the grape, or any other fruit prepared 
for this purpose in its season by boiling and bottling and sealing 
while hot. Pudding cloths, however coarse, should never be 
washed with soap, but in clear, clean water, dried as quickly a? 
possible, and kept dry and out of dust in a drawer or cupboard 
free from smell. Dates are an excellent substitute for sugar in 
Graham or any other pudding. Fruit for preserving should 
always be gathered in perfectly dry weather and be free from dust 
and the morning and evening dew. Never use tin, iron or pewter 
spoons or skimmers for preserves. 



PUDDINGS AND SA UCES. 227 

APPLE HOLEY POLEY. 

Peel, quarter and core sour apples, make rich soda-biscuit dough, 
{or raised-biscuit dough may be used if rolled thinner), roll to half 
an inch thick, slice the quarters, and lay on the prepared paste or 
crust, roll up, tuck ends in, prick deeply with a fork, lay in a 
steamer and place over a kettle of boiling water, cook an hour and 
three-quarters. Or, wrap in a cloth, tie up the ends and baste up 
sides, put in kettle of boiling water, and boil an hour and a half 
or more, keeping the water boiling constantly. Cut across, and eat 
with sweetened cream or butter and sugar. Cherries, dried fruit, 
any kind of berries, jelly, or apple-butter (with the two last raisins 
may be added), can be used. Mrs. T. B. J. 

ORANGE ROLEY POLEY. 

Make a light pastry as for apple dumplings, roll in oblong sheets 
and lay oranges peeled, sliced, and seeded, thickly all over it ; sprin- 
kle with white sugar ; scatter over all a tea-spoon or two of grated 
orange -peel, and roll up, folding down the edges closely to keep the 
syrup from running out ; boil in a cloth one and one-half hours. 
Eat with lemon-sauce prepared as follows: Six eggs, leaving out 
the whites of two, half pound butter, one pound sugar, juice of 
two lemons and rind of both grated ; place over a slow fire, stir till 
Vt thickens like honey. Very nice. Mrs. A. E. Walsh, Nashville, 

Tenn. 

BOILED APPLE DUMPLINGS. 

Add to two cups sour milk one tea-spoon soda, and one of salt, 
half cup of butter, lard, flour enough to make dough a little stiffer 
ihan for biscuit ; or make a good baking-powder crust ; peel and 
core apples, roll out crust, place apples on dough, fill cavity of each 
with sugar, encase each apple in coating of the crust, press edges 
light together, (it is nice to tie a cloth around each one), put into 
kettle of boiling water slightly salted, boil half an hour, taking care 
that the water covers the dumplings. They are also very nice steamed. 
To bake, make in same way, using a soft dough, place in a shallow 
pan, bake in a hot oven, and serve with cream and sugar, or place 
in a pan which is four or five inches deep (do not have the dump- 
lings touch each other); then pour in hot water, just leaving top of 
dumplings uncovered. To a pan of four or five dumplings, add 



228 PUDDINGS AND SA UCES. 

one tea-cup sugar and half a tea-cup butter; bake from half to 
three-quarters of an hour. If water cooks away too much, add more*- 
Serve dumplings on platter and the liquid in sauce-boat for dresy 
ing. Fresh or canned peaches may be made in the same way. 

ROLLED APPLE DUMPLINGS. 

Peel and chop fine tart apples, make a crust of one cup rich but- 
termilk, one tea-spoon soda, and flour enough to roll; roll half ao 
inch thick, spread with the apple, sprinkle well with sugar and cin 
namon, cut in strips two inches wide, roll up like jelly-cake, set up 
the rolls in a dripping-pan, putting a tea-spoon butter on each, put 
in a moderate oven, and baste them often with the juice. 

BIRD'S-NEST PUDDING. 

Pare and core without quartering enough quick-cooking tart 
apples to fill a pudding-pan ; make a custard of one quart milk and 
the yolks of six eggs ; sweeten, spice, pour over apples, and bake ; 
when done, use the whites of eggs beaten stiff with six table-spoons 
white sugar; spread on the custard, brown lightly, and serve either 
hot or cold. If necessary, apples may be baked a short time before 

adding custard. 

BROWN BETTY. 

Put a layer of sweetened apple sauce in a buttered dish, add a 
few lumps butter, then a layer of cracker crumbs sprinkled with a 
little cinnamon, then layer of sauce, etc., making the last layer of 
crumbs ; bake in oven, and eat hot with cold, sweetened cream. < 
Mrs. T. J. Buxton, 

RICE APPLES. 

Boil half a pound rice in a custard-kettle till tender in one quart 
milk, sweetened with half tea-cup sugar; pare and core with apple- 
corer seven or eight good-cooking apples, place in slightly buttered 
baking-dish, put a tea-spoon of jam or jelly into each cavity, and 
fill with rich cream ; put the rice in around apples, leaving top un- 
covered ; bake thirty minutes, then cover with the whites of two 
eggs, sift on sugar, and return to the oven for ten minutes. Serve 
with sweetened cream. Mrs. S. M. Guy, Mechanicsburg. 

BREAD PUDDING. 

One quart sweet milk, quart bread-crumbs, four eggs, four table- 
spoons sugar ; soak bread in half the milk until soft ; m^b fine, 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 229 

add the rest of rnilk, the well-beaten eggs and sugar, and a tea- 
cup raisins ; bake one hour, serve warm with warm sauce or maple 
sugar hard sauce; or, slice, butter, and spread bread with preserves 
or jelly, place nicely in a baking-dish. Make a custard of one pint 
of sweet milk, three eggs, and sugar to taste, and while boiling 
pour it over bread. Place in oven and bake till brown, eat with or 

without sauce. 

BLACKBERRY MUSH. 

To two quarts ripe berries add one and a half pints boiling water, 
and one pound sugar ; cook a few moments, then stir in a pint of 
wheat flour, boil a few moments longer, put in greased mold to 
cool, and serve with cream or hard sauce. Miss H. D. Martin, 
New York City. 

CORN-STARCH PUDDING. 

One pint sweet milk, whites of three eggs, two table-spoons corn- 
starch, three of sugar, and a little salt. Put the milk in a pan or 
small bucket, set in a kettle of hot water on the stove, and when 
it reaches the boiling point add the sugar, then the starch dissolved 
in a little cold milk, and lastly the whites of eggs whipped to a 
stiff froth; beat it, and let cook a few minutes, then pour into tea- 
cups, filling about half full, and set in cool place. For sauce, make 
a boiled custard as follows: Bring to boiling point one pint of milk, 



add three table-spoons sugar, then the beaten yolks thinned by add- 
ing one table-spoon milk, stirring all the time till it thickens ; flavor 
with two tea-spoons lemon or two of vanilla, and set to cool. In 
serving, put one of the molds in a sauce-dish for each person, and 
pour over it some of the boiled custard. Or the pudding may be 
made in one large mold. 

To make a chocolate pudding, flavor the above pudding with 
vanilla, remove two-thirds of it, and add half a cake of chocolate 
softened, mashed, and dissolved in a little milk. Put a layer of 
half the white pudding into the mold, then the chocolate, then the 
rest of the white ; or two layers of chocolate may be used with a 
white between ; or the center may be cocoa (made by adding half 
a cocoa-nut grated fine), and the outside chocolate; or pine-apple 
chopped fine (if first cooked in a little water, the latter makes a 
nice dressing), or strawberries may be used. Mrs. D. Buxton. 



230 PUDDINGS AND SA UCES. 

CREAM PUDDING. 

Stir together one pint cream, three ounces sugar, the yolks of 
three eggs, and a little grated nutmeg; add the well-beaten whites, 
stirring lightly, and pour into a buttered pie-plate on which has 
been sprinkled the crumbs of stale bread to about the thickness of 
an ordinary crust; sprinkle over the top a layer of bread-crumbs 

and bake. 

COTTAGE PUDDING. 

One cup sugar, half cup butter, one egg, cup sweet milk, tea, 
spoon soda dissolved in milk, two tea-spoons cream tartar in the 
flour, three cups flour, half tea-spoon extract of lemon. Sprinkle 
a little sugar over the top just before putting in the oven, bake in 
a small bread-pan, and when done cut in squares, and serve with 
sauce made of two table-spoons butter, cup sugar, table-spoon flour 
wet with a little cold water and stirred until like cream; add a pint 
boiling water, let boil two or three minutes, stirring all the time. 
After taking from the fire, add half tea-spoon extract of lemon. 
Kutmeg may be used in place of lemon. What is left of the pud- 
ding and sauce may be served cold for tea. Mrs. Howard Vosbury. 

CHOCOLATE PUDDING. 

One quart sweet milk, three ounces grated chocolate, one cup 
sugar, yolks of five eggs ; scald milk and chocolate together, and, 
when cool, add sugar and eggs, and bake. When done, put beatea 
whites and five table-spoons sugar on top, and set in oven to brown. 
Or, boil one pint milk, add half cup butter, one of sugar, and three 
ounces grated chocolate ; pour this over two slices of bread soaked 
in water ; when cool, add the well-beaten yolks of four eggs, bake, 
and when done, spread over the whites beaten with sugar, and 
brown in oven. Serve hot or cold. Miss Greeley Grubbs, Richmond, 

COCOA-NUT PUDDING. 

Grate one cocoa-nut, saving the milk if perfectly sweet, boil a 
quart of milk, and pour upon it, adding five eggs beaten with one 
cup of sugar and one table-spoon butter, add a little salt, two tea* 
spoons vanilla extract, and milk from nut, and bake in a pudding- 
dish lined with rich paste. This is excellent baked like pie with 



P UDDINGS AND 8 A UCES. 231 

under crust only. A plainer yet good pudding is made by pouring 
one and one-half pints boiling milk over one pint bread-crumbs 
and one cup dessicated cocoa-nut mixed ; add two table-spoons sugar 
and nutmeg to flavor; bake. Mrs. T. B. Johnson, Lagmnge, Tenn. 

ENGLISH CARROT PUDDING. 

One pound grated carrots, three-fourths pound chopped suet, half 
pound each raisins and currants, four table-spoons sugar, eight 
table-spoons flour, and spices to suit the taste. Boil four hours, 
place in the oven for twenty minutes, and serve with wine sauce. 
Mrs. E. A. TF., Washington, D. C. 

DELMONICO PUDDING. 
A quart milk, three table-spoons corn-starch dissolved in cold 

milk, the yolks of five eggs beaten well, six table-spoons sugar. 
Boil three or four minutes, pour into a pudding-dish and bake about 
half an hour; beat whites of eggs with six table-spoons sugar, put 
over top, and return pudding to oven until it is a delicate brown. 
Mrs. J. Holland, 

ESTELLE PUDDING. 
Three eggs well beaten, two and a half table-spoons sugar, two 

of butter, three-fourths cup sweet milk, one of raisins chopped fine, 
one table-spoon baking powder, flour to make it the consistency of 
cake batter ; or, one-half measure each of Horsford's Bread Prepar- 
ation and one coffee-cup flour; steam thirty-five minutes, and serve 
with cold cream sauce. Mrs. Andrew Wilson 

SIMPLE FRUIT PUDDINGS. 
Stew currants, or any small fruits, fresh or dried, with sugar to 

taste, and pour hot over thin slices of baker's bread with crust cut 
off, making alternate layers of fruit and bread, and leaving a thick 
layer of fruit for the last. Put a plate on top, and when cool set 
on ice ; serve with sifted sugar, or cream and sugar. 

This pudding is delicious made with Boston or milk crackers, 
split open, and stewed apricots or peaches, with plenty of juice, ar- 
ranged as above. Or another way is to toast and butter slices of 
bread, pour over it hot stewed fruit in alternate layers, and serve 
warm with rich hot sauce. Mrs. L. S. W. 

FIG PUDDING. 
Half pound figs, quarter pound grated bread, two and a half 



232 PUDDINGS AND SA J 'CES. 

ounces powdered sugar, three ounces butf/er, two eggs, one tea-cup 
milk; chop figs fine and mix with butter, and by degrees add the 
other ingredients; butter and sprinkle a mold with bread-crumbs, 
pour in pudding, cover closely, and boil for three hours ; serve with 
lemon sauce. Florence Woods Hush. 

HALF-HOUR PUDDING. 

Beat four table-spoons butter to a cream with half a pint pow- 
dered sugar ; add the yolks of three eggs, beating them in thor- 
oughly, then a rounded half pint of corn meal, and the whites of 
the eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Mix well, and bake in a pudding 
dish, well buttered. Serve hot with sauce. 

BOILED INDIAN PUDDING. 

Warm a pint of molasses and pint of milk, stir well together, 
beat four eggs, and stir gradually into molasses and milk ; add a 
pound of beef suet chopped fine, and Indian meal sufficient to make 
a thick batter ; add a tea-spoon pulverized cinnamon, nutmeg and 
a little grated lemon-peel, and stir all together thoroughly; dip 
cloth into boiling water, shake, flour a little, turn in the mixture, 
tie up, leaving room for the pudding to swell, and boil three hours; 
serve hot with sauce made of drawn butter, wine, and nutmeg. 
Mrs. A. E. Brand, 

BAKED INDIAN PUDDING. 

A quart sweet milk, an ounce butter, four well-beaten eggs, tea- 
cup corn meal, half pound raisins, fourth pound sugar ; scald milk 
and stir in meal while boiling; let stand until blood warm, stir all 
well together; bake one and a half hours, and serve with sauce. 
Mrs. Carrier. 

Kiss PUDDING, 

Boil one quart sweet milk in custard-kettle, stir into it four heap- 
ing table-spoons sugar and four table-spoons corn starch, dissolved 
in a little cold water or milk, and added to the well-beaten and 
Strained yolks of four eggs. Have the whites of eggs beaten to a 
stiff froth with tea-cup pulverized sugar and one tea-spoon essence 
of vanilla, spread on top of pudding, set in a quick oven, and brown ; 
take out, sprinkle with grated cocoa-nut, set dish away in a cool 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 233 

* 

place ; serve cold after three or four hours. The sweet liquor which 
settles to the bottom in cooling, serves as a sauce. Mrs. W E. Baxter. 

LEMON PUDDING. 

Stir into yolks of six eggs one cup sugar, half a cup water, and 
the grated yellow rind and juice of two lemons ; soften in warm 
1 water six crackers or some slices of cake, lay in bottom of a baking- 
dish, pour custard over them, bake till firm; beat whites of eggs to 
a froth, add six table-spoons sugar, and beat well ; when custard is 
done, pour frosting over it, return to the oven and brown. Eat 
either warm or cold. Mrs. Walter Mitchell, Gallipolis. 

DELICIOUS LEMON PUDDING. 

The juice and grated rind of one lemon, cup sugar, yolks of two 
eggs, three well rounded table-spoons flour, a pinch of salt, one pint 
rich milk ; mix the flour and part of the milk to a smooth paste, 
add the juice and rind of lemon, the cup of sugar, yolks well-beaten, 
the rest of the milk (after having rinsed out the egg with it), line 
plate with puff-paste one-fourth inch thick, pour in custard, bake 
in a quick oven until done. Beat whites to a stiff froth, add two 
table-spoons sugar, spread over the top, return to oven and brown. 
Serve with very cold cream ; or, for a very nice dish, add w r hipped 
cream. This is a rich and not an expensive pudding. The recipe 
makes sufficient for six. Mrs. Col. Woods, Greensburg, Pa. 

MARCH PUDDING. 

One cup dried apples, cup molasses, one and one-fourths cup flour, 
fourth cup butter, one egg, one tea-spoon each of soda and cinna- 
mon, half tea-spoon cloves; wash and soak apples over night, cut 
fine and mix with water in which they were soaked, add molasses 
and spice ; mix egg, butter and flour together ; stir soda with apples 
and molasses; add and bake immediately; serve hot with sauce made 
of half cup butter and one cup sugar, beaten smooth and flavored 
with nutmeg, lemon or vanilla.-- Mi#s Lizzie March. 

MINUTE PUDDING. 

Take sweet milk, or half water and milk, a pinch of salt, let boil, 
Btir in wheat flour, as in making corn-meal mush, until same thick- 
ness as mush ; remove from fire, and serve at once with sweetened 



234 PUDDINGS AND SA UCES. 



cream flavored with nutmeg. Some think it improved by adding 
blackberries, raspberries or cherries, either canned or fresh, just 
before taking from stove. 

MOLASSES PUDDING. 

Three cups of flour, one each of molasses, melted butter and hot 
water ; one tea-spoon soda ; steam three hours ; serve with a sauce 
of butter and sugar worked to a cream, with hot water added to 
make it the proper consistency, and flavored with vanilla. Some 
add a tea-cup raisins. Mrs. Jenks, Belief ontaine. 

ONE-TWO-THREE-FOUR PUDDING. 

One cup butter, two of sugar, three of flour, four eggs (beaten 
separately), one cup sweet milk, and two tea-spoons baking-powder; 
flavor with nutmeg, and bake in pudding or cake mold ; leave in 
mold till next day, when steam for three-quarters of an hour over a 
kettle of boiling water and serve with hot sauce. Mrs. C. A. Malin. 

ORANGE PUDDING. 

Two large oranges pared and cut in pieces one inch square, put 
in bottom of pudding dish, pour over them one cup white sugar, 
then make a plain corn starch pudding without sugar, and pour it 
over the orange and sugar. Let stand and cool. 

PEACH KOLLS. 

Stew dried fruit, sweeten, and flavor to taste; make a good 
baking-powder crust, roll very thin, spread fruit on, putting thin 
slices of butter on the fruit, roll crust up, place in a pan four or 
five inches deep, to three or four rolls add one cup sugar, and a 
half cup butter ; pour in hot water enough to cover them. Bake 
half an hour. Mrs. J. D. Simmons, Pontoloc, Miss. 

CHRISTMAS PLUM PUDDING. 

One quart seeded raisins, pint currants, half pint citron cut up, 
quart of apples peeled and chopped, a quart of fresh and nicely 
chopped beef-suet, a quart of sweet milk, a heaping quart of stale 
bread-crumbs, eight eggs beaten separately, pint sugar, grated nut- 
meg, tea-spoon salt ; flour fruit thoroughly from a quart of flour, 
then mix remainder as follows : In a large bowl or tray put the 
eggs with sugar, nutmeg and milk, stir in the fruit, bread-crumbs 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 235 

and suet, one after the other until all are used, adding enough flour 
to make the fruit stick together, which will take about all the quart ; 
dip pudding-cloth in boiling-water, dredge on inside a thick coating 
of flour, put in pudding and tie tightly, allowing room to swell, and 
boil from two to three hours in a good-sized pot with plenty of hot 
; water, replenishing as needed from tea-kettle. When done, turn in 
a large flat dish and send to table with a sprig of holly, or any bit 
of evergreen with bright berries, stuck in the top. Serve with any 
pudding-sauce. This recipe furnishes enough for twenty people, 
but if the family is small, one-half the quantity may be prepared, 
or it is equally good warmed over by steaming. For sauce, cream a 
half pound sweet butter, stir in three-quarters pound brown sugar, 
and the beaten yolk of an egg ; simmer for a few moments over a 
slow fire, stirring almost constantly ; when near boiling add a half 
pint bottled grape-juice, and serve after grating a little nutmeg on 
the surface. Mrs. Ex-Gov. Coke, Texas. 

ENGLISH PLUM PUDDING. 
Beat six yolks and four whites of eggs very light, and add to them 

a tumtifer of sweet milk ; stir in gradually one-fourth pound grated 
or chopped stale bread, a pound flour, three-quarters pound sugar, 
and a pound each of beef-suet chopped very fine, currants nicely 
washed and dried, and stoned raisins, well floured ; stir well, then 
add two nutmegs, a table-spoon mace, one of cinnamon or cloves, a 
wine-glass brandy, a tea-spoon salt, and finally another tumbler of 
milk. Boil in bowls or molds five hours, and serve with sauce 
made of drawn butter, wine, sugar, and nutmeg. These will keep 
for months; when wanted, boil one hour before using. A pound of 
citron or blanched sweet almonds adds to the richness of the pud- 
iing, but may be omitted. Mrs. Collier. 

EGOLESS PLUM PUDDING. 
Heaping cup bread-crumbs, two cups flour, one of suet chopped 

fine, one of raisins, one of molasses, one of sweet milk, table-spoon 
soda, tea-spoon salt, one of cloves, and one of cinnamon ; boil two 
and a half hours in a two-quart pail, set in a kettle of boiling water 
or steam for the same time. For sauce take one cup w r hite sugar, 
butter size of an egg, grated rind of one lemon, and white of an 
egg. Mrs. Mary Lee Gere. 



236 PUDDiyGS ASD SAUCES. 

PRAIRIE PLUM PUDDING. 

Stew together a tea-cup raisins and bait' tea-cup citron ; prepare 
dish with butter, put in layer of sponge-cake ^any kind of cake 
will do, or Boston crackers, sliced and buttered may be used, or 
even stale Graham bread-crumbs), then a layer of fruit, and so on, 
with cake or bread for last layer ; pour over it custard made of a 
quart of milk and yolks of four eggs, sweetened to taste ; bake until 
on inserting a knife the milk has become water. Make a frosting 
of the whites of four eggs and four table-spoons pulverized sugar, 
spread on pudding, brown in oven, and serve with sauce made of 
one tea-cup white sugar, two-thirds pint water, one table-spoon but- 
ter, one tea-spoon corn-starch mixed smoothly with a little cold milk; 
let sugar and water boil, add the rest, and allow to boil a few mo- 
ments, then add the white of one well-beaten egg with one tea-spoon, 
vanilla essence. J/n?. J/. E. Godard. 

PLUM PUDDING. 

Beat together half cup sugar, two eggs and one tea-spoon butter, 
add three pints sweet milk, a little salt, six crackers rolled fine, one 
cup raisins, and a half sheet gelatine dissolved in a little water; 
season with nutmeg or cinnamon. Bake in a pudding-dish. Mrs. 
Dr. Stall, 

POOR MAX'S PUDDING. 

A quart of milk, half tea-cup rice^salt to taste, and one tea-cup 
sugar (some add table-spoon butter) ; place in oven while cold, stir- 
ring occasionally while the rice is swelling. Bake quite slowly two 
hours or more. It should be cream-like when done, and must be 
taken immediately from oven. A good test is to tip dish ; if rice 
and milk move together it is done ; if not sufficiently cooked the 
milk runs ; if neither move it is done too much. To vary this, a 
small cup raisins and a tea-spoon lemon or vanilla may be added. 
This is a delicious pudding when properly baked, and may be eaten 
warm or cold with sugar or cream. Mrs. Louise Lincoln, Sew Rut- 
land, IU. 

PINE-APPLE PUDDING. 

Butter a pudding-dish, and line the bottom and sides with slices 
of stale cake (sponge-cake is best), pare and slice thin a large pine- 
apple, place in the dish first a layer of pine- apple, then strew with 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 237 

augar, then vio*<? pine-apple, and so on until all is used, pour over 
a small tea-cup water, and cover with slices of cake which have been 
dipped in cold water; cover the whole with a buttered plate, and 
bake slowly for two hours. Mrs. Win. Smith, Jacksonville, Fla. 

CULPEPPER PUDDING. 

Stew six large pippin apples (pared, cored, and quartered) until 
tender ; drain and mash smooth with two table-spoons butter. Crumb 
quarter pound sponge cake ; put layer of cake and apple alternately, 
using as seasoning for both six table-spoons sugar, juice and grated 
rind of one lemon, and a little nutmeg. Beat well six eggs, and stir in 
gradually ; mix well, put in a dish, and bake three quarters of an hour. 

PRUNE PUDDING. 

Scald one pound French prunes, let them swell in the hot water 
till soft, drain and extract the stones, spread on a dish and dredge 
with flour; take a gill rnilk from a quart, stir into it gradually 
eight table-spoons sifted flour ; beat six eggs very light and stir by 
degrees into the remainder of quart of milk, alternating with the 
batter ; add prunes, one at a time, stir the whole very hard, boil 
two hours, and serve with wine-sauce or cream. Mrs. Emma L. Fay. 

QUICK PUFF PUDDING. 

Stir one pint flour, two tea-spoons baking-powder, and a little salt 
into milk until very soft; place in steamer well-greased cups, put in 
each a spoonful of batter, then one of berries, steamed apples, or 
any sauce convenient, cover with another spoonful of batter and 
steam twenty minutes, This pudding is delicious made with fresh 
strawberries, and eaten with a sauce made of two eggs, half cup 
butter and cup of sugar, beaten thoroughly with a cup boiling milk, 
and one of strawberries. Mrs. B. T. Skinner, Battle Creek, Mich. 

QUEEN OF PUDDINGS. 

One pint fine sifted bread-crumbs, one quart milk, one cup sugar, 
yolks of four eggs, a piece of butter the size of an egg (some add 
grated rind of lemon) ; bake until done but do not allow to become 
watery and spread with a layer of jelly. Whip whites of eggs to 
a stiff froth with five table-spoons sugar, and juice of one lemon, 
spread on the top and brown. Good with or without sauce, and 



238 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

very good cold. Make a hard sauce for it as follows : One cup 
very light brown sugar, half cup butter, half grated rind and the 
juice of one lemon ; beat until very light. Vanilla may be used 
instead of the lemon. 

Or, for cocoa-nut pudding, soak half cup dessicated cocoa-nut in 
boiling hot milk for half an hour or more, and add to the pudding, 
baking and finishing as above ; or for orange pudding add a half 
dozen grated oranges. Mrs. Prof. R. P. Kidder, Cape Girardeau, 

Missouri. 

RICE PUDDING. 

To a cup of rice boiled in a custard-kettle in a pint of water (sea- 
soned well with salt) until dry, add a pint of milk in which a little 
corn starch has been dissolved, and boil again ; add the yolks of two 
eggs beaten with half a cup of sugar, stir well together, and lastly 
add the juice and grated rind of one lemon. Place in a dish, and 
bake slowly in the oven ; when done, spread over the top the whites 
beaten with two table-spoons sugar, and brown in oven. A cup of 
raisins may be added just before baking. Or, after boiling the rice 
with the milk, eggs, and sugar, add a lump of butter and place a 
layer of the rice, about an inch thick, in a buttered dish sprinkled 
with bread-crumbs, then a layer of peaches (either fresh or canned), 
repeating until dish is full, leaving rice for the last layer ; bake 
slowly for half an hour, and when done, cover with the beaten whites, 
as above. Or, after preparing the rice as above, add pine-apple, 
chopped fine, or oranges, or dried cherries ; mix thoroughly, and 
bake and finish as above. Mrs. J. R. IF., 

RICE SNOW BALLS. 

Boil one pint rice until soft in two quarts water with a tea-spoon 
salt; put in small cups, and when perfectly cold place in a dish. 
Make a boiled custard of the yolks of three eggs, one pint sweet 
milk, and one tea-spoon corn-starch; flavor with lemon. When 
cold, pour over the rice-balls half an hour before serving. This is 
a very simple but nice dessert. Miss Louise Skinner. 

SAGO AND APPLE PUDDING. 

Pare six apples and punch out the cores, fill holes with cinnamon 
and sugar, using two tea-spoons cinnamon to a cup of sugar ; take 



PUDDINGS AND SA UCES. 239 

one table-spoon sago to each apple, wash it thoroughly and let soak 
an hour in water enough to cover the apples, Dour water and sago 
over the apples, and bake an hour and a half. 

SUET PUDDING. 

One cup molasses, one of sweet milk, one of suet chopped fine, 
or half a cup melted butter, one of raisins, half cup currants, two 
and a half cups flour, half tea-spoon soda ; mix well, salt and spice 
to taste, and steam two hours. Mrs. S. W. Case, Minneapolis, Minn. 

APPLE TAPIOCA PUDDING. 

To half tea-cup of tapioca, add one and one-half pints cold water, 
let it stand on the fire till cooked clear, stirring to prevent burning, 
remove, sweeten and flavor with wine and nutmeg; pour the tapi- 
oca into a deep dish in which have been placed six or eight pared 
and cored apples, bake until apples are done, and serve cold with 
<;ream. Mrs. S. C. Lee. 

WHORTLEBERRY PUDDING. 

One quart berries, pint molasses, cup milk, tea-spoon soda, one 
pound and two ounces flour, one tea-spoon cloves, one of cinnamon, 
and one nutmeg; boil two and a half hours. Mrs. Emma Fay. 

GRANDMA THOMSON'S WHITE PUDDING. 

Weigh equal quantities of best beef suet and sifted flour, shave 
down suet and rub into fine particles with the hands, removing all 
tough and stringy parts, mix well with the flour, season very 
highly with pepper, salt to taste, stuff loosely in beef-skins (entrails 
cleansed like pork-skins for sausage) $ half a yard or less in length, 
secure the ends, prick every two or three inches with a darning- 
needle, place to boil in a kettle of cold water hung on the crane ; 
boil three hours, place on table until cold, after which hang up in a 
cool place to dry; tie up in a clean cotton bag, and put away where 
it it will be both dry and cool. When wanted for use, cut off the 
quantity needed, boil in hot water until heated through, take out 
and place before the fire to dry off and "crisp." The above was 
considered an "extra" dish at all the "flax scutchings," "quilting 
frolics," and "log rollings" of a hundred years ago. 

The same by measure is as follows : One pint best beef suet to 



240 SAUCES. 

two pints flour; mix thoroughly, season very highly with pepper 
and salt, sew up little sacks of cotton cloth half a yard long and 
three inches wide, fill nearly full, put to boil in hot water, boil 
from four to six hours; when done, take out, drain, let cool, hang 
in a dry, cool place, and when wanted for table, cut off as much as 
needed, put on hot water, boil until cooked through, take out, peel 
off cloth, put in a pie-pan, set in oven to dry and brown. Mrs, 
E. T. Carson, Mt. Pleasant Farm. 



SAUCES. 



BUTTERLESS SAUCE. 

Place one half a gill of milk in a pan in boiling water ; when 
scalding put in half a pint of powdered sugar mixed with the yolks 
of two eggs, stir until thick as boiled custard, take off; when cool 
add flavoring. Just before serving mix the well-beaten whites 

lightly with the sauce. 

CIDER SAUCE. 
Mix two table-spoons butter with an even table-spoon of flour; 

stir in half a pint of brown sugar, and half a gill of boiled cider ; 
add a gill of boiling water, mix well, let it simmer a few moments; 
serve hot. 

COCOA-NUT SAUCE. 
Two table-spoons butter, cup of sugar, table-spoon of flour, milk 

of one cocoa-nut, with a small piece grated. 

CREAM SAUCE. 

One tea-cup powdered white sugar, scant half tea-cup butter, half 
tea-cup rich cream ; beat butter and sugar thoroughly, add cream, 
stir the whole into half tea-cup boiling water, place on stove for a 
few moments, stirring it constantly, take off and add flavoring. 

COLD CREAM SAUCE. 

Beat together one cup sugar and half cup butter, and add a cup 
rich cream. Stir all to a cream, flavoring with vanilla or lemon, and 
place where it will get very cold before serving. Mrs. A. Wilson. 

PLAIN CREAM SAUCE. 
One pint cream, three table-spoons brown sugar, and half a small 

nutmeg grated. 



SAUCES. 241 

EVERY-DAY SAUCE. 

To one pint boiling water, add heaping tea-cup sugar, table-spoon 
butter (see General Directions), pinch of salt, and table-spoon corn 
gtarch dissolved in cold water ; season with nutmeg or vanilla, boil 
half an hour, and if good and well cooked it will be very clear. 
Or, to a table-spoon of currant jelly, add a table-spoon of hot 
water; beat well and add to the above just before serving, omitting 
all other flavoring. Or, add a tea-spoon of raspberry syrup. 

FOAMING SAUCE. 

Beat whites of three eggs to a stiff froth ; melt tea-cup of sugar 
in a little water, let it boil, stir in one glass wine, and then the 
whites of the three eggs; serve at once. Mrs. Carrie Glazier, Chi- 
cago, III. 

JELLY SAUCE. 

Melt one ounce of sugar and two table-spoons grape jelly over the 
fire in a half pint of boiling water, and stir into it half a tea-spoon 
corn starch dissolved in a half cup cold water, let come to a boil, 
and it will be ready for use. Any other fruit jelly may be used 

instead of grape. 

LEMON SAUCE. 

Two cups sugar, two eggs, juice and rind of two lemons; beat all 
together, and just before serving add pint boiling water; set on 
stove, and when at boiling point, serve. Never boil sauce after 
adding lemon, as it makes it bitter. Some add one-third cup .but- 
ter and table-spoon corn starch. 

MAPLE SUGAR SAUCE. 

Melt over a slow fire, in a small tea-cup of water, half a pint 
maple sugar; let it simmer, removing all scum; add four table- 
spoons butter mixed with a level tea-spoon flour, and one of grated 
nutmeg ; boil for a few moments, and serve with boiled puddings. 
Or, make a ' ' hard sauce " of one table-spoon butter to two of sugar. 

MINNEHAHA SAUCE. 

Beat, in a two quart bowl, four table-spoons butter and two 
thirds pint brown sugar, to a cream, with a wooden spoon ; then 

add four table-spoons sweet cream, then the juice and grated rind 
16 



242 SAUCES. 

of a large lemon ; place the bowl on top of the tea-kettle half full 
of boiling water ; when melted to a thick creamy froth, serve. 

ORANGE HARD SAUCE. 

Select a thin orange, cut the skin into six equal parts, by cutting 
through the skin at the stem end and passing tne knife around the 
orange to nearly the blossom end ; loosen and turn each piece down 
and remove the orange. Extract juice and mix it with yellow sugar 
(prepared by dropping a drop or two of "gold coloring" on white 
sugar while stirring it) till a ball can be formed, which place inside 
the orange-peel and serve. The "gold coloring" may be omitted. 
Lemon sauce may be made in the same way. 

PINE-APPLE SAUCE. 

Mix two table-spoons butter and four heaping table-spoons sugar 
(some add white of an egg), flavor with pine-apple (or any other 
flavoring), form a pyramid, and with a tea-spoon shape it like 
a pine-apple. Or, to a grated pine-apple add a very little water, 
simmer until quite tender, mix with it, by degrees, half its weight 
in sugar, boil gently for five minutes, and serve. 

STRAWBERRY SAUCE. 

Half tea-cup of butter, one and a half tea-cups of sugar, and one 
pint of strawberries mashed till juicy. (Canned berries may be 
substituted for fresh ones). Beat the butter and sugar to a cream; 
then stir in the berries and the beaten white of an egg. 

VINEGAR SAUCE. 

One and a half cups sugar, one and a half table-spoons flour in a 
little water, two table-spoons vinegar, quarter of a grated nutmeg, 
and a pinch of salt; pour over this one and a half pints boiling 
water, and boil ten minutes; just before taking from stove add one 
dessert-spoon of butter. Mrs. G. W. Collins, Urbana. 

WHIPPED CREAM SAUCE. 

Whip a pint of thick sweet cream, add the beaten whites of 
two eggs, sweeten to taste; place pudding in center of dish, and 
surround with the sauce ; or pile up in center and surro and with 
molded blanc-mange, or fruit puddings. Mrs. Geo. Bever, Cedar 
Rapids, la. 



PRESERVES. 



Preserves, to be perfect, must be made with the greatest care. 
Economy of time and trouble is a waste of fruit and sugar. The 
best are made by putting only a small amount of fruit at a time 
in the syrup, after the latter has been carefully prepared and clar- 
ified, and the fruit neatly pared. Peel peaches, pears, quinces and 
apples, and throw into cold water as you peel them to prevent their 
turning dark. It is difficult to watch a large quantity so as to 
insure its being done to a turn. 

The old rule is " a pound of sugar to pound of fruit ; " but since 
the introduction of cans, three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a 
pound of fruit is sufficient, and even less is sometimes used, the 
necessity for an excess of sugar having passed away, as preserves 
may be less sweet, with no risk of fermentation, if sealed. Either 
tin or glass cans may be used, care being taken to make the sealing 
perfect. 

Quinces, pears, citrons, watermelon-rinds, and many of the smaller 
fruits, such as cherries, currants, etc., harden when put, at first, 
into a syrup made of their weight of sugar. To prevent this they 
should be cooked till tender in water, or in a weak syrup made 
from a portion only of the sugar, adding the remainder afterward. 
In preserving fruits, such as apples, peaches, tomatoes, plums and 
strawberries, and other fruits, which are likely to become too soft in 
cooking, it is a good plan to pour the hot syrup over the fruit, or to 
strew over it a part or all the sugar, and allow it to stand a few 
hours ; by either method the juice is extracted, and the fruit hard- 

(243) 



244 PRESER VES. 

ened. Another approved method of hardening fruit is to skim it 
out of syrup after cooking a few minutes, and lay it in the hot sun 
two or three hours, and then pour over it the boiling syrup. Long 
protracted boiling destroys the pleasant natural flavor of the p ruit, 
and darkens it. 

Preserves should boil gently to avoid the danger of burning, and 
in order that the sugar may thoroughly penetrate the fruit. A good 
syrup is made in the proportion of half pint water to a pound of 
sugar. Use loaf or granulated sugar. Put the sugar and water 
over the fire in a porcelain kettle, and, just before it boils, stir in 
the white of an egg beaten lightly with two table-spoons water ; and, 
as it begins to boil, remove the scum with great care ; boil until no 
more scum arises, and then add fruit. Or the white of the egg 
may be mixed thoroughly with the dry sugar in the kettle, and the 
boiling water poured over, when all impurities will immediately rise 
to the surface with the egg, then boil slowly, or rather simmer, until 
the preserves are clear. Take out each piece with a skimmer and 
lay on a flat dish to cool, or else put in the jars at once. Stew the 
syrup, skimming off the scum which rises, until it "ropes" from the 
spoon. If the preserves are already in the jar pour the syrup over 
them and seal ; if on dishes, return them to the syrup and boil up 
once before putting up. This is merely a matter of choice, and we 
have never found any difference in the results of the two methods. 
Preserves may be made from canned fruit (and some prefer to do 
this rather than make in the hot season), using less sugar than the 
rule. When preserving canned peaches or apples, it is an improve- 
ment to add a few sliced oranges or lemons. When berries or small 
fruits are done, take up with a little strainer, and place in cans; 
if a cup is used, it is impossible to free them from the syrup. 

Marmalades, or the different butters, will be smoother and better 
flavored, and will require less boiling, if the fruit (peaches, quinces, 
oranges and apples make the best) is well cooked and mashed before 
adding either sugar or cider. It is important to stir constantly with 
an apple -butter stirrer. 

In making either preserves or marmalades, follow the directions 
as regards kettle, sugar, and putting up, already given for jellies 
and jams, covering at once, but not putting away till cold. When 



PRESER VES. 245 

preserves are candied, set jar in kettle of cold water, and let 
boil for an hour ; or put them in a crock kept for that purpose, 
set in oven and boil a few minutes, watching carefully to pre- 
vent burning. When specks of mold appear, take them off 
carefully, and scald preserves as above directed. 

Dried fruits are much better and require less boiling, if clean soft 
water is poured over them and allowed to stand over night. In the 
morning boil until tender in the water, sweetening five minutes 
before removing from the stove. 

To dry corn or fruits nicely, spread in shallow boxes or box cov- 
ers, and cover with mosquito netting to prevent flies reaching them. 
When dry, put up in jars and cover closely, or in paper sacks. 
Dried peaches are better when halved and the cavities sprinkled 
Tvith sugar in drying. The fruit must be good, however, as poor 
fruit can not be redeemed by any process. Another excellent way 
is to dry them in the oven, arid, when about half done, place in a 
crock a layer of peaches alternately with a layer of sugar. Cherries 
and currants are excellent dried as follows: Put in jars first a layer 
of fruit, then a layer of sugar, in the proportion of half a pound 
sugar to pound of fruit, let stand over night, place them to boil, 
skimming off all scum, let boil ten or fifteen minutes, skim out and 
spread on dishes to dry in the sun, or by the fire, turning frequently 
until dry ; then place on pans in oven, stirring with the hand often 
until the heat is too great to bear. They may then be packed in 
jars with sugar, or put away in paper sacks, or stone crocks with a 
cloth tied close over the top, and are an excellent substitute for 
raisins in puddings or mince-pies. 

The secret of keeping dried fruit is to exclude the light, and to keep 
in a dry and cool place. Paper sacks, or a barrel or box lined with 
p-iper, are secure against moths. Reheating fruit makes it dark in 
color, and impairs its flavor. Always fill a fruit-can, and keep for 
present use, to avoid opening the large jars often. 



APPLE PRESERVES. 



Take three-quarters of a pound sugar to each pound apples; make 
a syrup of the sugar and water in which root ginger (bruised and 



246 PRESERVES. 

tied in a bag) has been boiled until the strength is well extracted, 
add a little lemon-juice or sliced lemon, skim off all scum, and boil 
in the syrup a few apples at a time, until they are transparent, and 
place in jar. When all are done, boil the syrup until thick, pour, 
boiling hot, over the apples, and cover closely. Well-flavored fruit, 
not easily broken in cooking, should be used. The ginger may be 
omitted if disliked. 

CARROT SWEETMEATS. 

Boil small fine-grained carrots in water till tender ; peel and grate, 
add sugar, slips of citron, spices if preferred, and wine ; simmer 
slowly together and put away in jars. Very wholesome for chil- 
dren and very much liked. The juice from any canned fruit sold 
would take the place of the simple wine used here the alcoholic 
mixtures sold in America being utterly unfit for household con- 
sumption. Mrs. S. Williston, Heidelberg, Germany. 

CHERRY PRESERVES. 

Choose sour ones the early Richmond is good seed all very 
carefully, allow an amount of sugar equal to the fruit; take half 
the sugar, sprinkle over the fruit, let stand about an hour, pour into 
a preserving-kettle, boil slowly ten minutes, skim out the cherries, 
add rest of sugar to the syrup, boil, skim and pour over the cher- 
ries ; the next day drain off the syrup, boil, skim if necessary, add 
the cherries, boil twenty minutes, and seal up in small jars. Mrs. 

J. M. Southard. 

CITRON PRESERVES. 

Pare off rind, seed, cut in thin slices two inches long, weigh, and 
put in preserving kettle w r ith water enough to cover ; boil one hour, 
take out the melon, and to the water in kettle add as much sugar 
as there is melon by weight, boil until quite thick, replace melon, 
add two sliced lemons to each pound of fruit, boil twenty minutes, 
take out, boil syrup until it is very thick molasses, and pour it over 
the fruit. Mrs. J. H. Robinson, 

FIG PRESERVES. 

Gather fruit when fully ripe, but not cracked open ; place in a 
perforated tin bucket or wire basket, and dip for a moment into a 
deep kettle of hot and r^oderately strong lye (seme prefer letting 



PRESERVES. 247 

them lie an hour in lime-water and afterwards drain) ; make a syrup 
in proportion of one pound sugar to one of fruit, and when the figs 
are well drained, put them in syrup and boil until well cooked ; 
remove, boil syrup down until there is just enough to cover fruit ; 
put fruit back in syrup, let all boil, and seal up while hot in glass 
or porcelain jars. Ex-Gov. Stearns, Florida. 

GRAPE PRESERVES. 

Pick grapes from the stems, pop pulps from the skins, doing two 
at a time, one in each hand between the thumb and forefinger. Put 
pulp in a porcelain kettle and stew gently until the seeds are loosen- 
ed ; then strain and rub it through a sieve, weigh it with the skins, 
and to every pound of this allow one pound of granulated sugar. 
Put skins and juice in kettle, cover closely, and cook slowly until 
the skins are tender ; while still boiling add the sugar, and move the 
kettle back, as it must not boil again ; keep very hot for fifteen 
minutes, then, seeing that the sugar is thoroughly dissolved, pour 
the fruit in cans, and screw down the covers as soon as possible. 

PEAR PRESERVES. 

Pare, cut in halves, core and weigh (if hard, boil in water until 
tender, and use the water for the syrup), allow three-quarters 
pound sugar for each pound fruit, boil a few moments, skim, and 
cool ; when hike-warm add pears, and boil gently until syrup has 
penetrated them and they look clear ; some of the pieces will cook 
before the rest, and must be removed ; when done, take out, boil 
down syrup a little and pour over them ; a few cloves stuck here 
and there in the pears add a pleasant flavor. Put in small jars 
with glass or tin tops, and seal with putty. Miss Florence Williams. 

PEACH PRESERVES. 

Take any fine peaches that do not mash readily in cooking, pare 
carefully and remove pits ; take sugar equal in weight to fruit, 
(or if to be sealed, three-quarters pound sugar to the pound of fruit), 
and water in proportion of a half pint to each pound of sugar. 
Boil pits in the water, adding more as it evaporates, to keep the 
proportion good, remove pits, add the sugar, clarify, and when the 
scum ceases to rise, add the fruit, a small quantity at a time ; cook 
slowly about ten minutes, skim out into a jar, add more, and so on 



248 PRESERVES. 

until all are done, and then pour the boiling syrup over all. The 
next day drain off and boil syrup a few minutes only, and pour back, 
repeating daily until the fruit looks clear. Two or three times is 
generally sufficient. The last time put up the preserves in small jars, 
and secure with paper as directed for jellies. If to be sealed in cans, 
the first boiling is sufficient, after which put into cans and seal im- 
mediately. The latter plan is preferable, as it takes less trouble 
and less sugar, while the natural flavor of the fruit is better re- 
tained. Many think peach preserves much nicer if made with 
maple sugar. Clingstone peaches are preserved in the same way 
whole, except that they must be put on in clear water and boiled 
until so tender that they may be pierced with a silver fork before 

adding the sugar. 

PLUM PRESERVES. 

Allow equal weights sugar and plums ; add sufficient water to 
the sugar to make a thick syrup, boil, skim, and pour over the 
plums (previously washed, pricked and placed in a stone jar), and 
cover with a plate. The next day drain off syrup, boil, skim, and 
pour in over plums ; repeat this for three or four days, place plums 
and syrup in the preserving-kettle, and boil very slowly for half an 
hour. Put up in stone jars, cover with papers like jellies, or seal 
in cans. Mrs. J. H. Shearer. 

PLUM SWEETMEATS. 

When Damson plums are perfectly ripe, peel and divide them, 
taking out the stones ; put them over a gentle heat to cook in their 
own juice ; when soft rub them through a sieve, and return to 
the stove, adding just enough sugar to sweeten, a little cinnamon, 
and, when nearly done, wine in quantity to suit the taste. This is 
done more to keep the sweetmeats than for the flavor, as self-sealing 
cans are not used here, and all preserves are pasted up with the 
white of eggs. The common wine of the country is thin and sour 
and is much used in cookery. Mrs. L. S. Wttliston, Heidelberg, 

Germany. 

QUINCE AND APPLE PRESERVES. 

Take equal weights of quinces and sugar, pare, core, leave whole 
or cut up, as preferred, boil till tender in water enough to cover, 
carefully take out and put on a platter, add sugar to the water, 



PRESERVES. 249 

replace fruit and boil slowly till clear, place in jars and pour syrup 
over them. To increase the quantity without adding sugar, take 
half or two-thirds in weight as many fair sweet apples as there are 
quinces, pare, quarter, and core; after removing quinces, put apples 
into the syrup, and boil until they begin to look red and clear, and 
are tender; place quinces and apples in jar in alternate layers, and 
cover with syrup. For the use of parings and cores, see " Quince 
Jelly." Apples alone may be preserved in the same way. 

STRAWBERRY PRESERVES. 

Put two pounds of sugar in a bright tin-pan over a kettle of 
boiling water, and pour into it half a pint of boiling water; when 
the sugar is dissolved and hot, put in fruit, and then place the pan 
directly on the stove or range ; let boil ten minutes or longer if the 
fruit is not clear, gently (or the berries will be broken) take up w r ith 
a small strainer, and keep hot while the syrup is boiled down until 
thick and rich; drain off the thin syrup from the cans, ancf pour 
the rich syrup over the berries to fill, and screw down the tops im- 
mediately. The thin syrup poured off may be brought to boiling, 
and then bottled and sealed, to be used for sauces and drinks. 

TOMATO PRESERVES. 

Scald and peel carefully small perfectly-formed tomatoes, not 
too ripe (yellow pear-shaped are best), prick with a needle to pre- 
Tent bursting, add an equal amount of sugar by weight, let lie over 
night, then pour off all juice into a preserving-kettle, and boil until 
it is a thick syrup, clarifying with white of an egg ; add tomatoes 
and boil carefully until they look transparent, A piece or two of 
root-ginger, or one lemon to a pound of fruit sliced thin and cooked 
with the fruit, mav be added. 

H 

WATERMELON PRESERVES. 

Pare off outside green rind, cut in pieces two inches long, weigh, 
throw into cold water, skim out, add a heaping tea-spoon each of 
salt and pulverized alum to two gallons of rinds, let stand until salt 
and alum dissolve, fill the kettle with cold water, and place on top 
of stove where it will slowly come to boiling point, covering with a 
large plate so as to keep rinds under; boil until they can be easily 
pierced with a fork, drain them from the water, and put into a syrup 



250 PRESERVES. 

previously prepared as follows : Bruise and tie in a muslin bag four 
ounces of ginger-root, and boil in two or three pints of water until 
it is strongly flavored. At the same time boil in a little water 
until ten ler, in another pan, three or four sliced lemons; make a> 
syrup of the sugar and the water in which the lemons and the gin- 
ger-root were boiled, add the rinds and slices of lemon to this and 
boil slowly half to three-quarters of an hour. Citrons may be pre- 
pared in the same way, by paring, coring and slicing, or cutting 
into fanciful shapes with tin cutters made for the purpose. 

APPLE BUTTER. 

Boil one barrel of new cider down half, peel and core three 
bushels of good cooking apples ; when the cider has boiled to half 
the quantity, add the apples, and when soft, stir constantly for 
from eight to ten hours. If done it will adhere to an inverted 
plate. Put away in stone jars (not earthen ware), covering first 
with writing-paper cut to fit the jar, and press down closely upon 
the apple butter ; cover the whole with thick brown paper snugly 
tied down. Miss Sarah Thomson, Delaware. 

EGG BUTTER. 

Boil a pint of molasses slowly about fifteen or twenty minutes,, 
stirring to prevent burning, add three eggs well beaten, stirring 
them in as fast as possible, boil a few minutes longer, partially cool t 
and flavor to taste with lemon. Mrs. Colbert, Broadway. 

LEMON BUTTER. 

Tea-cup white sugar, three eggs, butter the size of half an egg ? , 
beat well together ; add juice and grated rind of one large lemon,, 
place in a pan set in a kettle of hot water, stir well until thick. 
This may be made up in quantity, kept for a long time in bottles 
or jars, and used as needed for filling tarts, etc. 

PUMPKIN BUTTER. 

Take the seeds out of one pumpkin, cut in small pieces and boil 
soft ; take three other pumpkins, cut them in pieces and boil them 
soft, put them in a coarse bag and pre^s out juice; add juice to 
first pumpkin, and let boil ten hours or more, to become of the 
thickness of butter; stir often. If the pumpkins are frozen, the? 
juice will come out much easier. 



PRESERVES. 251 

PIE-PLANT BUTTER. 

Allow one pound of sugar to each pound of peeled and cut up 
rhubarb ; let the rhubarb and sugar simmer gently for an hour, or 
more if the rhubarb is old and tough. This is a nice preserve, and 
children should be encouraged to eat it during the winter. 

ORANGE MARMALADE. 

Twelve pounds sour oranges, twelve pounds crushed sugar ; wash 
the oranges and pare them as you would apples ; put the peel in a 
porcelain-lined kettle with twice its bulk or more of cold water; 
keep it covered, and boil until perfectly tender; if the water boils 
away, add more ; the peel is generally very hard, and requires 
several hours boiling ; cut the oranges in two crosswise, and squeeze 
out the juice and the soft pulp, have a pitcher with a strainer in the 
top, place in a two-quart bowl, squeeze the thin juice and seeds in 
the strainer and the rest with the pulp in the bowl, drawing the 
skin as you squeeze it over the edge of the tin strainer, to scrape off 
the pulp, then pour all the juice and pulp on the sugar; the white 
skins must be covered with three quarts of cold water, and boiled 
half an hour, drain the water on the sugar, put the white skins in 
the colander, four or five together, and pound off the soft part, of 
Which there must be in all two pounds and four ounces, put this with 
the sugar and juice ; when the peel is tender drain it from the water, 
end choose either of these three modes: Pound it in a mortar, chop 
it in a bowl, or cut it in delicate shreds with a pair of scissors. There 
is still another way, which saves the necessity of handling the peel 
;after it is boiled ; it is to grate the yellow rind from the orange, then 
tie it in a muslin bag, and boil until soft, which you can tell by 
rubbing a little of it between the thumb and finger ; it is then ready 
for the other ingredients; put the whole in a porcelain kettle, or in 
a bright tin preserving-pan, and boil about an hour; when it begins 
to thicken it must be tried occasionally, bv letting a little cool in a 

w / * 

spoon laid on ice. To prevent its burning, pass the spoon often over 
the bottom of the kettle ; when it is thick as desired put it in tum- 
blers and cover with paper. Mrs. ElizabeOi S. Miller in " In Hie 

Kitchen" 

PEACH MARMALADE. 

Choose ripe, well-flavored fruit, and it is well to make with pre. 



252 PRESERVES. 

serves, reserving for marmalade those that are too soft. The flavor 
is improved by first boiling the pits in the water with which the 
syrup is to be made. Quarter the peaches and boil thirty minutes 
before adding sugar, stirring almost constantly from the time the 
peaches begin to be tender ; add sugar in the proportion of three- 
fourths pound sugar to one pound fruit, continue to boil and stir 
for an hour longer, and put up in jars, pressing paper over them as 

directed for jellies. 

QUINCE MARMALADE. 

Pare, quarter and core quinces, cut in little squares, measure 
and allow an equal amount of sugar ; place the fruit in a porcelain 
kettle with just water enough to cover, boil till tender, and skim 
out carefully ; make a syrup of the sugar and the water in which 
the quinces were boiled, let come to boiling point, skim well, and 
drop the quinces gently in ; boil fifteen minutes and dip out care- 
fully into jelly-bowls or molds. The syrup forms a jelly around 
the fruit so that it can be turned out on a dish, and is very palat- 
able as well as ornamental. In this way quinces too defective for 
preserves may be used. Mrs. Mary A. Cooper. 

DRIED APPLE SAUCE. 

Look over, wash thoroughly and soak fifteen minutes in clean 
warm water ; drain, cover Avith cold soft water, place on the stove,, 
let boil slowly two to four hours, mash fine, sw r eeten, and season, 
with cinnamon very highly. Never add sugar until about five min- 
utes before removing from the stove, otherwise the fruit will be tough- 
ened and hardened. Follow the same directions in preparing dried 
peaches, only do not mash or season so highly. Cook in porcelain, 
without stirring. A few raisins added improve the apple sauce. 

BOILED CIDER APPLE SAUCE. 

Pare, quarter and core apples sufficient to fill a gallon porcelain 
kettle, put in it a half gallon boiled cider, let it boil. Wash the 
apples and put in kettle, place a plate over them, and boil steadily 
but not rapidly until they are thoroughly cooked, testing by taking 
one from under the edge of the plate with a fork. Do not remove 
the plate until done, or the apples will sink to the bottom and 
burn. Apples may be cooked in sweet cider in the same way. 
Mrs. W. W. W. 



PRESERVES. 253 

PRESERVED CITRON. 

Boil the citron in water until it is clear and soft enough to be 
easily pierced with a fork ; take out, put into a nice syrup of sugar 
and water, and boil until the sugar has penetrated it. Take out 
and spread on dishes to dry slowly, sprinkling several times with 
powdered sugar, and turning until it is dried enough. Pack in 
jars or boxes with sugar between the layers. Mrs. I. N. Seem, 
Bourbon Co., Ky. 

TOMATO FIGS. 

Scald and skin pear-shaped (or any small-sized) tomatoes, and to 
eight pounds of them add three pounds brown sugar ; cook without 
water until the sugar penetrates and they have a clear appearance, 
take out, spread on dishes, and dry in the sun, sprinkling on a little 
syrup while drying ; pack in jars or boxes, in layers with powdered 
sugar between. Thus put up they will keep for any length of time, 
and are nearly equal to figs. Peaches may be preserved in the 
same way. Mrs. John Samuels, Covington, Ky. 

DRIED CURRANTS (OR CONSERVE). 

One pint sugar to a pint of stemmed ripe currants ; put them 
together in a porcelain kettle, a layer of currants at the bottom; 
^vhen the sugar is dissolved, let them boil one or two minutes, skim 
from the syrup, and spread on plates to dry in a partly cooled oven. 
Boil the syrup until thickened, pour it over the currants, and dry 
it with them. Pack in jars and cover closely. Blackberries may 
be dried in the same manner. An economical way of making jelly 
is to boil liquid, skimming well, after currants are taken out, until 
it becomes jelly, and then put away in jelly glasses. Mrs. H. A., Va. 

PINE-APPLE PRESERVES. 

Wash fruit, and boil without paring until tender ; take out, pare 
and slice lengthwise, leaving out the hard center. Pour a syrup 
(using a pound of sugar to one of fruit), boiling hot, over pine- 
apples, and let stand until the next morning. Pour off syrup, 
boil until nearly thick enough, then add fruit, and boil fifteen or 
twenty minutes. 



PICKLES. 



In making pickles use none but the best cider vinegar, and boil 
in a porcelain kettle never in metal. A lump of alum size of a 
small nutmeg, to a gallon of cucumbers, dissolved and added to the 
vinegar when scalding the pickles the first time, renders them crisp 
and tender, but too much is injurious. Keep in a dry, cool cellar, 
in glass or stoneware ; look at them frequently and remove all soft 
ones ; if white specks appear in the vinegar, drain off and scald, 
adding a liberal handful of sugar to each gallon, and pour again 
over the pickles ; bits of horse-radish and a few cloves assist in pre- 
serving the life of the vinegar. If put away in large stone jars, 
invert a saucer over the top of the pickles, so as to keep them well 
under the vinegar. The nicest way to put up pickles is bottling, 
sealing while hot, and keeping in a cool, dark place. Many 
think that mustard-seed improves pickles, especially chopped, 
bottled, and mangoes, but use it, as well as horse-radish and 
cloves, sparingly. Never put up pickles in any thing that 
has held any kind of grease, and never let them freeze. Use 
an oaken tub or cask for pickles in brine, keep them well under, and 
have more salt than will dissolve, so that there will always be plenty 
at the bottom of the cask. The brine for pickles should be strong 
enough to bear an egg ; make it in the proportion of a heaping pint 
of coarse salt to a gallon of water. Use coarse salt, and test pickles 
by tasting before putting on vinegar (they should be of a pleasant 
saltness) ; if not salt enough, add salt to brine and allow them to 
stand until they have acquired the proper flavor ; if too salt, cover 
with weak vinegar, and let stand for two or three days, drain, add- 
ing strong vinegar, either hot or cold according to recipes, and finish 
as directed. In the case of kegs of cucumbers kept in brine for 
a long time, to be used when needed, it is better to err in using too 
much salt, as this may be corrected by adding the weak vinegar, 
but if not sufficiently salted the pickles will be insipid. In scalding 

(254) 



PICKLES. 255 

cucumber pickles to green them, some use cabbage leaves, covering 
bottom, sides, and top of kettle. A medium spicing for a quart of 
pickles is a level tea-spoon of peppercorns (whole black peppers) , 
the same of allspice, a table-spoon of broken stick cinnamon, half a 
tea-spoon of cloves, mustard seed, or horse-radish chopped fine, and 
one piece of ginger root, an inch long. If ground cayenne pepper 
is used instead of whole peppers, an eighth of a tea-spoon is enough. 
A better substitute for peppercorns is garden-peppers cut in rings, 
in proportion of two rings of green and one of red without seeds, or 
a level tea-spoon, when finely chopped, to a quart of pickles. These 
proportions may be increased or decreased to suit the taste, taking 
care not to put in so much of any one as to make its flavor pre- 
dominate. Ginger is the most wholesome of the spices. Cloves are 
the strongest, mace next, then allspice and cinnamon, and, of course, 
less of the stronger should be used. Pickles are not famous for 
wholesome qualities, even when made with the greatest care, but if 
they must be eaten, it is best to make them at home. Those sold 
in market are often colored a beautiful green with sulphate of cop- 
per, which is a deadly poison, or are cooked in brass or copper ves- 
sels, which produces the same result in an indirect way. Scalding 
or parboiling articles to be pickled makes them absorb the vinegar 
more easily, but does not add to their crispness. Before putting 
them in vinegar, after parboiling, they should be cold and perfectly 
dry. Always use strong vinegar, or the pickles will be insipid, and 
it should be scalding hot when poured on, as raw vinegar becomes- 
ropy and does not keep well. As heating weakens it, vinegar for 
pickles should be very strong, and should only be brought to boiling 
point, and immediately poured on pickles. Keep pickles from the 
air, and see that the vinegar is at least two inches over the top of 
pickles in the jar. A dry wooden spoon or ladle should be used in 
handling pickles, and is the only one that should touch pickles in the 
jars. If the vinegar loses its strength it should be replaced by good, 
poured over scalding hot. 

PICKLED ARTICHOKES. 

Rub off outer skin with a coarse towel, and lay in salt water for 
a day, drain and pour over them cold spiced vinegar, adding a tea- 
epoonful of horse-radish to each jar. 



256 PICKLES. 

BEAN PICKLES. 

Pick green beans of the best variety, when young and tender, 
tstriug, and place in a kettle to boil, with salt to taste, until they 
can be pierced with a fork, drain well through a colander, put in a 
stone jar, sprinkle with cayenne pepper, and cover with strong cider 
vinegar; sugar may be added if desired. 

BOTTLED PICKLES. 

Wash and wipe a half bushel of medium-sized cucumbers, suit- 
able for pickling, pack close in a stone jar, sprinkle over the top one 
pint of salt, pour over a sufficient quantity of boiling water to cover 
them, place a cloth over the jar, and let stand until cold (if pre- 
pared in the evening, let stand all night), drain off the water, and 
place the pickles on stove in cold virj^ar, let them come to a boil, 
take out, place in a stone jar, and^cover with either cold or hot 
vinegar. They will be ready for use in a few days, and are excel- 
lent. It is an improvement to add a few spices and a small quan- 
tity of sugar. 

To bottle them, prepare with salt and boiling 'water as above, 
drain (when cold), and place a gallon at a time on a stove in enough 
cold vinegar to cover level (need not be very strong), to which a 
lump of alum about the size of a small hickory-nut (too much is 
iujurious) has been added. Have on stove, in another kettle, a 
gallon of the very best cider vinegar, to which add half a pint of 
brown sugar ; have bottles cleansed and placed to heat on stove in 
a large tin-pan of cold water; also have a tin cup or small pan 
of sealing-wax heated ; on table, have spices prepared in separate 
dishes, as follows: Green and red peppers sliced in rings; horse- 
radish roots washed, scraped, and cut in small pieces, black and 
yellow mustard seed (or this may be left out), each prepared by 
sprinkling with salt and pouring on some boiling water, which let 
stand fifteen minutes and then draw off; stick cinnamon washed free 
from dust, and broken in pieces, and a few cloves. When pickles 
come to boiling point, take out and pack in bottles, mixing with them 
the spices (use the cloves, horse-radish and mustard seed, sparingly); 
put in a layer of pickles, then a layer of spices, shaking the bot- 
ties occasionally so as to pack tightly ; when full cover with the 



PICKLES, 257 

boiling hot vinegar from the other kettle (using a bright funnel and 
bright tin cup), going over them a second time and filling up, in 
order to supply shrinkage, for the pickles must be entirely cov- 
ered with the vinegar. Put in the corks, which should fit very 
snugly, lift each bottle (wrap a towel around it to prevent burn- 
ing the hands), and dip the corked end into the hot sealing-wax: 
proceed in this manner with each bottle, dipping each a second 
time into the wax so that they may be perfectly secure. If corks 
seem too small, throw them in boiling water ; if too large, pound 
the sides with a hammer. The tighter they fit in the bottles the 
better for the pickles. Glass cans, the tops or covers of which have 
become defective, can be used by supplying them with corks. 
Pickles thus bottled are far more wholesome than, and are really 
superior to, the best brand of imported pickles, and, by having 
materials in readiness, prepared as directed, the process is neither 
difficult nor tedious. It requires two persons to successfully bot- 
tle pickles. Mrs. Florence W. Hush, Minneapolis. 

CHOW CHOW PICKLES. 

Let two hundred small cucumbers stand in salt and water closely 
covered for three days. Boil for fifteen minutes in half a gallon 
best cider vinegar, one ounce white mustard seed, one of black 
mustard seed, one of juniper berries, one of celery seed (tying each 
ounce separately in swiss bags), one handful small green peppers, 
two pounds sugar, a few small onions, and a piece alum half the 
size of a nutmeg ; pour the vinegar while hot over the cucumbers, 
let stand a day, repeating the operation three or four mornings. 
Mix one-fourth pound mustard with the vinegar, pour over cucum- 
bers, and seal up in bottles. Mrs. Ada Estelle Bever. 

CHOW CHOW. 

One peck of green tomatoes, half peck string beans, quarter peck 
small white onions, quarter pint green and red peppers mixed, two 
lanre heads cabbage, four table-spoons white mustard seed, two of 
white or black cloves, two of celery seed, two of allspice, one small 
box yellow mustard, pound brown sugar, one ounce of turmeric; slice 
the tomatoes and let stand over nio-ht in brine that will bear an 

o 

egg ; then squeeze out brine, chop cabbage, onions and beans, chop 
17 



258 PICKLES. 

tomatoes separately, mix with the spices, put all in porcelain "k 
cover with vinegar, and boil three hours. 

CAULIFLOWER PICKLES. 

Choose such as are fine and of full size, cut away all th leaves, 
and pull away the flowers by bunches; soak i*. brine that will float 
an egg for two days, drain, put in bottles with whole black pepper, 
allspice, and stick cinnamon ; boil vinega*-, and with it mix mustard 
smoothly, a little at a time and just t'nick enough to run into the 
jars, pour over the cold cauliflowfe*- and seal while hot. An equal- 
quantity or less of small white c^iions, prepared as directed in recipe 
for onion pickles, may be added before the vinegar is poured over. 

CELERY PICKLES. 

Put together in a porcelain-lined kettle two quarts chopped white 
cabbage, two quarts Chopped celery, three quarts vinegar, half ounce 
each of crushed wliite ginger root and turmeric, fourth pound white 
mustard seed, two table-spoons salt, five of sugar; cook slowly sev- 
eral hours uk<il cabbage and celery are tender. 

CUCUMBER PICKLES. 

Cover foe bottom of cask with common salt ; gather the cucum- 
bers every other day, early in the morning or late in the evening, 
as K. does not injure the vines so much then as in the heat of the 
day ; cut the cucumbers with a short piece of the stem on, carefully 
laying them in a basket or pail so as not to bruise ; pour cold water 
over and rinse, being careful not to rub off the little black briers, or 
in any way to bruise them, as that is the secret of keeping them 
perfectly sound and good for any length of time. Lay them in a 
eask three or four inches deep, cover with salt, and repeat the 
operation until all are in ; pour in some water with the first layer- 
after this the salt will make sufficient brine. Now spread a cloth 
over them, then a board with a stone on it. When a new supply 
of cucumbers is to be added, remove stone, board and cloth, wash 
them very clean, and wipe every particle of scum from the top of 
the pickles and the sides of the cask; throw away any soft ones, 
as they will spoil the rest; now put in the fresh cucumbers, layer- 
by layer, with salt to cover each iayer. When cask is nearly full, 
cover with salt, tuck cloth closely around the edges, placing the 
board and weight on top ; cover cask closely, and the pickles will be 



PICKLES. 259 

.perfect for two or three years. Cucumbers must always be put in 
the salt as soon as picked from the vines, for if they lie a day or 
two they will not keep. Do not be alarmed at the heavy scum 
that rises on them, but be careful to wash all off the board and 
-cloth. When wanted for pickling, take off weight and board, care- 
fully lift cloth with scum on it, wash stone, board and cloth clean, 
and wipe all scum off the cucumbers and sides of cask, take out 
as many as are wanted, return the cloth, board and weight, and 
cover closely. Place the cucumbers in a vessel large enough to 
.hold two or three times as much water as there are pickles, cover 
with cold water (some use hot), change the water each day for three 
days, place the porcelain kettle on the fire, fill half full of vine- 
.gar (if vinegar is very strong add half water), fill nearly full of 
cucumbers, the largest first and then the smaller ones, put in a 
lump of alum the size of a nutmeg, let come to a boil, stirring with 
.a wire or wooden spoon so as not to cut the cucumbers ; after boil- 
ing one minute, take out, place in a stone jar, and continue until 
all are scalded, then pour over them cold vinegar. In two or three 
days, if the pickles are too salt, turn off the vinegar and put on 
fresh, add a pint of brown sugar to each two gallons pickles, a pod 
or two of red pepper, a very few cloves, and some pieces of horse- 
radish. The horse-radish prevents a white scum from rising. 

CHOPPED PICKLES. 

Take a peck green tomatoes, wash clean, cut away a small piece 
from each end, slice and place in a large w T ooden bowl, chop fine, 
place in a crock and mix salt with them (half pint to a peck), let 
stand twenty-four hours, and drain thoroughly ; take twice or three 
limes as much cabbage as there is chopped tomatoes, chop fine, mix 
salt in same proportions, add enough water to make moist, and let 
stand same time as tomatoes; drain, place again in separate jars, 
cover each with cold weak vinegar; after twenty-four hours drain cab- 
bage well, pressing hard to extract all the juice; place tomatoes and 
the vinegar in a porcelain kettle and let them boil for three minutes, 
-stirring all the time, pour out, and when cold, place in a towel 
and wring and press until perfectly dry; now mix tomatoes and 
cabbage together, take a double handful at a time, squeeze as tightly 
as possible, and place in a dry crock; take the stone jar in which 



260 PICKLES. 

they are to be pickled, place in it a layer of tomatoes and cab- 
bage, scatter over with chopped peppers, whole mustard seed, and 
horse-radish, then another layer of tomatoes and cabbage, next spice, 
and so on until jar is almost full, occasionally sprinkling with cay- 
enne pepper; cover with strong cider vinegar, to each gallon of 
which a tea-cup of sugar has been added. Place a saucer or pieces 
of broken china on the pickles to keep them under the vinegar. If 
a white scum rises, drain off vinegar, boil, skim, and pour hot over 
the pickles. Prepare mustard, peppers, and horse-radish, as follows: 
Take three green or ripe garden peppers (four table-spoons when 
chopped), cut in two, place in salt water over night, the next morn- 
ing drain and chop quite fine ; to two table-spoons mustard-seed add 
salt-spoon salt, pour in boiling water, let stand fifteen minutes and 
drain; two table-spoons horse-radish chopped fine. Tomatoes and 
onions are excellent prepared in the same way. For sliced pickles, 
take cucumbers and onions, or tomatoes and onions, and slice and 
prepare as above. Mrs. W. W. W. 

MANGOES. 

Select green or half grown muskmelons ; remove a piece the 
length of the melon, an inch and a half wide in the middle and 
tapering to a point at each end ; take out seeds with a tea-spoon, 
secure one end of each piece to its own melon by a stitch made with 
a needle and white thread. Make a brine of salt and cold water 
strong enough to float an egg, pour it over them, and after twenty- 
four hours take them out. For filling, use chopped tomatoes and 
chopped cabbage prepared as in "Chopped Pickles," small cucum- 
bers, small white onions, and nasturtium pods, each prepared by 
remaining in salt water in separate jars twenty-four hours; add also 
green beans boiled in salt water until tender. For spice, use cin- 
namon-bark, whole cloves, chopped horse-radish, cayenne pepper, 
mustard seed, the latter prepared as directed in " Chopped Pickles." 
Prepare three or four times as much cabbage and tomatoes as of 
other articles, as any part left over may be placed in jar with vin- 
egar poured over, and is ready for the table. Use one, or, if small, 
two cucumbers, two or three onions, and the same quantity of bean 
and nasturtium pods, placing them in mango first, with two or three 



PICKLES. 261 

cloves, three or four sticks of cinnamon an inch long, and half a 
tea-spoon horse-radish, and filling up afterward with the chopped 
cabbage or tomatoes (mixing, or using them separately in alternate 
melons) pressing down very firmly, so that the mango is filled tight, 
sprinkling on the cayenne pepper last. Sew in the piece all around 
in its proper place with strong white thread ; when all are thus 
prepared, place in a stone crock, cover with weak cider-vinegar, let 
remain over night; in the morning place the mangoes, and the 
vinegar in which they were soaked, in a porcelain kettle, boil half 
an hour, place in a jar, cover with good strong cider vinegar, let 
stand all night ; in the morning drain off vinegar and boil it, add- 
ing one pint of sugar to each gallon, and pour boiling hot over the 
mangoes ; drain off and boil the vinegar three or four times, and 
they are done. This is not the usual way of preparing mangoes, 
but it is much the best. To pickle nasturtiums, soak as collected in 
salt and water for twenty -four hours, drain, and put into cold vin- 
egar ; when all the seed is thus prepared, drain, and cover with 
fresh boiling-hot vinegar. 

PEACH MANGOES. 

Take un pared, fine, large peaches (free-stones) ; with a knife 
extract the stone .from the side, place in jar, pour over them boiling 
water salted to taste, let stand twenty-four hours; drop into fresh 
cold water and allow to remain ten or fifteen minutes ; wipe very 
dry, fill each cavity with grated horse-radish and white mustard- 
seed (prepared as directed in recipe for " Chopped Pickles), a small 
piece of ginger-root, and one or two cloves ; sew up, and place 
in a stone jar as close together as possible. Make a syrup in pro- 
portion of one pint sugar to three pints vinegar; pour, boiling hot, 
over them. They will be ready for use in a week, and are very 
fine. 



FRENCH PICKLES. 

One peck green tomatoes sliced, six large onions sliced ; mix 
these and throw over them one tea-cup of salt, and let them stand 
over night ; next day drain thoroughly and boil in one quart vine- 
gar mixed with two quarts of water, for fifteen or twenty minutes. 
Then take four quarts vinegar, tw r o pounds brown sugar, half 
pound white mustard-seed, two table-spoons ground allspice, and the 



262 PICKLES. 

same of cinnamon, cloves, ginger, and ground mustard ; throw all to- 
gether and boil fifteen minutes. Mrs. Wm. Mappin, Mason Co. , Ky. 

PICKLED ONIONS. 



Select small silver-skinned onions, remove with a knife all the 
outer-skins, so that each onion will be perfectly white and clean. 
Put them into brine that will float an egg for three days, drain, 
place in jar, first a layer of onions three inches deep, then a sprink- 
ling of horse-radish, cinnamon bark, cloves, and a little cayenne 
pepper ; repeat until jar is filled, in proportion of half a tea-spoon 
cayenne pepper, two tea-spoons each chopped horse-radish and cloves, 
and four table-spoons cinnamon bark, to a gallon of pickles ; bring 
vinegar to boiling point ; add brown sugar in the proportion of a 
quart to a gallon, and pour hot over the onions. Estelle Woods 

Wilcox. 

PICCALILLI. 

One large white cabbage, fifty small cucumbers, five quarts small 
string-beans, eight small carrots, one dozen sticks celery, five red 
peppers, three green peppers, two heads cauliflower; chop fine, 
soak over night in salt and water, wash well, drain thoroughly, and 
pour over them hot vinegar spiced with mace, cinnamon and all- 
spice; turn off vinegar and scald until safe to leave like common 
pickles; or seal in can while hot. Mrs. W. L. 

PYFER PICKLES. 

Salt pickles down dry for ten days, soak in fresh water one day ; 
pour off water, place in porcelain kettle, cover with water and vin* 
egar, and add a tea-spoon pulverized alum (to each gallon) ; set 
over night on a stove which had fire in during the day ; wash and 
put in a jar with cloves, allspice, pepper, horse-radish and onions or 
garlic ; boil fresh vinegar and pour over all ; in two weeks they will 
be ready for use. These pickles are always fresh and crisp, and are 
made with much less trouble than in the old-fashioned way by 
keeping in brine. Mrs. E. M. R. 

PICKLED PEPPERS. 

Take large green ones (the best variety is the sweet pepper), 
make a small incision at the side, take out all the seeds, being care. 
ful not to mangle the peppers ; soak in brine that will float an egg 



PICKLES. 263 

for two days, changing water twice ; stuff with chopped cabbage, or 
tomatoes seasoned with spice as for mangoes (omitting the cayenne 
pepper), or a mixture of nasturtiums, chopped onions, red cabbage, 
grapes, and cucumbers, seasoned with mustard-seed and a little 
mace. Sew up incision, place in jar, and cover with cold-spiced 
vinegar. 

SPANISH PICKLES. 

One dozen cucumbers, four heads of cabbage, one peck green 
tomatoes, one dozen onions, three ounces white mustard-seed, one 
ounce celery seed, one ounce turmeric, one box Coleman's mustard, 
two and a half pounds brown sugar. Let the cucumbers stand in 
brine that will float an egg three days ; slice the onions, and chop 
cabbage and tomatoes, the day before making, and sprinkle with 
salt in the proportion of half pint to a peck. When ready to make, 
squeeze brine out of cucumbers, wipe them off, peel and cut them in 
slices, let all simmer slowly in a kettle together for half an hour, 
and then bottle.. 

EIPE TOMATO PICKLES. 

Pare ripe, sound tomatoes (clo not scald), put in a jar; scald 
spices (tied in a bag) in vinegar, and pour while hot over them. 
This recipe is best for persons who prefer raw tomatoes. 

VARIETY PICKLES. 

One peck each of green tomatoes and cucumbers, and one quart 
onions; pare, slice and salt (using a rounded half pint for all) each 
in separate jars, letting them stand in the salt twenty-four hours, 
and drain well, wringing and pressing in a cloth ; sprinkle fresh 
green radish-pods and nasturtium seeds with salt, and let stand for 
the same length of time ; boil in water salted to taste two quarts of 
half-grown, very tender bean pods, until they can be pierced with a 
silver fork, take out and drain. Now place each in a separate jar, 
cover with cold, weak vinegar for twenty-four hours, drain well, 
pressing hard to get out all the juice, cook tomatoes as in "Chopped 
Pickles," and then mix all well together. In a stone jar place 
first a layer of the mixture, sprinkle with mustard seed (prepared 
as directed in recipe for "Chopped Pickles)," horse-radish chopped 
fine, cinnamon bark, rings of garden peppers, and a few cloves, then 



264 PICKLES. 

another layer of the mixture, then the spice with a light sprink- 
ling of cayenne pepper. The spices used for this amount are 
nine table-spoons stick cinnamon, four and a half tea-spoons each 
of mustard-seed, cloves, and horse-radish, and twenty-seven rings 
of garden peppers. Cover with good cider vinegar, let stand 
over night, drain off vinegar, and boil in a porcelain kettle, add* 
ing brown sugar in the proportion of one pint to a gallon of vin- 
egar ; skim well, pour hot over the pickles, continue to drain off 
and boil for several days. If not sweet enough, add more sugar, 
although these are not intended for sweet pickles. The proportion 
of cucumbers may be double or even three times the quantity of 
tomatoes if desired. Mrs. W. W. Woods. 

VIRGINIA MIXED PICKLE. 

One-half peck green tomatoes, twenty -five medium-sized cucum- 
bers, fifteen large white onions, one-half peck small onions, four 
heads cabbages, one pint grated horse-radish, one-half pound white 
mustard-seed, one-fourth pound ground mustard, one-half tea-cup 
ground black pepper, one-half pint salad oil, one ounce celery seed, 
one-half ounce ground cinnamon, two ounces turmeric. Slice the 
tomatoes and large onions, cut cabbage as for slaw, quarter cucum- 
bers 'engthwise, cut in pieces two inches long, leaving the peel on, 
and add the small onions whole. Mix with salt thoroughly, let 
stand twenty-four hours ; drain off the juice, and pour vinegar and 
water over pickles. Let stand a day or two, strain again as dry as 
possible ; mix the spices well except the ground mustard, then boil 
one and one-half gallons fresh apple vinegar and pour boiling hot 
over the pickles; do this three mornings in succession, using the 
same vinegar each time. The third time add one pound of sugar to 
the vinegar and boil, pouring over as above; also mix the oil and 
ground mustard together with a small portion of the vinegar, and 
add when cold. Oil can be omitted if not relished. Mrs. M. B. 

Sperry, Nashville, Tenn. 

PICKLED WALNUTS. 

Gather walnuts (or butternuts) when soft enough to be pierced 
by a needle (July), prick each with a large needle well through, 
holding in a cloth to avoid staining the hands, cover with strong 
salt water (a pint and a half salt to a gallon of water), let stand two 



SWEET PICKLES. 265 

or three days, changing the brine every day ; then pour over them 
a brine made by dissolving salt in boiling water (let it get cold be- 
fore using), let stand three days, renew the brine and let it stand 
for three days more. Now drain and expose to the sun for two or 
three days or until they become black, or put in cold water for half 
a day, and pack in jars not quite full. The proportions are a hun- 
dred walnuts to each gallon of vinegar. Boil vinegar eight min- 
utes, with a tea-cup sugar, three dozen each whole cloves and allspice, 
a dozen and a half pepper-corns, and a dozen blades of mace. Pour 
the vinegar over the walnuts scalding hot. In three days draw 
off the vinegar, boil and pour over the walnuts again while hot, and 
at end of three days repeat the process. They will be fit to eat in 
a month, and will keep for years. Mrs. C. T. Carson. 



SWEET PICKLES. 



Sweet pickles maybe made of any fruit that can be preserved, 
including the rinds of ripe melons and cucumbers. The proportion 
of sugar to vinegar for syrup is three pints to a quart. Sweet pick- 
les may be made of any preserve by boiling over the syrup and 
adding spices and vinegar. Examine frequently, and re-scald the 
t?yrup if there are signs of fermentation. Fiuins nnd other smootu- 
skinned fruits should be well pricked before cooking. The principal 
spices for sweet pickles are cinnamon and cloves. Use " coffee C," 
best brown, or good stirred maple sugar. 



SWEET PICKLED BEETS. 

Boil them in a porcelain kettle till they can be pierced with a 
silver fork ; w T hen cool cut lengthwise to size of a medium cucum- 
ber ; boil equal parts vinegar and sugar with half a table-spoon 
ground cloves tied in a cloth to each gallon ; pour boiling hot over 
the beets. Mrs. Samuel Woods . 

PICKLED CUCUMBERS. 

Prepare and quarter ripe cucumbers, take out seeds, clean, lay 
in brine that will float an egg nine days, stirring every day, take 



266 SWEET PICKLES. 

out and put in clear water one day, lay in alum-water (a lump of 
alum size of a medium hulled hickory-nut to a gallon of water) 
over night, make syrup of a pint good cider vinegar, pound brown 
sugar, two table-spoons each broken cinnamon bark, mace, and 
pepper grains ; make syrup (three pints of sugar to a quart of vin- 
egar) enough to cover the slices, lay them in, and cook till tender. 

Mrs. M. L. France. 

CURRANT PICKLES. 

Scald seven pounds ripe currants in three pounds sugar and one 
quart vinegar, remove currants to jar, boil for a few moments and 
pour over the fruit. Some add three pounds of raisins and spices. 
If not sweet enough, use only one pint vinegar. 

PICKLED GRAPES. 

Fill a jar with alternate layers of sugar and bunches of nice 
grapes just ripe and freshly gathered ; fill one-third full of good 
cold vinegar, and cover tightly. Mrs. C. T Carson. 

SPICED GRAPES. 

Five pounds grapes, three of sugar, two tea-spoons cinnamon and 
allspice, half tea-spoon cloves ; pulp grapes, boil skins until tender, 
cook pulps and strain through a sieve, add it to the skins, put in 
sugar, spices and vinegar to taste ; boil thoroughly and cool. Miss 
Mae Stokes, Milford Center. 

SPICED GOOSEBERRIES. 

Leave the stem and blossom on ripe gooseberries, wash clean ; 
make a syrup of three pints sugar to one of vinegar, skim, if neces- 
sary, add berries and boil down till thick, adding more sugar if 
needed ; when almost done, spice with cinnamon and cloves ; boil 
as thick as apple butter. 

SPICED NUTMEG MELON. 

Select melons not quite ripe, open, scrape out the pulp, peel, and 
slice; put the fruit in a stone jar, and, for five pounds fruit, take a 
quart vinegar, and two and a half pounds sugar ; scald vinegar and 
sugar together, and pour over the fruit ; scald the syrup and pour 
over the fruit each day for eight successive days. On the ninth, 
add one ounce stick-cinnamon, or.e cf whole cloves, and one of all- 



SWEET PICKLES. 267 

spice. Scald fruit, vinegar and spices together, and seal up in jars. 
This pickle should stand two or three months before using. Blue 
plums are delicious prepared in this way. Mrs. Gen. Noyes. 

PEACH PICKLES. 

Pare freestone peaches, place in a stone jar, and pour over them 
boiling-hot syrup made in the proportion of one quart best cider 
vinegar to three pints sugar ; boil and skim, and pour over the 
fruit boiling hot, repeating each day until the fruit is the same 
color to the center, and the syrup like thin molasses. A few days 
before they are finished, place the fruit, after draining, in the jar to 
the depth of three or four inches, then sprinkle over bits of cinna- 
mon bark and a few cloves, add another layer of fruit, then spice, 
and so on until the jar is full; scald the syrup each morning for 
three or four days after putting in the spice, and pour syrup boiling 
hot over fruit, and, if it is not sufficiently cooked, scald fruit with 
the eyrup the last time. The proportion of spices to a gallon of 
fruit is, two tea-spoons whole cloves, four table-spoons cinnamon. 
To pickle clingstones, prepare syrup as for freestones ; pare fruit, 
put in the syrup, boil until they can be pierced through with a 
silver fork ; skim out, place in jar, pour the boiling syrup over 
them, and proceed and finish as above. As clings are apt to be- 
come hard when stewed in sweet syrup, it may often be necessary 
to add a pint of water the first time they are cooked, watching 
carefully until they are tender, or to use only part of the sugar at 
first, adding the rest in a day or two. Use the large White Heath 
"elingstones if they are to be had. All that is necessary to keep 
%weet pickles is to have syrup enough to cover, and to keep the 
fruit well under. Scald with boiling syrup until fruit is of same 
iolor throughout, and syrup like thin molasses ; watch every week, 
particularly if weather is warm, and if scum rises and syrup assumes 
a whitish appearance, boil, skim, and pour over the fruit. If at 
any time syrup is lacking, prepare more as at first. Mrs. M. J. Woods. 

PEAR PICKLES. 

Prepare syrup as for peaches, pare and cut fruit in halves, or 
quarters if very large, und if small leave whole, put syrup in porce- 
lain kettle, and when it boils put in fruit, cook until a silver fork 



268 SWEET PICKLES. 

will easily pierce them ; skiin out fruit first and place in jar, and 
last pour over syrup boiling hot; spice like peach pickles, draining 
them each day, boiling and skimming the syrup, and pouring it 
boiling hot over the fruit until fully done. By cooking pears so 
much longer at first they do not need to be boiled so frequently, 
but they must be watched carefully until finished, and if perfectly 
done, will keep two or more years. Apple pickles may be made in 
the same way, taking care to select such as will not lose shape in 

boiling. 

EUCHERED PLUMS. 

Nine pounds blue plums, six pounds sugar, two quarts vinegar, 
one ounce cinnamon; boil vinegar, sugar and spice together, pour 
over plums, draw off next morning and boil, pour back on plums, 
repeat the boiling five mornings, the last time boiling the fruit 
about twenty minutes. Mrs. Capt. W. B. Brown, Washington City. 

PICKLED RAISINS. 

Leave two pounds raisins on stem, add one pint vinegar and 
half pound sugar ; simmer over a slow fire half an hour. Mrs. 

XL. LA XL. 

STRAWBERRY PICKLES. 

Place strawberries iii bottom of jar, add a layer of cinnamon and 
cloves, then berries, and so on ; pour over it a syrup made of two 
coffee-cups cider vinegar, and three pints sugar, boiled about five 
minutes ; let stand twenty-four hours, pour off syrup, boil, por 
over berries, and let stand as before, then boil berries and syrup 
slowly for twenty -five minutes ; put in jars and cover. The above 
is for six quarts of berries. Pine apples can be made in same way, 
allowing six and a half pounds of fruit to above proportions. Mrs. 
T. W. Jones, Charleston, S. C. 

GREEN TOMATO PICKLE. 

Take eight pounds of green tomatoes and chop fine, add four 
pounds brown sugar and boil down three hours, add a quart of 
vinegar, a teaspoon each of mace, cinnamon and cloves,, and boil 
about fifteen minutes ; let cool and put into jars or other vessels. 
Try this recipe once and you will try it again. Mrs. W. A. Croffut, 
New York City. 



SWEET PICKLES. 269 

KIPE TOMATO PICKLE. 

Pare and weigh ripe tomatoes and put into jars and just cover 
with vinegar; after standing three days pour off the vinegar and 
add five pounds coffee sugar to every seven of fruit ; spice to taste 
and pour over tomatoes and cook slowly all day on the back of the 
stove. Use cinnamon, mace and a little doves, or not any, as pre- 
ferred. 

WATERMELON PICKLE. 

Pare off very carefully the green part of the rind of a good, ripe 
watermelon, trim off the red core, cut in pieces one or two inches 
in length, place in a porcelain-lined kettle, in the proportion of one 
gallon rinds to two heaping tea-spoons common salt and water to 
nearly cover, boil until tender enough to pierce with a silver fork, 
pour into a colander to drain, and dry by taking a few pieces at a 
time in the hand, and pressing gently with a crash towel. Make 
syrup, and treat rinds exactly as directed for pickled peaches. Con- 
tinue adding rinds, as melons are used at table, preparing them 
first by cooking in salt water as above ; when as many are prepared 
as are wanted, and they are nearly pickled, drain and finish as 
directed in peach pickles, except when the syrup is boiled the last 
time, put in melons and boil fifteen minutes ; set jar near stove, 
skim out melons and put in jar a few at a time, heating gradually 
so as not to break it, then pour in syrup boiling hot. A rind nearly 
an inch thick, crisp and tender, is best, although any may be used. 
If scum rises, and the syrup assumes a whitish appearance, drain, 
boil and skim syrup, add melons, and boil until syrup is like thin 
molasses. 

CLOVER VINEGAR. 

Put a large bowl of molasses in a crock, and pour over it nine 
bowls of boiling rain-water ; let stand until milk-warm, put in two 
quarts of clover blossoms, and t\vo cups of baker's yeast ; let this 
stand two weeks, and strain through a towel. Nothing will mold 
in it. Mrs. McAlister, Goshen,, 

MINT VINEGAR. 

Put into a wide-mouthed bottle enough fresh, clean peppermint, 
spearmint, or garden parsley leaves to fill it loosely ; fill up with 



270 SWEET PICKLES. 

good vinegar, stop closely, leave on for two or three weeks, pour 
off into another bottle, and keep well corked for use. This is ex- 
cellent for cold meats, soups and bread-dressings for roasts ; when 
mints can not be obtained, celery seed is used in the same way. 
Mrs. B. A. Fay. 

SPICED VINEGAR. 

Put three pounds sugar in a three gallon jar with a small mouth ; 
mix two ounces each of mace, cloves, pepper, allspice, turmeric, 
celery seed, white ginger in small bits, and ground mustard; put in 
six small bags made of thin but strong muslin, lay in jar, fill with 
best cider vinegar, and use it in making pickles and sauces. 

TARRAGON VINEGAR. 

Gather the tarragon just before it blossoms, strip it from the 
larger stalks and put it into small stone jars or wide-necked bottle ; 
and in doing this twist the branches, bruising the leaves. Pour 
over it vinegar enough to cover ; let it stand two months or 
longer, pour off, strain, and put into small dry bottles, cork well 
and use as sauce for meats. 

CAULIFLOWER PICKLES. 

To twelve heads of cauliflower, five quarts of vinegar, five cup* 
brown sugar, six eggs, one bottle French mustard, two tablespoon- 
frd? ginger, a fip.w garlic, two green peppers, one-half teaspoonful 
cayenne, butter size of an egg, one ounce pulverized turmeric. Beat 
well together the eggs, sugar, mustard, ginger, and turmeric, then 
boil in vinegar, with garlic and peppers, ten minutes. Boil cauli- 
flower in salt water until tender, then place carefully in jar, pour 
over the boiling hot mixture. Mrs. W. W. Eastman, Minneapolis. 

RIPE CUCUMBER PICKLES. 

Take twenty-four large cucumbers, ripe and sound, six white 
>nions, four large red peppers ; pare and remove the seeds from 
die cucumbers, chop well, not too fine ; then chop fine onions and 
peppers, mix thoroughly with one cup salt, one ounce white mustard ; 
place in a muslin bag ; drain twenty-four hours, remove to glas? 
jars, cover with cold vinegar and seal. They will keep a long 
time and are excellent. Mrs. A. F. Corikey^ 



POULTRY 



Do not feed poultry for twenty-four hours before killing ; catch 
them without frightening or bruising, tie the feet together, hang up 
on a horizontal pole, tie the wings together over the back with a 
strip of soft cotton cloth ; let them hang five minutes, then cut the 
throat or cut off the head with a very sharp knife, and allow them 
to hang until the blood has ceased to drip. The thorough bleeding 
renders the meat more white and wholesome. Scald well by dip- 
ping in and out of a pail or tub of boiling water, being careful 
not to scald so much as to set the feathers and make them more 
difficult to pluck; place the fowl on a board with head towards you, 
pull the feathers away from you, which will be in the direction 
they naturally lie (if pulled in a contrary direction the skin is 
likely to be torn), be careful to remove all the pin-feathers with a 
knife or pair of tweezers ; singe, but not smoke, over blazing paper, 
place on a meat-board, and with a sharp knife cut off the legs a 
little below the knee, to prevent the muscles from shrinking away 
from the joint, and remove the oil-bag above the tail ; take out the 
crop, either by making a slit at the back of the neck or in front (the 
last is better), taking care that every thing pertaining to the crop 
or windpipe is removed, cut the neck-bone off close to the body, 
leaving the skin a good length if to be stuffed ; cut around the vent, 
cut a slit three inches long from the tail upwards, being careful to 
cut only through the skin', put in the finger at the breast and detach 
all the intestines, taking care not to burst the gall-bag (situated 
near the upper part of the breast-bone, and attached to the liver; 
if broken, no washing can remove the bitter taint left on every 
spot it touches); put in the hand at the incision near the tail 

(271) 



272 POULTRY. 

and draw out carefully all intestines ; trim off the fat from the 
breast and at the lower incision ; split the gizzard and take 
out the inside and inner lining (throw liver, heart, and gizzard 
into water, wash well, and lay aside to be cooked and used 
for the gravy) ; wash the fowl thoroughly in cold water twice, 
(some wipe carefully with a wet cloth, and afterwards with a dry 
cloth to make perfectly clean, instead of washing), hang up to drain, 
and it is ready to be stuffed, skewered, and placed to roast. To 
make it look plump, before stuffing, flatten the breast-bone by 
placing several thicknesses of cloth over it and pounding it, being 
careful not to break the skin, and rub the inside well with salt and 
pepper. Stuff the breast first, but not too full or it will burst in 
cooking ; stuff the body rather fuller than the breast, sew up both 
openings with strong thread, and sew the skin of the neck over 
upon the back or down upon the breast (these threads must be care- 
fully removed before sending to the table). Lay the points of the 
wings under the back, and fasten in that position with a skewer run 
through both wings and held in place with a twine ; press the legs 
as closely towards the breast and side-bones as possible, and fasten 
with a skewer run through the body and both thighs, push a short 
skewer through above the tail, and tie the ends of legs down with a 
twine close upon the skewer (or, if skewers are not used, tie well 
in shape with twine); rub over thoroughly with salt and pepper, 
tnen iara, m me ibliowmg manner: Hold the breast over a clear 
fire for a minute or dip it in boiling water. To make the flesh firm, 
cut strips of firm fat bacon, two inches long, and an eighth of an 
inch wide, and make four parallel marks on the breast, put one of 
these strips of bacon-fat (called lardoons) securely into the split end 
of small larding-needle, and insert it at the first mark, bringing it 
out at the second, leaving an equal length of fat protruding at each 
end ; continue inserting these strips, at intervals of half an inch 
down these two lines, and then do the same with the two others. For 
poultry use a small larding-needle ; the large ones are used foi 
larding beef or veal. The process is very simple, and any one who 
likes to bring out dainty dishes, will be more than repaid for the 
little trouble in learning how. All white-fleshed birds are improved 
by larding (as well as veal and sweet-bread). Small birds, such as 



POULTRY. 273 

quails, may be more conveniently "barded" by placing a "barde," 
a slice of fat bacon, over the breast, and the same plan may be 
adopted in all cases where larding is inconvenient ; or fat from the 
fowl itself may be used instead of bacon. When the flavor of bacon 
is disliked, put a table-spoon of butter in bits over the breast; never 
dredge with flour in the beginning. Now place to roast in an 
oven rather hot at first, and then graduate the heat to moderate 
until done, to test which insert a fork between the thigh and body; 
if the juice is watery and not bloody it is done. If not served at 
once, the fowl may be kept hot without drying up, by placing over 
a skillet full of boiling water (set on top of stove or range) and 
inverting a dripping-pan over it. Many persons roast fowls upon a 
wire rack or trivet placed inside the dripping-pan, or patty pans 
or muffin -rings may be used as rests. The pan should be three or 
even four inches deep, and measure at the bottom about sixteen by 
twenty inches, with sides somewhat flaring. Some put to roast in 
a dry pan, the larding or butter making sufficient drippings for 
basting; others add a very little water. In roasting a turkey, 
allow twenty minutes time for every pound, and twenty minutes 
longer. Some steam turkey before roasting, and a turkey-steamer 
may be easily improvised by placing the dripping-pan containing 
the turkey on top of two or three pieces of wood (hickory or maple 
is the best) laid in the bottom of a wash-boiler, with just enough 
water to cover the wood; put on the lid, which should fit tightly 
on the boiler, and as the water boils aw r ay add more. Add the 
h'quor in the dripping-pan to the turkey when placed in the oven 
to roast (do not use the water from the boiler). In boiling fowl, 
put into hot water (unless soup is wanted, when place in cold); 
skim when it boils up first, and keep it just above the boiling point, 
but it must boil gently, not violently. A little vinegar added to the 
water in which they are boiled makes fowls more tender. For fuller 
directions see " Meats." Boil the giblets until tender in a sepa- 
rate dish, and add them, well chopped, together with wa-ter in 
which they were cooked, to the gravy. 

TO CUT UP A CHICKEN. 

Pick, singe, and draw; lay the chicken on a board kept for the 

purpose, cut off the feet at first joint ; cut a slit in the neck, take 
18 



274 POULTRY. 

out the windpipe and crop, cut off the wings and legs at the joint 
which unites them to the body, separate the first joint of the leg 
from the second, cut off the oil-bag, make a slit horizontally under 
the tail, cut the end of the entrails loose, extend the slit on each 
side of the joint where the legs were cut off; then, with the left 
hand, hold the breast of the chicken, and, with the right, bend 
back the rump until the joint in back separates, cut it clear and place 
in water. Take out the entrails, using a sharp knife to separate the 
eggs (if any), and all other particles to be removed, from the back, 
being careful in removing the heart and liver not to break the gall- 
bag (a small sack of a blue-green color about an inch long attached 
to the liver); separate the back and breast ; commence at the high 
point of the breast and cut do wn wards toward the head, taking 
off* part of the breast with the wish-bone ; cut the neck from that 
part of the back to which the ribs are attached, turn the skin off 
the neck, and take out all lumps and stringy substances ; very care- 
fully remove the gall-bag from the liver, and clean the gizzard by 
making an incision through the thick part and first lining, peeling 
off the fleshy part, leaving the inside whole and ball-shaped ; if the 
lining breaks, open the gizzards, pour out contents, peel off inner 
lining, and wash thoroughly. After washing in second water, the 
chicken is ready to be cooked. When young chickens are to be 
baked, with a sharp knife cut open the back at the side of the 
back-bone, press apart, and clean as above directed, and place in 
dripping-pan, skin side up. 

Chickens are stuffed and roasted in the same way as turkeys, 
and are much better for being first steamed, especially if over a year 
t)ld. Roast for twenty or thirty minutes, or till nicely browned. 
Some prefer to broil or fry old chickens after first steaming until 
tender, but stewing or boiling is better. In broiling chickens the 
danger of under-cooking on the one hand, or burning on the other, 
is avoided by breaking the bones slightly with a rolling-pin so that 
the pieces are flattened. Covering with a sauce-pan will also con- 
centrate the heat, and help cook them thoroughly without burning. 

Some, in making chicken or meat pies, line the bottom of the 
dish with crust, and place in the oven until well "set," then line 
the sides, fill, cover, and bake ; it is always difficult to bake the 



POULTRY. 275 

crust on the bottom of dish unless this plan is adopted. A still 
better plan is to use no bottom crust, only lining the sides of the 
pan. 

The garnishes for turkey and chicken are parsley, fried oysters, 
thin slices of ham, slices of lemon, fried sausages or forced-meat 
balls. 

BAKED CHICKENS. 

Dress the chickens and cut them in two, soak for half an hour in 
cold water, wipe perfectly dry and put in a dripping-pan, bone side 
down, without any water ; have a hot oven, and, if the chickens are 
young, half an hour's cooking will be sufficient. Take out, and sea- 
eon with butter, salt and pepper ; pack one above another as closely 
as possible, and place in pan over boiling water, covering them 
closely this keeps them moist until served boil the giblets in a 
little water, and, after the chickens are taken from the dripping-pan, 
put in to it the water in which giblets were boiled, thicken it, and add 
the chopped giblets. This manner of baking chickens is fully equal 
to broiling them. Mrs. E. W. Herrick 

BAKED SPRING CHICKENS. 

Cut each of four chickens into seven or nine pieces, wash thor- 
oughly and quickly, and put in a colander to drain ; put a half 
table-spoon each of lard and butter into a dripping-pan, lay in the 
pieces, and add half a pint hot water ; place in oven and bake half 
an hour, turn, taking care that they get only to a light brown, and, 
just before taking up, add salt and pepper to taste ; when done 
take out in a dish and keep hot. To make the gravy, add a half 
pint or more of water, set the dripping-pan on the stove, and add 
one table-spoon flour mixed with half cup of cream or milk, stirring 
slowly, adding a little of the mixture at a time. Let cook thor- 
oughly, stirring constantly to prevent burning, and to make the 
gravy nice and smooth ; season more if necessary. Mrs. L. Hush. 

BAKED CHICKEN WITH PARSNIPS. 

Wash, scrape, and quarter parsnips, and parboil for twenty min- 
utes ; prepare a young chicken by splitting open at back, place 
in a dripping-pan, skin side up, lay parsnips around the chicken, 
sprinkle with salt and pepper, and add a lump of butter the size 



276 POULTRY. 

of an egg, or two or three slices of good pickled pork ; put enough 
water in pan to prevent burning, place in oven and bake until 
chicken and parsnips are done to a delicate brown ; serve chicken 
separately on a platter, pouring the gravy in the pan over the pars- 
nips. 

CHICKEN CROQUETTES. 

Boil two fowls weighing five pounds each till very tender, mince 
fine, add one pint cream, half pound butter, salt and pepper tc 
taste ; shape oval in a jelly glass or mold. Fry in lard like dough- 
nuts until brown. Mrs. E. L. Fay, New York City. 

BREADED CHICKEN. 

Cut a tender chicken into seven pieces as if for frying, roll in 
beaten yolks of two eggs, then in finely grated bread crumbs seasoned 
with chopped parsley, pepper and salt ; place in dripping-pan, dot 
the pieces with bits of butter (one table-spoon in all), add a little 
water, bake slowly, basting often. When done, take out chicken 
and make gravy in the pan by adding a mixture of flour and butter, 
make smooth by stirring. Add either cream or milk to make suffi- 
cient gravy, which season to taste. 

BROILED CHICKENS OR QUAILS. 

Cut chicken open on the back, lay on the meat-board and pound 
until it will lie flat, lay on gridiron, place over a bed of coals, broil 
until a nice brown, but do not burn. It will take twenty or thirty 
minutes to cook thoroughly, and it will cook much better to cover 

~ */ ' 

with a pie-tin held down with a weight so that all parts of the 
chicken may lie close to the gridiron. While the chicken is broil- 
ing, put the liver, gizzard and heart in a stew-pan and boil in a 
pint of water until tender, chop fine and add flour, butter, pepper, 
salt, and stir a cup of sweet cream to the water in which they were 
boiled ; when the chicken is done, dip it in this gravy while hot, 
lay it back on the gridiron a minute, put it in the gravy and let 
boil for a half minute, and send to the table hot Cook quails in 
the same way. Mrs. A. S. Chapman. 

CHILI COLORAD. 

Take two chickens; cut up as if to stew ; when pretty well done, 
add a little green parsley and a few onions. Take half pound large 



277 

pepper pods, remove seeds, and pour on boiling water; steam ten 
or fifteen minutes ; pour off water, and rub them in a sieve until 
all the juice is out ; add the juice to the chicken ; let it cook for 
half an hour ; add a little butter, flour and salt. Place a border 
of rice around the dish before setting on table. This dish may also 
be made of beef, pork or mutton ; it is to be eaten in cold weather, 
and is a favorite dish with all people on the Pacific coast. Mrs, 
Gov. Bradley, Nevada. 

CHICKENS FOR LUNCH. 

Split a young chicken down the back, wash and wipe dry, s' ason 
with salt and pepper. Put in a dripping-pan, and place in a mod- 
erate oven ; bake three-quarters of an hour. This is much bettei 
for traveling lunch than when seasoned with butter. Mrs. W. B. 
Brown, Washington, D. C. 

CHICKEN POT-PIE. 

Cut up a chicken and put on in hot water enough to cover, and 
take care that it does not cook dry ; while boiling cut off a slice 
from bread dough, add a small lump of lard, and mix up like light 
biscuit, roll, cut out with cake-cutter and set by stove to rise ; wash 
and pare potatoes of moderate size, and add them when chicken is 
almost done; when potatoes begin to boil, season with salt and pep- 
per, add dumplings and season again. See that there is water 
enough to keep from burning, cover very tightly, and do not take 
cover off until dumplings are done. They will cook in half an 
hour, and may be tested by lifting one edge of the lid, taking out 
a dumpling and breaking it open. Or, the dumplings may be placed 
in steamer over cold water, taking care to leave some of the hole? 
in steamer open, as if all are covered by the dumplings, the steam 
will not Be admitted, and they will not cook well. If there are 
too many dumplings to lie on bottom without covering all holes, 
attach them to the side and upper edge of steamer by wetting 
dough and pressing it to the edge. When done remove to vegetable 
dish and pour hot gravy over them. Dish potatoes by themselves, 
and chickens and dumplings together. Make gravy by mixing two 
level table-spoons flour and a little butter together, and stir into the 
broth remaining in pot slowly, add more boiling water if needed and 
season with salt and pepper. Or, make dumplings with one pint 



278 POULTRY. 

gour milk, two well-beaten eggs, half tea-spoon soda (mixed in part 
of the flour), and flour enough to make as stiff as can be stirred 
with a spoon; or baking-powder and sweet milk may be used. Drop 
in by spoonfuls, cover tightly, and boil as above. A pot-pie may 
be made from a good boiling piece of beef; if too much grease 

arises skim off. 

CHICKEN PIE. 

Cut up two young chickens, place in hot water enough to cover, 
(as it boils away add more so as to have enough for the pie and for 
gravy to serve with it), boil until tender; line the sides of a four or 
six quart pan with a rich baking-powder or soda-biscuit dough quarter 
of an inch thick, put in part of ihe chicken, season with salt, pepper 
and butter, lay in a few thin strips or squares of dough, addtheiest 
of chicken and season as before ; some add five or six fresh eggs or a 
few new potatoes in their season, season liquor in which the chickens 
were boiled, with butter, salt and pepper, add a part of it to the pie, 
cover with crust a quarter of an inch thick, with a hole in the 
center the size of a tea-cup. Keep adding the chicken-liquor as 
needed, since the fault of most chicken pies is that they are too dry. 
There can scarcely be too much gravy. Bake one hour in a mod- 
erate oven. 

Veal pies are similarly made, omitting eggs, and using two or 
three pounds veal to a quart of dough. Add to liquor loft in pot 
a table-spoon of butter mixed with flour to a paste, season with pep- 
per and salt, for gravy, adding water if needed. L. A. C. 

CHICKEN PIE WITH OYSTERS. 

Boil the chicken a year old is best until tender, drain off 
liquor from a quart of oysters, boil, skim, line the sides of a dish 
with a rich crust, put in a layer of chicken, then a layer of run- 
oysters, and repeat until dish is filled, seasoning each layer wifh 
pepper, salt, and bits of butter, and adding the oyster liquor and 
a part of the chicken liquor until the liquid is even with the top 
layer ; now cover loosely with a crust having an opening in the 
center to allow steam to escape. If the liquor cooks away, add 
chicken gravy or hot water. Bake forty minutes in a moderate 
oven. Make gravy by adding to chicken liquor left in pot (one 
quart or more) two tablespoons flour, rubbed smooth with two 



POULTRY. 279 

tablespoons butter, and seasoned highly with pepper; let cook until 
there is no raw taste of flour and salt to taste and serve. 

CHICKEN PUDDING. 

Dress and cut one chicken into small pieces, put it into a sauce- 
pan or kettle with a little water, season with salt and pepper, let 
boil until it begins to grow tender, then take out and put into y 
three-quart pudding dish ; have ready one quart green corn grated 
or cut fine, to which add three eggs beaten light and one pint sweet 
milk ; season with salt and pepper, and pour this mixture over the 
chicken, dredge thickly witli flour, lay on bits of butter and bake 
until done. Mrs. A. Wilson, Eye, N. Y. 

DRESSING FOR CHICKEN OR BEEF. 

Boil potatoes, mash as if for the table, except that they should be 
less moist, stuff the chicken or roast with this, and bake as ordi- 
narily ; for ducks add onions chopped fine ; if the bread-dressing is 
wanted too, it may be laid in the corner of the pan. Mrs. Carrie 

Beck. 

FRICASSEED CHICKEN. 

Cut up and put on to boil, skin side down, in a small quantity of 
water, season with salt, pepper, and slices of an onion if liked; 
stew gently until tender, remove chicken, add a half pint cream or 
milk to gravy, and thicken with butter and flour rubbed smoothly 
together (adding a little of the gravy to soften and help mix them), 
let boil two or three minutes, add a little chopped parsley and serve. 
Or, first fry the chicken brown in a little hot lard, take out chicken, 
add a table-spoon flour, and let cook a minute, stirring constantly; 
add a pint water (or stock if at hand), a little vinegar or Worces- 
tershire sauce, season with salt and pepper; when it has boiled^ 
remove from fire, strain, add the beaten yolk of an egg, pour over 
the chicken and serve. Or, put chicken in sauce-pan with barely 
enough water to cover, stew gently until tender ; have a frying-pan 
prepared with a few slices of salt pork, drain chicken and fry with 
pork until it is a fine, rich brown ; take chicken and bits of pork 
from the pan, pour in the broth, thicken with brown flour, mixed 
smooth with a little water, and season with pepper ; now put chicken 
and pork back into gravy, let simmer a few minutes, and serve 
very hot. Mrs. J. H. S. 



280 POULTRY. 

FRIED SPRING CHICKEN. 

Put skillet on the stove with about half table-spoon each of lard and 
butter; when hot lay in chicken, sprinkle over with flour, salt and 
pepper, place lid on skillet, and cook over a moderate fire; when 
a light brown, turn the chicken and sprinkle flour, salt and pepper 
over the top as at first, if necessary add more lard and butter, and 
cook slowly until done ; make gravy just the same as for baked 
chicken. As a general rule half an hour is long enough to fry 
spring chicken. To make rich and nice gravy without cream, take 
the yolk of an egg, beat up light, strain and stir slowly into the 
gravy after the flour and milk have been stirred in and thoroughly 
cooked; as soon as it boils up the gravy is done, and should be 
removed from the stove. All gravies need to be stirred well and 
thoroughly cooked over a moderate fire. Mrs. L. H. 

FREED GUMBO. 

Cut up two young chickens, and fry in skillet; when brown but 
not scorched, put in a pot with one quart finely chopped okra, four 
large tomatoes, and two onions chopped fine ; cover with boiling 
water, boil very slowly, and keep the kettle tightly closed; add 
boiling water as it wastes, and simmer slowly three hours ; season 
with salt, pepper, and a little butter and flour rubbed together; 
Berve with boiled rice. Mrs. J. H. S. 

JELLIED CHICKEN. 

Cook six chickens in a small quantity of water, until the meat 
tfill part from the bone easily ; season to taste with salt and pepper; 
just as soon as cold enough to handle, remove bones and skiu ; 
place meat in a deep pan or mold, just as it comes from the bone, 
using gizzard, liver and heart, until the mold is nearly full. To 
the water left in the kettle, add three-fourths of a box of Cox's 
gelatine (some add juice of lemon), dissolved in a little warm water, 
and boil until it is reduced to a little less than a quart, pour over 
the chicken in the mold, leave to cool, cut with a very sharp knife 
and serve. The slices will not easily break up if directions are 
followed. Mrs. Prof. Roberts, Cape Girardeau, Mo. 



POULTRY. 281 

PICKLED CHICKEN. 

Boil four chickens till tender enough for meat to fall from bones; 
put meat in a stone jar, and pour over it three pints of cold vine- 
gar, and a pint and half of the water in which the chickens were 
boiled; add spices if preferred, and it will be ready for use in two 
days. Emma Gould Rea. 

PRESSED CHICKEN. 

Take one or two chickens, boil in a small quantity of water with 
a little salt, and when thoroughly clone, take all the meat from the 
bones, removing the skin, and keeping the light meat separate from 
the dark; chop and season to taste with salt and pepper. If a meat 
presser is at hand take it, or any other mold such as a crock or 
pan will do; put in a layer of light and a layer of dark meat till 
all is used, add the liquor it was boiled in, which should be about 
one tea-cupful, and put on a heavy weight ; when cold cut in slices. 
Many chop all the meat together, add one pounded cracker to the 
liquor it was boiled in, and mix all thoroughly before putting in the 
mold ; either way is nice. Boned turkey can be prepared in the 
same way, slicing instead of chopping. 

STEAMED CHICKEN. 

Rub the chicken on the inside with pepper and half tea-spoon of 
salt, place in steamer in a kettle that will keep it as near the water 
as possible, cover, and steam an hour and a half; when done keep 
hot while dressing is prepared, then cut them up, arrange on the 
platter, and serve with the dressing over them. The dressing is 
made as follows : Boil one pint of gravy from the kettle without the 
fat, add cayenne pepper and half a tea-spoon salt ; stir six table- 
spoons of flour into a quarter pint of cream until smooth, and add 
to the gravy. Corn starch may be used instead of the flour, and 
some add nutmeg or celery salt. 

BONED TURKEY. 

With a sharp knife slit the skin down the back, and raising one 
side at a time with the fingers, separate the flesh from the bones 
with knife, until the wings and legs are reached. These unjoint 
from the body, and cutting through to the bone, turn back the 
flesh and remove the bones. When lilies are removed, the flesh 



282 POULTRY. 

may be re-shaped by stuffing. Some leave the bones in the legs and 
wings, as they are most difficult to remove. Stuff with force-meat, 
made of cold lamb or veal and a little pork, chopped fine and sea- 
soned with salt, pepper, sage or savory, and the juice of one lemon; 
sew into shape, turn ends of wings under and press the legs close to- 
the back, and tie all firmly so that the upper surface may be plump 
and smooth for the carver. Lard with two or three rows on the 
top, and bake until thoroughly done, basting often with salt and 
water, and a little butter. This is a difficult dish to attempt. 
Carve across in slices and serve with tomato-sauce. Mrs. J. Flem- 

wing, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BONED TUEKEY. 

Bone and stuff as in preceding recipe, roll tight in a strong, clean 
cloth, tie with tape in center and near the ends, and fasten ends- 
firmly with strong twine, taking care to make the roll compact and 
perfectly secure ; place in a rich stock, prepared by putting the 
bones in cold water with herbs, an onion peeled and stuck with ten 
cloves, and a sliced carrot and turnip, bringing to a boil, and skim- 
ming it until clear (if not enough to cover, add more boiling water), 
and boil four or five hours, take up, remove cloth, wash it in cold 
water, and replace turkey in it as before, place it between two 
platters under a heavy weight, and let stand over night to cool; 
strain the stock in which it was boiled, in the morning remove all 
fat, and put stock over the fire ; add to it two ounces gelatine dis- 
solved in a pint of cold water, and clarify as in general directions for 
" Soups." Strain through flannel until perfectly clear, pour it into 
two shallow molds, color one dark brown with caramel, and cool 
until the jelly is firm ; place turkey on a dish and garnish with the 
jelly cut in fanciful shapes ; or first place the turkey on a dish, and 

pour the jelly over it. 

BOILED TURKEY. 

Wash the turkey thoroughly and rub salt through it ; fill it with 
a dressing of bread and butter, moistened with milk and seasoned 
with sage, salt and pepper, and mixed with a pint of raw oysters ; 
tie the legs and wings close to the body, place in salted boiling, 
water with the breast downward, skim often, boil about two hours.. 
but not till the skin breaks ; serve with ovster-sauce. Mrs. E. 1J. 

J 

F. t New York City. 



POULTRY. 283 

ROAST TURKEY. 

After picking and singeing the turkey, plump it by plunging 
quickly three times into boiling water and then three times into 
cold, holding it by the legs ; place to drain and dress as in general 
directions ; prepare stuffing by taking pieces of dry bread and 
crust (not too brown) cut off a loaf of bread fully three or four 
days old (but not moldy) ; place crust and pieces in a pan and 
pour on a very little boiling water, cover tightly with a cloth, let 
stand until soft, add a large lump of butter, pepper, salt, one or 
two fresh eggs, and the bread from which the crust was cut, so as 
not to have it too moist. Mix well with the hands and season to 
suit taste ; rub inside of turkey with pepper and salt, stuff it as 
already directed on page 272, and sew up each slit with a strong 
thread ; tie the legs down firmly, and press the wings closely to the 
sides, securing them with a cord tied around the body (or use 
/skewers if at hand), steam (page 273) from one to three hours (or 
until easily pierced with a fork), according to the size, then place 
turkey in pan with water from dripping-pan in which the turkey 
was steamed ; lard the turkey, or place on the breast the pieces of 
fat taken from it before it was stuffed, sprinkle with salt and pep- 
per, dredge well with flour; if not sufficient w r ater in the pan, keep 
-adding boiling w r ater and baste often, as the excellence of the 
turkey depends much on this. Cook until a nice brown and per- 
fectly tender ; remove to a hot platter and serve with cranberry 
sauce and giblet gravy. To make the gravy, after the turkey is 
dished place the dripping-pan on the top of range or stove, skim 
off most of the fat, and add water if necessary ; chop the heart, 
gizzard and liver (previously boiled for two hours in two quarts of 
water), and add to the gravy with the water in which they were 
boiled, season with salt and pepper, add a smooth thickening of 
flour and w r ater, stir constantly until thoroughly mixed with the 
gravy, and boil until the flour is well cooked. Some, in making 
stuffing, try out the fat of the turkey at a low temperature, and use 
instead of butter; others use the fat of sweet-pickled pork chopped 
ne (not tried out), and a small quantity of butter, or none at alL 
Mrs. Judge J. L. Porter. 



284 POULTRY. 

EOAST TURKEY. 

Prepare and stuff as in preceding recipe, and lard as described 
in general directions ; place in oven not quite as hot as for roast- 
ing meats (if the fire is very hot, lay a piece of brown paper, well 
greased, over the fowl, to prevent scorching) ; put a table-spoon of 
butter in bits on the breast ; it will melt and run into the dripping- 
pan, and is used to baste the fowl as roasting progresses; baste 
often (once in ten minutes), watching the turkey as it begins to 
brown, very carefully, and turning it occasionally to expose all parts 
alike to the heat ; it should be moist and tender, not in the least 
scorched, blistered or shriveled, till it is a golden brown all over. 
For the first two-thirds of the time required for cooking (the rule 
is twenty minutes to the pound and twenty minutes longer) the 
basting should keep the surface moistened so that it will not crisp 
at all; meantime the oven should be kept as close as possible. In 
basting use the door that opens to the left, so that the right hand 
may be used conveniently through a small opening; and a long 
gauntlet glove is a good thing to protect the hand and arm during 
the operation. In turning the pan, do it as quickly as possible; 
season with two tea-spoons salt when half done. In the last third 
of the time allowed for cooking, withdraw the pan partly from the 
oven (resting the end on a block of wood or a plain stool of the 
proper height kept for the purpose), and dredge the breast, upper 
portion and sides thoroughly, by sifting flour over the fowl from a 
fine sifter, return pan to oven, and let remain until the flour is well 
browned, then baste freely with drippings from the pan, and flour 
again, repeating the flouring and browning, and allowing the crust 
to grow crisper each time ; there will probably be time to repeat 
the process three or four times before finishing. Take care not to 
wash off the flour by basting; give it time to brown on thoroughly, 
and do not take out of oven until all the flour of last dredging 
is thoroughly browned. If it isneces^nrv to turn the turkey in the 
pan, use a towel, and never stick it with a fork, to allow the juice 
to escape. In roasting a large turkey, a liberal allowance of but- 
ter for cooking, including gravy for serving in two successive 
days, is one tea-cupful, but less may be used, according to taste 
or necessity for economy. When done the entire surface will be a- 



POULTRY. 285 

rich, frothy, brown crust, which breaks off in shells in carving, 
and makes the most savory of morsels. Dish the turkey. 

To make the gravy, boil the heart, liver, gizzard and neck in two- 
quarts of water for two hours, then take them up, chop gizzard, 
heart and liver, put them back again, thicken with one table-spoon 
of flour wet with cold water; season with salt and pepper; after the 
turkey has been taken up, pour into dripping-pan, set on the top of 
the stove, and boil five minutes, stirring constantly, scraping the 
sides of the pan until free from the rich, savory particles that ad- 
here. Serve in a gravy-boat. 

ROAST TURKEY WITH OYSTER DRESSING. 

Dress and rub turkey thoroughly inside and out with salt and 
pepper, steam two hours or until it begins to grow tender, lifting 
the cover occasionally and sprinkling lightly with salt. Then take 
out, loosen the legs, and rub the inside again with salt and pepper, 
and stuff with a dressing prepared as follows: Take a loaf of stale 
bread, cut off crust and soften by placing in a pan, pouring on 
boiling water, draining off immediately and covering closely; 
crumble the bread fine, add half a pound melted butter, or more 
if to be very rich, and a tea-spoon each of salt and pepper, or 
enough to season rather highly ; drain off liquor from a quart 
of oysters, bring to a boil, skim and pour over the bread-crumbs, 
adding the soaked crusts and one or two eggs ; mix all thoroughly 
with the hands, and if rather dry, moisten with a little sweet milk; 
lastly, add the oysters, being careful not to break them ; or first put 
in a spoonful of stuffing, and then three or four oysters, and so on 
until the turkey is filled ; stuff the breast first. Flour a cloth and 
place over the openings, tying it down with a twine ; spread the 
turkey over with butter, salt and pepper, place in a dripping-pan 
in a well-heated oven, add half a pint hot water, and roast t\vo 
hours, basting often with a little water, butter, salt and pepper, 
kept in a tin for this purpose and placed on the back of the 
stove. A swab made of a stick with a cloth tied on the end, is 
better than a spoon to baste with. Turn until nicely browned on 
all sides, and about half an hour before it is done, baste with butter 
and, dredge with a little flour this will give it a frothy appearance* 



286 POULTRY. 

When you dish the turkey if there is much fat in the pan, pour off 
most of it, and add the chopped giblets previously cooked until 
tender, and the water in which they were cooked, now stewed down 
to about one pint ; place one or two heaping table-spoons flour (it is 
better to have half of it browned) in a pint bowl, mix smooth with 
a little cream, fill up bowl with cream or rich milk and add to the 
gravy in the pan ; boil several minutes, stirring constantly, and 
pour into the gravy tureen ; serve with currant or apple jelly. A 
turkey steamed in this way does not look so well on the table, but 
is very tender and palatable. It is an excellent way to cook a 
large turkey. 

ENGLISH EOAST TURKEY. 

Kill several days before cooking, prepare in the usual manner, 
stuff with bread-crumbs (not using the crusts) rubbed fine, moistened 
with butter and two eggs, seasoned with salt, pepper, parsley, sage, 
thyme or sweet marjoram ; sew up, skewer, and place to roast in a 
rack within a dripping-pan ; spread with bits of butter, turn 
and baste frequently with butter, pepper, salt and w 7 ater ; a few 
minutes before it is done glaze with the white of an egg; dish 
the turkey, pour off most of the fat, add the chopped giblets and 
the water in which they were boiled, thicken with flour and butter 
rubbed together, stir in the dripping-pan, let boil thoroughly and 
serve in a gravy-boat. Garnish with fried oysters, and serve with 
celery-sauce and stewed gooseberries. Choose a turkey weighing 
from eight to ten pounds. If it becomes too brown, cover with 
buttered paper. Mrs. C. T. Carson. 

MEAT JELLY FOE BONED TURKEY. 

Take oil from the water (when cold) in which turkey was boiled, 
strain into a porcelain kettle, add two ounces gelatine, three eggs, 
with shells, a wine-glass sherry or madeira ; stir well. Add one 
c[uart strained liquor, beat rapidly with an egg-beater, put on "fire, 
and stir till boils ; simmer ten or fifteen minutes, sprinkle with a 
pinch of turmeric, and strain as other jelly; when cold, break up 
and place over and around turkey. Cut in thick slices and fanciful 
shapes with paste-cutter. Mrs. S. T. J.., Va, 



SALADS. 



Vegetables used for salads are : boiled asparagus, cabbage, red 
and white; lettuce, chicory, boiled cauliflower, celery, dandelion, 
purslane, water-cress, etc. Prepare carefully by freshening in cool 
water, cleaning thoroughly of all foreign matters, drying carefully 
in a towel (avoiding as much as possible crushing the leaves, as it 
causes them to wilt), and then shredding with the fingers instead of 
cutting or chopping with a knife. Lettuce is often served with the 
leaves entire, reserving the tender inner leaves of lettuce for garnish- 
ing; cover with a "dressing," which consists chiefly of oil, vinegar, 
salt, pepper, and mustard, mixed in various proportions. All the 
ingredients of the dressing should be the very best. 

In preparing the dressing, powder the hard boiled eggs, either in 
a mortar or by mashing with the back of a silver spoon (if raw 
eggs are used beat well and strain), add the seasoning, then the oil, 
a few drops at a time, and, lastly and gradually, the vinegar. Al- 
ways use the freshest olive salad oil, not the common sweet oil ; if it 
can not be obtained, cream or melted butter is a good substitute and 
by some considered even more palatable, but when used it should be 
added last of all. In making chicken salad use the oil off the 
water in which the chickens were boiled. It is much nicer to pick 
the meat or cut it with a knife instead of chopping, always removing 
bits of gristle, fat and skin. The same is true of celery (in place 
of which celery seed may be used with white cabbage or nice head- 
lettuce, well chopped). To crisp celery, lettuce, cabbage, and all 
vegetables used for salads, put in ice-water for two hours before serv- 

(2P7) 



288 SALADS. 

ing. Pour the dressing over the chicken and celery, mixed and 
slightly salted ; toss up lightly with a silver fork, turn on a platter, 
form into an oval mound, garnish the top with slices of cold boiled 
eggs, and around the bottom with sprigs of celery, and set away in 
a cold place until needed. Salads should be served the day they are 
prepared. Vegetable salads should be stirred as little as possible, 
in order that their freshness may be preserved until they are served. 
To fringe celery stalks for use as a garnish for salads, meats, chicken, 
etc., cut the stalks into two-inch pieces ; stick several coarse needles 
into the top of a cork ; draw half of the stalk of each piece of celery 
through the needles several times. When all the fibrous parts are 
separated, lay the celery in some cold place to curl and crisp. Stir 
salads with a wooden fork or spoon. Many think turkey makes a 
nicer salad than chicken. Always make soup of the liquor in which 
turkey or chicken was boiled. 



SIDNEY SMITH'S WINTER SALAD. 

Two large potatoes, passed through kitchen sieve, 

Unwonted softness to the salad give ; 

Of mordant mustard add a single spoon 

Distrust the condiment which bites too soon ; 

But deem it not, though made of herbs, a fault 

To add a double quantity of salt; 

Three times the spoon with oil of Lucca crown, 

And once with vinegar procured from town. 

True flavor needs it, and your poet begs 

The pounded yellow of two well-boiled eggs. 

Let onion atoms lurk within the bowl, 

And, half-suspected, animate the whole ; 

And lastly, on the favored compound toss 

A magic tea-spoon of anchovy sauce. 

Then, though green turtle fail, though venison 's tough, 

Though ham and turkey are not boiled enough, 

Serenely full, the epicure shall say, 

" Fate can not harm me I have dined to day." 

ASPARAGUS SALAD. 

After having scraped and washed asparagus, boil soft m salt 
water, drain off water, add pepper, salt and strong cider vinegar, 
and then cool. Before serving, arrange asparagus so that heads 
will all lie in center of dish; mix the vinegar in which it was put 



SALADS. 289 

after removing from the fire with good olive oil or melted butter, and 
pour over the asparagus. Mrs. Leiuis Brown. 

BEAN SALAD. 

String young beans, break into half-inch pieces (or leave whole), 
wash and cook soft in salt water ; drain well, add finely-chopped 
onions, pepper, salt and vinegar; when cool add olive-oil or melted 
butter. The onions may be omitted. 

CABBAGE SALAD. 

Two quarts finely-chopped cabbage, two level table-spoons salt, 
two of white sugar, one of black pepper, and a heaping one of 
ground mustard; rub yolks of four hard-boiled eggs until smooth, 
add half cup butter, slightly warmed ; mix thoroughly with the cab- 
bage, and add tea-cup good vinegar ; serve with whites of the eggs 
sliced and placed on the salad. Mrs. Col. Hawkins. 

CABBAGE SALAD. 

Put the milk and vinegar on to heat in separate sauce-pans ; when 
the vinegar boils, add butter, sugar, salt and pepper, and stir in the 
chopped cabbage; cover, and let scald and steam not boil for a 
moment, meanwhile, remove hot milk from stove, cool a little, and 
stir in the well-beaten and strained yolks ; return to stove, and boil 
a moment. Dish cabbage and pour custard over it, stir rapidly with 
.a silver spoon until well mixed, and set immediately in a cold place. 

CREAM SLAW. 

One gallon cabbage cut very fine, pint vinegar, pint sour cream, 
half cup sugar, tea-spoon flour, two eggs, and a piece of butter the 
size of a walnut; put vinegar, sugar and butter in a sauce-pan and 
let boil; stir eggs, cream and flour, previously well mixed, into the 
vinegar, boil thoroughly and throw over the cabbage previously 
sprinkled with one table-spoon salt, one of black pepper and one of 
mustard. Mrs. Dr. Skinner, Somerset, 

PLAIN COLD SLAW. 

Slice cabbage very fine, season with salt, pepper, and a little 
sugar; pour ever vinegar and mix thoroughly. It is nice served in 
the center of a platter with fried oysters around it. 
19 



290 SALADS. 

CHICKEN SALAD. 

Chop fine one chicken cooked tender, one head cabbage, and five 
cold hard-boiled eggs ; season with salt, pepper and mustard to 
taste ; warm one pint vinegar, add half a tea-cup butter, stir until 
melted, pour hot over the mixture, stir thoroughly, and set away to 

cool. 

CHICKEN SALAD. 

Boil three chickens until tender, salting to taste; \vhen cold cut 
in small pieces and add twice the quantity of celery cut up with a 
knife but not chopped, and four cold-boiled eggs sliced and thor- 
oughly mixed through the other ingredients. For dressing, put on 
stove a sauce-pan w r ith one pint vinegar and butter size of an egg; 
beat two or three eggs with two table-spoons mustard, one of black 
pepper, two of sugar, and a tea-spoon salt, and when thoroughly 
beaten together pour slowly into the vinegar until it thickens. Be 
careful not to cook too long or the egg will curdle. Remove, and 
when cold pour over salad. This may be prepared the day before, 
adding the dressing just before using. Add lemon juice to improve 
the flavor, and garnish the top with slices of lemon. Mrs. C. E. 
Skinner, Battle Creek, Mich. 

CHICKEN SALAD. 
Boil one chicken tender; chop moderately fine the whites of 

twelve hard-boiled eggs and the chicken ; add equal quantities of 
chopped celery and cabbage ; mash the yolks fine, add two table- 
spoons butter, two of sugar, one tea-spoon mustard ; pepper and 
salt to taste ; and lastly, one half-cup good cider vinegar ; pour 
over the salad, and mix thoroughly. If no celery is at hand, use 
chopped pickled cucumbers or lettuce and celery seed. This may 
be mixed two or three days before using. Mrs. Judge Lawrence, 

Bellefontaine. 

CHICKEN SALAD. 

Four chickens ; two bunches of celery to each chicken ; one pint 
vinegar, two eggs, two table-spoons salad oil, two of liquid mustard, 
one of sugar, one of salt, one salt-spoon red pepper ; make a cus- 
tard of eggs and vinegar ; beat oil, mustard, and red pepper to- 
gether ; stir into custard ; add celery just before using. The above 
is sufficient for tw r enty persons. Mrs. J. W. G., Richmond, 



SALADS. 291 

CUCUMBER SALAD. 

Peel and slice cucumbers ; mix with salt, and let stand half an 
hour ; mix two table-spoons sweet-oil or ham gravy with as much 
vinegar, and a tea-spoon sugar ; add the cucumbers, which should 
be drained a little ; add a tea-spoon pepper, and stir well. Sliced 
onions are an addition, if their flavor is liked. Mrs. H. G. Mahncke. 

HAM SALAD. 

Cut up small bits of boiled ham, place in salad-bowl with the 
hearts and inside leaves of a head of lettuce. Make dressing as fol- 
lows : Mix in a sauce-pan one pint sour cream, as free from milk as 
possible, and half pint good vinegar, pepper, salt, a small piece of 
butter, sugar, and a small table-spoon of mustard mixed smooth ; 
boil, add the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, stirring carefully as for 

/ OO ' O v 

float, until it thickens to the consistency of starch, then set hi a cool 
place or on ice, and when cold pour over salad and mix well. Mrs. 
& Watson, Upper Sandusky, Ohio. 

HERRING SALAD. 

Soak over night three Holland herrings cut in very small pieces; 
cook and peel eight medium potatoes, and when cold chop with two 
email cooked red beets, two onions, a few sour apples, some roasted 
veal, and three hard-boiled eggs ; mix with a sauce of sweet-oil, 
vinegar, stock, pepper, and mustard to taste. A table-spoon of 
thick sour cream improves the sauce, which should stand over night 
in an earthen dish. Mrs. H. G. Mahncke. 

LETTUCE SALAD. 
Take the yolks of three hard-boiled eggs, add salt and mustard 

to taste ; mash it fine ; make a paste by adding a dessert-spoon 
of olive-oil or melted butter (use butter always when it is difficult 
to get fresh oil) ; mix thoroughly, and then dilute by adding grad- 
ually a tea-cup of vinegar, and pour over the lettuce. Garnish by 
slicing another egg and laying over the lettuce. This is sufficient 
for a moderate-sized dish of lettuce. Mrs. Col. Reid, Delaware, Ohio. 

LOBSTER SALAD. 

Put a large lobster over the fire in boiling water slightly salted ; 
boil rapidly for about twenty minutes ; when done it will be of a 
bright red color, and should be removed, as if boiled too long it will 



292 SALADS. 

be tough ; when cold, crack the claws, after first disjointing, twist 
off the head (which is used in garnishing), split the body in two- 
lengthwise, pick out the meat in bits not too fine, saving the coral 
separate ; cut up a large head of lettuce slightly, and place on a 
dish over which lay the lobster, putting the coral around the out- 
side. For dressing, take the yolks of three eggs, beat well, add 
four table-spoons salad-oil, dropping it in very slowly, beating all 
the time ; then add a little salt, cayenne pepper, half tea-spoon 
mixed mustard, and two table-spoons vinegar. Pour this over the 
lobster, just before sending to table. Mrs. A. Wilson, Rye, N. Y. 

POTATO SALAD. 

Boil four large Irish potatoes, peel and mash smooth ; mince two 
onions, and add to the potato, make a dressing of the yolks of three 
hard-boiled eggs, one small tea-cup of vinegar, one tea-spoon black 
pepper, one dessert-spoon each of celery seeds and salt, one table- 
spoon each of prepared mustard and melted butter ; mix w r ell with 
potato, and garnish with slices of egg and celery or lettuce. Or, 
chop cold boiled potatoes fine with enough raw onions to season 
nicely; make a dressing as for lettuce salad, and pour over it. 
Mrs. James A. Jennings, Nashville, Tennessee. 

SALMON SALAD. 

Set a can of salmon in a kettle of boiling water, let boil twenty 
minutes, take out of the can and put in a deep dish, pour off the 
juice or oil, put a few cloves in and around it, sprinkle salt and 
pepper over, cover with cold vinegar, and let it stand a day, take 
it from the vinegar and lay it on a platter. Prepare a dressing as 
follows: Beat the yolks of two raw eggs with the yolks of two eggs 
boiled hard and mashed fine as possible; add gradually a table- 
spoon mustard, three of melted butter, or the best of salad-oil, a 
little salt and pepper (either black or cayenne), and vinegar to taste. 
Beat the mixture a long time (some persons like the addition of 
lemon juice and a little brown sugar) ; cover the salmon thickly 
with a part of the dressing, tear up very small the crisp inside 
leaves of lettuce, put in the remainder of the mixture, and pour 
over with two or three larger pieces placed around the salmon, and 
serve. 



SALADS. 293 

TOMATO SALAD. 

Take the skin, juice, and seeds from nice, fresh tomatoes, chop 
what remains with celery, and add a good salad-dressing. 

SALAD DRESSING. 
Yolks of two hard-boiled eggs rubbed very fine and smooth, one 

tea-spoon English mustard, one of salt, the yolks of two raw eggs 
beaten into the other, dessert-spoon of fine sugar. Add very fresh 
sweet-oil poured in by very small quantities, and beaten as long as 
the mixture continues to thicken, then add vinegar till as thin as 
desired. If not hot enough with mustard, add a little cayenne 
pepper. Mrs. Gov. Cheney 

SALAD DRESSING. 

The yolks of two eggs beaten thoroughly, one level tea-spoon salt, 
ne of pepper, two of white sugar, two tea-spoons prepared mustard, 
one table-spoon butter; stir in the mixture four table-spoons best 
vinegar, put dressing into a bowl, set it in a kettle of hot water, and 
stir constantly till it thickens ; set away, and when cool it is ready 
for use. This is sufficient for one quart finely-chopped cabbage, and 
should be poured over while hot, and thoroughly mixed with the 
cabbage, which may then be placed upon a platter, formed into an 
oval mound, and served cold. 

BOTTLED SALAD DRESSING. 

Beat yolks of eight eggs, add to them a cup of sugar, one table- 
spoon each of salt, mustard, and black pepper, a little cayenne, and 
half a cup of cream ; mix thoroughly ; bring to a boil a pint and a 
half vinegar, add one cup butter, let come to a boil, pour upon the 
mixture, stir well, and when cold put into bottles, and set in a cool 
place. It will keep for weeks in the hottest weather, and is excel- 
lent for cabbage or lettuce. 

CREAM DRESSING FOR COLD SLAW. 

Two table-spoons whipped sweet cream, two of sugar, and four 
of vinegar ; beat well and pour over cabbage, previously cut very 
fine and seasoned with salt. Miss Laura Sharp, Kingston. 

MAYONNAISE DRESSING. 

"feat a raw egg (some use the yolks only) with a salt-spoon of salt 
(using a wooden-spoon) until it is thoroughly smooth, add a tea-spoon 



294 SALADS. 

mixed mustard made rather thicker than usual ; when quite smooth 
add by degrees (a few drops only at a time) a half-pint of olive-oil, 
taking care to blend each portion of it with the egg before adding 
more. This ought to be as smooth as honey, and thick enough so 
that a spoon will stand up in it ; dilute with vinegar until it assumes 
the consistency of thick cream. A little anchovy may be added if 
desired. Lemon juice may be used instead of vinegar, or a few 
drops may be added with the vinegar. This is the smoothest and 
richest of salad dressings. The oily flavor is entirely lost in com- 
bination with the raw egg. When you begin to add the oil, drop a 
very little at first as it may curdle the egg. This sauce keeps well, 
if bottled and corked with a glass stopper, and it may be made at 
any time in advance, if only yolks are used, when yolks are left 
over from baking. In summer, place oil and eggs in a cold place, 
half an hour before making. 

SALAD-DRESSING WITH POTATO. 

Peel one large potato, boil, mash until all lumps are out, and add 
the yolk of a raw egg, stir all well together and season with a tea- 
spoon of mustard and a little salt ; add about half a gill of olive- 
oil and vinegar, putting in only a drop or two at a time, and stir- 
ring constantly, as the success of the dressing depends on its smooth' 
ness. This dressing is very nice with celery or cabbage chopped 
fine, and seasoned with a little salt and vinegar. Mrs. E. L. Fay. 

OYSTER SALAD. 

Half gallon each fresh oysters and celery cut into dice, yolks of 
four hard-boiled eggs, a raw egg whipped, two large spoons melted 
butter, two tea-spoons each of salt, black pepper and made mustard, 
one tea-cup vinegar, two pickled cucumbers cut fine. Drain liquor 
from oysters, throw in hot vinegar on the fire, let them stay until 
plump, not cooked. Put at once in cold water, drain off, and set in 
cool place ; prepare dressing. Rub salt, pepper and mustard with 
the yolks finely mashed ; add butter, a few drops at a time. When 
smooth, add beaten egg, then vinegar by the spoonful ; set aside. Mix 
oysters, celery and pickle, tossing up well with a silver fork; salt to 
taste. Pour dressing over all. Mrs. Col. G. S. Park, Parkville, Mo. 



SHELL-FISH. 



There is not a lover of oysters in existence who does not heartily 
sympathize with the boy who wanted to spell August ' ' O-r-g-u-s-t," 
in order to bring it into the list of the months which contain an "r," 
in all of which oysters are in season. The delicious bivalves furnish 
an important, and, in most localities, a not expensive article of food ; 
and the ease with which they are prepared for the table, and the 
great variety of ways in which they may be cooked and served, 
make them a great favorite with housekeepers. 

Oysters in the shell must be kept in a cool cellar, and occasionally 
sprinkled with salt water. When fresh, the shell is firmly closed; 
if open, the oyster is dead and unfit for use. The small-shelled 
oysters have the finest flavor. For the freshness of canned oysters 
it is necessary to trust to the dealer, but never buy cans the sides 
of which are swollen. In preparing them for cooking or for the 
table, carefully remove all bits of shell. Never salt oysters for 
soups or stews till just before removing them from the fire, or they 
W 7 ill shrivel up and be hard, and do not add butter. In frying, a 
little baking-powder added to the cracker-dust or corn-meal in which 
they are rolled will greatly improve them. Roasting in the shell 
preserves the natural flavor. Always serve immediately after cooking, 
no matter w r hat method is used. 

As to nutritive qualities, oysters rank much below butcher's meats, 
and it is even questioned whether they contain the phosphorus, or 
brain food, which has been credited to them in company with the 
finny tribe in general. But, when properly cooked, they are easy 
of digestion, and very proper food for persons whose occupation is 

295) 



296 SHELL-FISH. 

sedentary, and whose duties do not call for heavy muscular exertion. 
Even for invalids, they are nutritious and wholesome, when deli- 
cately prepared. 

CLAM CHOWDER. 

Chop fifty clams, peel and slice ten raw potatoes, cut into dice six 
onions and a half pound fat salt pork, slice six tomatoes (if canned 
use a coffee-cup full), add a pound pilot crackers; first put pork in 
bottom of pot and try out, partially cook onions in pork-fat, remove 
the mass from pot, and put on a plate bottom side up ; make layers 
of the ingredients, season with pepper and salt, cover with water 
and boil an hour and a half, adding chopped parsley to taste. 

CLAM PIE. 

Take three pints of either hard or soft-shell clams (if large, chop 
slightly), put in a sauce-pan and bring to a boil in their own liquor, 
or add a little water if needed; have ready four medium-sized po 
tatoes, boiled till done and cut into small squares ; make a nice pie- 
paste with which line a medium-sized pudding-dish half way down 
the sides ; turn a small tea-cup bottom up in middle of dish to keep 
up the top crust ; put in first a layer of clams, and then a few po- 
tatoes, season with bits of butter and a little salt and pepper, and 
dredge with flour; add another layer of clams, and so on till dish 
is filled, adding juice of clams, and a little water if necessary (there 
should be about as much liquid as for chicken-pie). Cover with 
top-crust, cutting several slits for steam to escape, and bake three- 
quarters of an hour. Mrs. A. Wilson, Eye, N. Y. 

CLAM STEW. 

Take half peck hard-shell clams, wash shells clean, and put in a 
kettle with about one tea-cup water ; let steam until the shells open, 
when take out of shell, strain juice, and return it with clams to th& 
fire ; after they come to a boil, add one pint milk, a piece of butter 
size of an egg, three crackers rolled fine, pepper, and salt if any is 
needed. Mrs. A. W. 

FRIED CLAMS. 

Remove from shell large soft-shell clams; beat an egg well and 
add two table-spoons water ; have the clams dried in a towel, and 
dip them first in the egg, then in finely-rolled cracker or bread? 



SHELL-FISH. 297 

crumbs, and fry (longer than oysters) in sweet lard or butter. Oys- 
ters may be prepared for cooking in same way. Mrs. A. W. 

DEVILED CRABS. 

Pick the meat from a boiled crab and cut in fine bits, add one- 
third as much bread-crumbs, two or three chopped hard-boiled eggs, 
; and lemon juice ; season with pepper, salt, and butter or cream. 
Clean the shells nicely and fill with the mixture, sprinkle over with 
bread-crumbs and small bits of butter, and brown in oven. Lob- 
sters may be prepared in same way, and served in silver scallop- 
shells. Or, boil one pint milk, and thicken with one table-spoon 
corn starch mixed in a little cold milk, season with pepper (cayenne 
may be used) and salt, and pour over the picked-up lobster ; put in 
baking-dish, and cover with bread-crumbs and a few pieces of but- 
ter, and brown in oven. Mrs. Col S., Norfolk, Va. 

BOILED OYSTERS. 

Wash shell-oysters perfectly clean, place in a small willow basket, 
drop in a kettle of boiling water, and when shells open, lift basket, 
and serve oysters on the half shell. 

BROILED OYSTERS. 

Dry large, selected oysters in a napkin, pepper and salt, and 
broil on a fine folding wire-broiler, turning frequently to keep the 
juice from wasting. Serve immediately in a hot dish with little 
pieces of butter on them. Or, pepper a cup of dry bread-crumbs, 
dry one quart of oysters in a napkin, dip each in butter previously 
peppered, roll well in the crumbs, and broil over a good fire for 
five to seven minutes. Serve immediately in a hot dish with but- 
ter, pepper and salt. 

BROILED OYSTERS WITH PORK. 

String a hair-pin shaped wire, first with an oyster, then with 2 
thin slice of pork, and so on until the wire is filled ; fasten ends oi 
wire into a long wooden handle, and broil before the fire. Serve, 
with the pork, if you like, seasoning slightly with pepper. 

OYSTER CROQUETTES. 

Scald and chop fine hard part of the oysters (after taking the 
other part and liquor for a soup), add an equal weight of mashed 
potato ; to one pound of this add lump of butter the size of an egg,. 



298 SHELL-FISH. 

tea-spoon salt, half tea-spoon of pepper, and quarter of a tea -cup 
cream. Make in small cakes, dip in egg and then in bread-crumbs, 
and fry like doughnuts. 

BROILED OYSTERS ON THE HALF-SHELL. 

Select large shells, clean with a brush, open, saving juice ; put 
oysters in boiling water for a few minutes, remove and place each 
oyster in a half-shell, with juice ; place on a gridiron over a brisk 
fire, and when they begin to boil, season with butter, salt and 
pepper (some add a drop of lemon juice.) Serve on the half-shell. 

CURRIED OYSTERS. 

Put the liquor drained from a quart of oysters into a sauce-pan, 
add a half-cup of butter, two table-spoons flour, and one of curry 
pow r der, well mixed; let boil, add oysters, and a little salt; boil up 

once and serve. 

DEVILED OYSTERS. 

Wipe the oysters dry and lay in a flat dish, cover with a mixture 
of melted butter, cayenne pepper (or pepper sauce), and lemon 
juice. Let them lie in this for ten minutes, turning them frequently; 
take out, roll in cracker crumbs, then in beaten egg, then in 
crumbs, and fry in hot lard and butter, half and half. 

ESCALOPED OYSTERS.. 

Take crushed crackers, not too fine ; drain liquor from a quart 
of oysters and carefully remove all bits of shell, butter a deep 
dish or pan, cover the bottom with crackers, put in a layer of oys- 
ters seasoned with salt and pepper and bits of butter in plenty, 
then a layer of crackers, then oysters, and so on until dish is full^ 
finishing with the crackers covered with bits of butter ; pour over 
the whole the oyster-liquor added to one pint of boiling water 
(boiled and skimmed), place in a hot oven, bake half an hour, add 
another pint of hot water, or half pint water and half pint of milk, 
in which a small lump of butter has been melted ; bake another 
half hour, and, to prevent browning too much, cover with a tin or 
sheet-iron lid. All bread-crumbs, or a mixture of crackers and 
bread-crumbs may be used when more convenient. As the amount 
of liquor in oysters varies, and the proportion of crackers or bread- 
crumbs to the oysters also varies, the quantity of water must be 



SHELLFISH. 299 

increased or diminished according to judgment and taste. Some 
prefer to cook half the time given above. Boiled macaroni may be 
used in place of cracker-crumbs. 

TERRAPIN. 

Cut off head, put on to boil with shell on ; when done enough, 
remove under shell, and pick terrapin in pieces. Clean top shell 
well ; add a few crackers, onions, parsley, allspice, salt, pepper, 
butter, and wine; return to shell, garnish with sliced lemon, and 
bake. Add Cayenne pepper, if liked, in seasoning. Terrapin or 
turtle steaks are fine smothered in an egg batter before frying. 
Mrs. J. C. Owens, Ouirleston, South Carolina. 

FRIED OYSTERS. 

Drain carefully, remove all bits of shell, and sprinkle with pepper 
and salt, and set in a cool place for ten or fifteen minutes. Then, 
If oysters are small, pour them into a pan of crackers rolled fine, 
add the liquor, mix well, and let stand five minutes, add a little salt 
and pepper, mold into small cakes with two or three oysters in 
each, roll in dry crackers until well encrusted, and fry in hot lard 
and butter, or beef-drippings. Serve hot in a covered dish. 

Or, dip the oysters in the yolk of eggs, well seasoned and beaten, 
then in corn meal with a little baking powder mixed with it, and 
fry in hot lard like doughnuts ; or if you have frying basket, place 
them on that and drop it in the hot lard. Test the heat as for 
doughnuts. 

Or, drain thoroughly, put in a hot frying-pan, turn so as to 
brown on both sides. They cook in this way in a few moments, 
and the peculiar flavor of the oysters is well preserved. Serve on 
a hot covered dish, with butter, pepper and salt, or add a little 
cream just before serving, and serve on toast ; or take two parts 
rolled crackers and one part corn rneal, mix well, roll the oysters in 
it, and fry in equal parts butter and lard. Season with salt and 
pepper. Mrs. W. W. Woods. 

FRIED OYSTERS. 

To fry oysters, take two dozen large oysters (they are sold under 
different names and brands in different markets), drain off liquor; 



300 SHELL-FISH. 

have prepared cracker dust (bought of any grocer, or made by 
crushing with rolling pin), mix well one tea-spoon salt, take one oys- 
ter at a time, roll in cracker dust, and lay on a meat board or plat- 
ter by itself until all are so encased, and laid in rows ; let remain 
fifteen minutes, now take the oyster first rolled in cracker dust and 
dip in beaten eggs (yolk and white beaten together), then the second 
oyster, and so on until all are dipped, then roll in cracker dust, 
following same order as before. Let them remain from half to 
three-quarters of an hour. It is important to follow the same order 
in each operation, to give the liquor of the oyster time to drain 
out and be absorbed by the cracker dust ; now heat in a frying-pan 
one pound of clarified fat or lard ; when the blue smoke arises 
(which indicates a heat of 375, the proper cooking point), drop 
into it a peeled potato or piece of hard bread, which has the effect 
of preventing the fat growing hotter, drop in the oysters very lightly, 
and when a light brown turn to brown the other side ; and then 
remove to a colander to drain a moment, or lay upon a piece of 
brown paper, which will absorb the superfluous grease. The time 
for cooking is about three minutes. Serve while hot on a hot platter. 
Fried oysters, to be at their best, must be eaten as soon as cooked; 
and when a second supply is likely to be needed, it should be cooked 
while the first is being served and eaten. It is better not to touch 
the oysters with the hand, as it tends to make them tough ; all the 
rolling and dipping may be done with a fork, without mangling the 
oyster. 

FRICASSEED OYSTERS. 

Take a slice of raw ham (corned and not smoked), soak in 
boiling water for half an hour, cut in very small slices and put 
in a sauce-pan with two-thirds pint of veal or chicken broth well 
strained, the liquor from one quart oysters, one small onion minced 
very fine, a little chopped parsley, sweet marjoram and pepper. 
Let these simmer twenty minutes, boiling rapidly for two or three 
minutes. Then skim well and add one scant table-spoon of corn 
starch mixed smoothly in one-third cup of milk, stir constantly, 
and when it boils add the oysters and one ounce of butter ; just let 
it come to a boil, remove oysters to a deeper dish, then beat one- 
egg and add to it gradually some of the hot broth, and when cooked 



SHELL-FISH. 301 

Btir it into the pan ; season with salt and pour all over the oysters. 
When placed upon the table some squeeze the juice of a lemon 

over it. 

OYSTER FRITTERS. 

Drain off liquor, boil, skim, and to a cupful add a cup of milk, 
two or three eggs, salt and pepper, and flour enough to make a 
rather thick batter. Have hot lard or beef drippings ready in a 
kettle, drop the batter into it with a large spoon, taking up one 
oyster for each spoonful. The oyster must be large and plump. 

OYSTER OMELET. 

Add to a half cup of cream six eggs beaten very light, season 
with pepper and salt, and pour into a frying-pan with a table-spoon 
of butter ; drop in a dozen large oysters cut in halves, or chopped 
fine with parsley, and fry until a light brown. Double it over, and 
serve immediately. Mrs. T. B. Johnson, Tuscumbia. 

PANNED OYSTERS. 

Cut stale bread in thin slices, then round them, removing all 
crust. Make them to fit patty -pans; toast them, butter, and 
place in pans. Moisten with three or four tea-spoons of oyster 
liquor; then place on the toast a layer of oysters, sprinkle with 
pepper, and put on top a small piece of butter; place pans in a 
baking pan and put in oven, covering with a tin lid, or if not large 
enough, another pan to keep in the steam and flavor ; have a quick 
oven, and when cooked seven or eight minutes, until "ruffled," 
remove cover and sprinkle with salt ; replace cover and cook one 
minute longer. Serve in the patty-pans. This is delicious. 

OYSTER PIE. 

Line a deep pie-dish with puff-paste; dredge with flour, pour in 
one pint oysters, season well with bits of butter, salt and pepper, 
and sprinkle flour over; pour on some of the oyster-liquor, and 
cover with a crust having an opening in the center to allow the 
steam to escape. 

Or, line the pie-dish half way up with good pie-crust, fill the dish 
with pieces of stale bread, place a cover of paste over this, and 
bake about twenty minutes in a brisk oven. Take off crust, have 
ready some oysters prepared as for patties, fill the pie with them, 



302 SHELL-FISH. 

and replace the crust and serve at once ; or line dish with a good 
puff-paste, place an extra layer around the edge, and bake in a brisk 
oven ; fill with oysters, season with pepper, salt, and one table-spoon 
butter, sprinkle slightly with flour, and cover with a thin crust of 
paste ; bake quickly ; when the top crust is done, the pie will be 
ready to take up. Serve promptly, as the crust quickly absorbs the 
gravy. Some like this cold for picnics or traveling. Mrs. Carrie 

Beck ' OYSTER PICKLES. 

To every quart of liquor add a tea-spoon of black pepper, a pod 
of red pepper broken in bits, two blades of mace, a tea-spoon salt, 
two dozen cloves, and half a pint of best vinegar, add the oysters 
and simmer gently for a few minutes, take out and put in small 
jars; then boil the pickle, skim it, and pour over them. Keep 
them in a dark, cool place, and when a jar is opened, use up its 
contents as quickly as possible. Oysters pickled thus will keep 

good four or five weeks. 

OYSTER ROLL. 

Cut a round piece, say six inches across, from the top of a well- 
baked round loaf of bread, remove the inside from the loaf, learing 
crust half an inch thick ; make a rich oyster stew, and put in the 
loaf first a layer of it, then of bread-crumbs, then oysters, and so 
on ; place cover over the top, glaze the loaf with the beaten yolk 
Q an egg, and place in oven for a few moments. Serve very hot, 

RAW OYSTERS. 

Wash the shells, open, detaching the flat shell, loosen from the 
deep shell, but leave them in it, and serve half dozen on a plate, 
with a quarter of lemon in center. Eat with salt, pepper and lemon 
juice or vinegar. 

In serving them without the shells the most attractive way is in 
a dish of ice, made by freezing water in a tin form shaped like a 
salad bowl, or in a block of ice from which a cavity has been 
melted with a hot flat-iron. They should first be drained well in a 
colander, sprinkled with plenty of pepper and salt, and placed on 
the ice and let remain in a cool place for half an hour or until time 
of serving. 

A simpler and equally delicious way is to drain well, sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, and place the dish on ice or in a dish of cold 



SHELL-FISH. 303 

Crater for half an hour before serving, adding bits of ice. Serve 
with horse-radish, Chili sauce, slices of lemon, or simply vinegar. 

OYSTERS IN THE SHELL. 

Open the shells, keeping the deepest ones for use. Melt some 
butter, season with minced parsley and pepper. When slightly 
cooled, roll each oyster in it, using care that it drips but little, and 
lay in the shells. Add to each shell a little lemon juice, cover with 
grated bread-crumbs, place in a baking-pan and bake in a quick 
oven; just before they are done, add a little salt. Serve in the 

6heUs ' OYSTER STEW. 

Put the liquor from the oysters on the stove, let boil, skim, and 

season with butter and pepper, add oysters, let come to a boil only, 
season with salt and serve. This is pronounced a " royal stew." 

STEAMED OYSTERS. 

Lay some oysters in the shell in some air-tight vessel, placing the 
upper shell downward so the liquor will not run out when they 
open. Set them over a pot of boiling water (where they will get 
the steam), and boil hard for twenty minutes; if the oysters are 
open they are done ; if not, steam till they do open. Serve at once 
and eat hot, with salt and a bit of butter. Or, wash and drain one 
quart select oysters, put in pan and place in steamer over boiling 
water, cover and steam till oysters are plump with edges ruffled; 
place in heated dish with butter, pepper and salt, and serve. 

WALLED OYSTERS. 

Make a wall one and one-half inches high and three-quarters wide 
of one quart nicely mashed and seasoned potatoes, just inside raised 
edge of platter, glaze it by covering with beaten egg and placing in 
oven for a few minutes. Place the liquor from one quart oysters in 
porcelain kettle, let boil, skim well, then add oysters seasoned with 
salt, boil up once, skim out oysters (milk or water can be added to 
the liquor, then seasoned with butter and pepper, and served as 
soup), and add them to a cream dressing made by putting a tea-cup 
rich cream, butter size of half an egg, and a little pepper and tea- 
spoon salt in a pan placed within a vessel of boiling water ; when 
hot add two ounces of flour mixed smooth in some cream or milk, 
and let cook till thickened, then place oysters and dressing within 
the potato and serve immediately. 



SOUPS 



To make nutritious, healthful and palatable soup, with flavors 
properly commingled, is an art which requires study and practice, 
but it is surprising from what a scant allotment of material a deli- 
cate and appetizing dish may be produced.. The best base for soup 
is lean uncooked meat, a pound of meat to a quart of water, to 
which may be added chicken, turkey, beef, or mutton bones well 
broken up ; a mixture of beef, mutton and veal, wiili a bit of ham 
bone, all cut fine, makes a higher flavored soup than any single 
meat ; the legs of all meats are rich in gelatine, an important con- 
stituent of soup. For white stock use veal or fowls instead of beef. 

Soups, which make the principal part of a meal, should be richer 
than those which simply precede a heavier course of meats, etc. 

When remnants of cooked meats are used, chop fine, crush the 
bones, add a ham bone or bit of ham or salt pork (two or three 
cubic inches) and all ends of roasts and fatty parts, and the brown 
fat of the roast; make the day previous to use; strain, set away 
over night, skim off the fat (which clarify and save for drippings), 
and it is ready to heat and serve. 

When soup is desired for a first course, daily, a soup-kettle should 
be especially provided, with a faucet to draw off the clear soup to 
be seasoned for each day ; and all the bones and bits of meat left 
after dinner can be thrown into the kettle, also bits of vegetables 
and bread, and the gravies that are left from roast meats and cut- 
lets. In this way there will be nothing lost, and the soups can be 
varied by seasonings and thickenings of different kinds. Every 
two or three days, however, the contents of the kettle should be 
turned out, after all the liquid has been drawn off, and the kettle 



SOUPS. 305 

washed clean and scalded, for if this is not attended to, the soups 
will soon lose their piquant flavor and become stale. 

In using fresh meat throw the pieces as cut into the required 
quantity of cold water and let stand until the juices of the meat 
begin to color it, then put on to boil ; in this way the juices of the 
meat are more readily drawn out. The soup is done when the meat 
is juiceless. 

The best herbs are sage, thyme, sweet marjoram, tarragon, mint, 
sweet basil, parsley, bay-leaves, cloves, mace, celery-seed and onions. 
Plant the seed of any of the seven first-mentioned in little boxes 
on the window sill, or in a sunny spot in the yard. Gather and 
dry them as follows : parsley and tarragon should be dried in June 
and July, just before flowering; mint in June and July; thyme, 
marjoram and savory in July and August ; basil and sage in August 
and September ; all herbs should be gathered in the sunshine, and 
dried by artificial heat ; their flavor is best preserved by keeping 
them in air-tight tin cans, or in tightly-corked glass bottles. 

Seasonings for soups may be varied to suit tastes. The simplest 
may have only pepper and salt, while the richest may have a little 
of every savor, so delicately blended that no one is conspicuous. 
The best seasoning is that which is made up of the smallest quan- 
tity from each of many spices. No measure can be given, because 
the good soup-maker must be a skillful taster. There must be a 
flavor of salt; that is, the water must not be insipid (less is needed 
if bits of salt meat are used), there must be a warm tone from the 
pepper, but not the taste of pepper; in short, the spicing should be 
delicate rather than profuse. Those who like rank flavors may add 
them to suit their coarse and uneducated palates. For brown soups 
the dark spices may be used ; for white, mace, aromatic seeds, cream 
and curry. Many herbs, either fresh or dried, are used as seasoning, 
and all the choice catsups and sauces. 

Rice, sago, pearled barley, vermicelli, macaroni, etc., are desir- 
able additions to meat soups. The first three are used in the pro- 
portion of half a tea-cup to three quarts of soup ; wash and soak. 
Rice requires half to three-quarters of an hour, boiling in the soup; 
sago cooks in fifteen minutes ; barley should be soaked over night, 

or for several hours ; boil by itself in a little water till tender; add 
20 



306 SOUPS. 

to the soup just before serving. Vermicelli and macaroni should 
be broken up small, and washed thoroughly ; boil in the soup half 
an hour. 

If a soup is wanted without any addition of vegetables, but thick- 
ened, arrow-root or corn starch is used in the proportion of two 
round tea-spoons of the latter and two scant tea-spoons of the former 
to a quart of soup. Mix with a little water until smooth, and add 
w r hen the soup is nearly done. Wheat flour is also used for thick- 
ening, but it requires three round table-spoons to the quart. If not 
thick enough to suit the taste more may be added. Browned flour 
does not thicken, the starchy property having been removed in the 
browning process. 

Thickened soups require more seasoning than thin soups ; if wanted 
very clear and delicate, strain through a hair sieve. 

Always use cold water in making all soups ; skim well, especially 
during the first hour. There is great necessity for thorough skim- 
ming, and to help the scum rise, pour in a little cold water now and 
then, and as the soup reaches the boiling point, skim it off. Use 
salt at first sparingly, and season with salt and pepper ; allow one 
quart soup to three or four persons. 

For a quick soup, crush the bone and cut the meat rather fine ; 
when done, strain and serve. Every kitchen should be provided 
with a soup-kettle (which has a double bottom), or a large iron pot 
with a tight-fitting tin cover with a hole size of a large darning- 
needle in it at one side of the handle. Keep kettle covered closely, 
go that the flavor may not be lost, and simmer slowly, so that the 
quantity may not be much reduced by evaporation, but if it has 
boiled away (which may be the case when the meat is to be used 
for the table), pour in as much hot water as is needed, and add 
vegetables, noodles, or any thickening desired. Vegetables should 
be added just long enough before soup is done to allow them to be 
thoroughly cooked. An excellent soup for a small family may be 
made from the bones and trimmings cut from a steak before broil- 
ing. The bones from a rib roast, which are generally cut out and 
thrown away by the butcher, after weighing, should always be 
ordered sent with roast and used for soup. 

For coloring and flavoring soups, use caramel, browned flour. 



SOUPS. 307 

onions fried brown, meat with cloves in it, or browned with butter. 
Poached eggs are an excellent addition to some soups. They should 
be added just before serving, one for each person. They may be 
poached in water or dropped into the boiling soup, or two or three 
eggs, well-beaten and added just before pouring in tureen, make a 
nice thickening. Cayenne pepper or a bit of red pepper pod, Wor- 
cestershire, Halford, or Chili sauce, and catsups, are considered by 
many an improvement to soup, but must be cautiously used. Force- 
meat balls, made of the meat boiled for the soup, are also used. 

SOUP STOCK. 

To four pounds of lean beef (the inferior parts are quite as good 
for this purpose) put four quarts of cold water (soft is best), wash 
the meat and put it in the water without salt ; let it come slowly to 
boiling point, skim well before the agitation of the water has broken 
the scum, add a little salt, and a dash of cold water, to assist the 
scum to rise, skim again, set back and let it boil gently on one side 
or in one place, and not all over ('* the pot should smile, not laugh"), 
for six or eight hours, until the meat is in rags (rapid boiling 
hardens the fiber of the meat and the savory flavor escapes with the 
steam), add a little pepper, strain into a stone jar, let it cool, and re- 
move all the grease. This stock will keep for many days in cold 
weather, and from it can be made all the various kinds of soups bj 
adding onion, macaroni, celery, asparagus, green pease, carrot, 
tomato, okra, parsley, thyme, summer savory, sage, and slices of 
lemon; many of the herbs may be first dried, then pulverized and 
put in cans or jars for winter use. Celery and carrot seed may be 
used in place of the fresh vegetables. Macaroni should be first 

.A o 

boiled in slightly salted water, cut in pieces one or two inches long, 
and added a short time before serving. To prepare soup for dinner, 
cut off a slice of the jelly, add water, heat and serve. Whatever is 
added to this, such as rice, tapioca, vegetables, etc., may first be 
cooked before being added, as much boiling injures the flavor of the 
stock. 

A rich stock can also be made from a shank or shin of beef 
(knuckle of veal is next best) ; cut in several pieces, crack the 
bones, add four quarts water, boil up quickly, skim, add salt, skim, 
and let boil gently until the liquor is reduced one-half; strain, cool 



308 SOUPS. 

and skim, and if boiled properly and long enough, an excellent jelly 
will result. Too violent boiling makes the stock cloudy and dark. 
To clarify stock that has been darkened by careless skimming and 
improper boiling, mix one egg and shell in a gill of cold water, add 
a gill of the boiling soup, then stir into the soup until it boils up; re- 
move to back of stove, and let stand until the white and shell of the 
egg have collected the particles that color the soup, and strain once or 
twice until it looks clear. Stock should never be allowed to stand 
and cool in the pot in which it is cooked ; pour into an earthen dish, 
let stand to cool uncovered, when all the fat should be removed and 
saved to clarify for drippings ; the stock is then ready for use as 
wanted for soups or gravies. The flavor of stock may be varied by 
using in it a little ham, anchovy, sausage, sugar, or a calf's foot. 
Sprigs of herbs, and whole spices may be used in seasoning, and 
afterward strained out. Delicate flavors should be added just before 
serving, as boiling evaporates them. Stock made from meat without 
bone or gristle will not jelly, but will taste very like good beef- 
tea. Never boil vegetables with stock, as they will cause it to 
become sour. 

An economical soup-stock may be made of steak or roast-beef 
bones, after cooking, adding a little piece of fresh meat, or none at 
all, and allowing it to simmer at least five hours; strain, remove all 
fat the next day, and it will be ready for use. 

SOUP FROM STOCK. 

To make soup from any stock, put on as much stock as needed 
(if in jelly, scrape the sediment from off the bottom), add seasoning, 
water and vegetables. The potatoes should be peeled, sliced, and 
laid in salt and water for half an hour, the cabbage parboiled and 
drained, and all others either sliced or cut fine, before adding them 
to the soup; boil until thoroughly dissolved, strain through a 
colander and serve at once. 

ANOTHER WAY. 

When stock is drawn off, season with celery salt. A little vermicelli 
boiled in it for fifteen minutes will give it more body or some of 
the fancy letters, stars, triangles, etc., that are made particularly 
for soups can be used, or egg-balls can be made by mixing raw egg 
with just enough wheat flour or corn starch to make it into round 



SOUPS. 309 

balls, then drop them into the soup and boil for ten minutes* A 
little milk, a tea-spoon to one egg, is an improvement ; also a 
sprinkle of salt. These balls are sometimes called " noodles." If a 
richer soup is needed, take slices of raw veal and a little salt pork, 
and chop very fine with a slice of wheat bread. Season highly with 
pepper, salt, tomato catsup, and chopped lemon peel, moisten with 
two well-beaten eggs, and roll into balls as large as a walnut, with 
floured hands. Fry the balls in butter to a dark brown, and let 
them cool; turn into the soup and boil about ten minutes. Cut a 
lemon into very thin bits, slice two hard-boiled eggs, put them into 
the tureen ; add a glass of claret or port wine to them and turn in 
soup; it is a very " dainty dish." 

CLAM SOUP.* 

First catch your clams along the ebbing edges 

Of saline coves you'll find the precious wedges, 

With backs up, lurking in th., sandy bottom ; 

Pull in your iron rake, and lo ! you ' ve got 'em ! 

Take thirty large ones, put a basin under, 

And cleave, with knife, their stony jaws asunder; 

Add water (three quarts) to the native liquor, 

Bring to a boil, (and, by the way, the quicker 

It boils the better, if you'd do it cutely.) 

Now add the clams, chopped up and minced minutely. 

Allow a longer boil of just three minutes, 

And while it bubbles, quickly stir within its 

Tumultuous depths where still the mollusks mutter, 

Four table-spoons of flour and four of butter, 

A pint of milk, some pepper to your notion, 

And clams need salting, although born of ocean. 

Remove from fire ; (if much boiled they will suffer 

You'll find that India-rubber is n't tougher.) 

After 'tis off, add three fresh eggs, well-beaten, 

Stir once more, and it's ready to be eaten. 

Fruit of the wave ! O, dainty and delicious ! 

Food for the gods ! Ambrosia for Apicius ! 

Worthy to thrill the soul of sea-born Venus, 

Or titillate the palate of Silenus ! 

AN ECONOMICAL SOUP. 

Take a soup bone (any piece of beef not too fat will do), wash 
well, place in kettle with sufficient cold water for soup ; let it boil, 

'Written especially for this book, by W. A. CROFFTTT, editor of "American Queen," 
New York. 



310 SOUPS. 

skim thoroughly and continue to boil slowly from three to six hours, 
according to size and quality of meat ; one hour before dinner, put 
in cabbage cut in quarters, sprinkling it with salt ; quarter of an 
hour after add turnips halved or quartered according to size ; quarter 
of an hour after turnips, add potatoes whole, or cut in two if large 
(turnips and potatoes should be pared and laid in cold water half 
an hour before using). When done take out vegetables and meat, 
place in heater, or if you have no heater, place plates over a pot or 
skillet of boiling water. If there is not enough soup, add boiling 
water, stir in a little thickening of flour and water, let it boil thor- 
oughly ; season to the taste with salt and pepper and serve at once. 
The soup will be excellent and the vegetables very fine. 

ASPARAGUS SOUP. 

Cut the tops from about thirty heads of asparagus, about half an 
inch long, and boil the rest ; cut off all the tender portions and rub 
through a sieve, adding a little salt; warm three pints soup stock, 
add a small lump of butter and a tea-spoon of flour previously 
cooked by heating the butter and slowly stirring in the flour ; then 
add the asparagus pulp. Boil slowly a quarter of an hour, stirring 
in two or three table-spoons cream ; color the soup with a tea-spoon 
of prepared spinach, made by pounding the spinach well, adding a 
few drops of water, squeezing the juice through a cloth and putting 
it over a good fire. As soon as it looks curdy, take it off, and strain 
the liquor through a sieve. What remains on the sieve is to be used 
for coloring the soup. Just before serving soup, add the asparagus 
tops which have been separately boiled. 

BEEF SOUP. 

Take the cracked joints of beef, and after putting the meat in the 
pot and covering it well with water, let it come to a boil, when it 
should be well skimmed. Set the pot where the meat will simmer 
slowly until it is thoroughly done, keeping it closely covered all the 
time. The next day, or when cold, remove the fat which hardens 
on the top of the soup. Peel, wash and slice three good-sized 
potatoes and put them into the soup ; cut up half a head of white 
cabbage in shreds, and add to this a pint of Shaker corn that has 
been soaked o^er night, two onions, one head of celery, and tomatoes 



SOUPS. 311 

if desired. When these are done, and they should simmer slowly, 
care being taken that they do not burn, strain (or not as preferred) 
the soup and serve. The different varieties of beef soup are formed 
by this method of seasoning and the different vegetables used in 
preparing it, after the joints have been well boiled. Besides onions, 
celery, cabbages, tomatoes and potatoes, many use a few carrots, 
turnips, beets, and force-meat balls seasoned with .spice ; rice or bar- 
ley will give the soup consistency, and are to be preferred to flour 
for the purpose. Parsley, thyme and sage are the favorite herbs 
for seasoning, but should be used sparingly. To make force-meat 
balls, add to one pound chopped beef one egg, a small lump butter, 
a cup or less of bread-crumbs ; season with salt and pepper, and 
moisten with the water from stewed meat ; make in balls and fry 
brown, or make egg-balls by boiling eggs, mashing the yolks with 
a silver spoon, and mixing with one raw yolk and one tea-spoon 
flour ; season with salt and pepper, make into balls, drop in soup 
just before serving. Mrs. H. B. SJierman. 

BEEF SOUP WITH OKRA. 

Fry one pound " round" steak cut in bits, two table-spoons 
butter, and one sliced onion, till very brown ; add to three or four 
quarts cold water in soup-kettle, and boil slowly one hour ; then add 
pint sliced okra, and simmer three hours or more ; season with salt 
and pepper, strain and serve. Mrs. T. B. J., Tuscumbia, Ala. 

BEEF SOUP. 

Take bones and trimmings from a sirloin steak, put over fire after 
breakfast in three quarts water, boil steadily until about an hour 
before dinner, when add two onions, one carrot, three common-sized 
potatoes, all sliced, some parsley cut fine, a red pepper, and salt to 
taste. This makes a delicious soup, sufficient for three persons. 
All soups are more palatable seasoned with onions and red pepper, 
using the seeds of the latter with care, as they are very strong. 

BEAN SOUP. 

Boil a small soup-bone in about two quarts water until the meat 
can be separated from the bone, remove bone, add a coffee-cup white 
beans soaked for two hours, boil for an hour and a half, add three 
potatoes, half a turnip and a parsnip, all sliced fine, boil half an 



312 SOUPS. 

hour longer, and just before serving sprinkle in a few dry bread" 
crumbs ; season with salt and pepper, and serve with raw onions 
sliced very fine for those who like them. Mrs. A. B. Morey. 

TURTLE BEAN SOUP. 

Soak one pint black beans over night, then put them into three 
quarts water with beef bones or a small piece of lean salt pork, boil 
three or four hours, strain, season with salt, pepper, cloves and 
lemon juice. Put in a few slices of lemon, and if wished add slices 
of hard-boiled eggs. Serve with toasted bread cut into dice and 
placed in the tureen. Mrs. H. G. Clark, 

SATURDAY BEAN SOUP. 

Baked beans and brown bread form a Sunday breakfast for so 
many that the following will be a useful and economical soup for 
Saturday dinner. Put on the pot with more beans than enough for 
Sunday's breakfast, with water, and slice of salt pork ; parboil till 
beans are ready to be put in oven. Take out pork and part of 
beans, leaving enough for a bean soup ; place the pot on back of 
stove and keep hot. Three-quarters of an hour before dinner heat 
soup, add more water and vegetables as in " Bean Soup." 

MEATLESS BEAN SOUP. 

Parboil one pint beans, drain off the water, add fresh, let boil* 
until perfectly tender, season with pepper and salt, add a piece of 
butter the size of a walnut, or more if preferred; when done skim 
out half the beans, "leaving the broth with the remaining half in 
the kettle, now add a tea-cup sweet cream or good milk, a dozen of 
more crackers broken up; let it boil up, and serve. 

CARROT SOUP. 

Put in soup-kettle a knuckle of veal, three or four quarts cold 
water, a quart finely-sliced carrots, one head celery ; boil two and a 
half hours, add .a handful rice, and boil an hour longer ; season 
with pepper (or a bit of red pepper pod) and salt, and serve. 

CELERY CREAM SOUP. 

Boil a small cup rice in three pints milk, until it will pass through 
a sieve. Grate the white part of two heads of celery (three if 
email) on a bread-grater ; add this to the rice milk after it has been 



SOUPS. 313 

strained; put to it a quart of strong white stock; let boil until cel- 
ery is perfectly tender; season with salt and cayenne, and serve. If 
cream is obtainable, substitute one pint for the same quantity of 

milk. 

CHICKEN Soup, 

In boiling chickens for salads, etc., the broth (water in which 
they are boiled) may be used for soup. When the chickens are to 
be served whole, stuff and tie in a cloth. To the broth add a dozen 
tomatoes (or a quart can), and one thinly-sliced onion ; boil twenty 
minutes, season with salt and pepper, add two well-beaten eggs, and 
serve. 

CLAM SOUP. 

Wash clams, and place in just sufficient water for the soup, let 
"boil, and as soon as they clear from shells, take out and place clams 
in a jar for pickling ; throw into the broth a pint each of sweet 
milk and rolled crackers, add a little salt, boil five minutes, and 
just before taking from the fire, add one ounce butter beaten with 
two eggs. Serve, and let each person season to taste. 

GREEN CORN SOUP. 

One large fowl, or four pounds veal (the knuckle or neck will do), 
put over fire in one gallon cold water without salt, cover tightly 
and simmer slowly till meat slips from the bones, not allowing it to 
boil to rags, as the meat will make a nice dish for breakfast or 
lunch, or even for dinner. Set aside w r ith the meat a cup of the 
liquor ; strain the soup to remove all bones and rags of meat ; grate 
one dozen ears of green corn, scraping cobs to remove the heart of 
the kernel, add corn to soup, with salt, pepper, and a little parsley, 
and simmer slowly half an hour. Just before serving add a table- 
spoon flour beaten very thoroughly with a table-spoon butter. Serve 
hot. To serve chicken or veal, put broth (which was reserved) in 
a clean sauce-pan, beat one egg, a table-spoon butter and a tea- 
spoon flour together very thoroughly, and add to the broth with 
salt, pepper, and a little chopped parsley. Arrange meat on dish, 
pour over dressing, boiling hot, and serve at once. 

GUMBO. 

Slice a large onion and put it with a slice of bacon or fat ham 



314 SOUPS. 

into a skillet and brown it ; skin and cut up two quarts tomatoes, 
cut thin one quart okra, put all together with a little parsley into a 
stew-kettle, adding about three quarts water, and cook slowly two 
or three hours, adding salt and pepper to taste. Mrs. E. A. W. 

MOCK TURTLE OR CALF'S-HEAD SOUP. 

Lay one large calf s head well cleaned and washed, and four pig's 
feet, in bottom of a large pot, and cover with a gallon of water ; 
boil three hours, or until flesh will slip from bones ; take out head, 
leaving the feet to be boiled- steadily while the meat is cut from the 
head ; select with care enough of the fatty portions in the top of the 
head and the cheeks to fill a tea-cup, and set aside to cool ; remove 
brains to a saucer, and also set aside ; chop the rest of the meat 
with the tongue very fine, season with salt, pepper, powdered mar- 
joram and thyme, a teaspoon of cloves, one of mace, half as much 
allspice and a grated nutmeg. When the flesh falls from the bones 
of the feet, take out bones, leaving the gelatinous meat ; boil all 
together slowly, without removing the cover, for two hours more ; 
take the soup from the fire and set it away until the next day. An 
hour before dinner set the stock over the fire, and when it boils 
strain carefully and drop in the meat reserved, which should have 
been cut, when cold, into small squares. Have these all ready as 
well as the force-meat balls, to prepare which rub the yolks of five 
hard-boiled eggs to a paste in a wedgewood mortar, or in a bowl 
with the back of a silver spoon, adding gradually the brains to 
moisten them, also a little butter and salt. Mix with these, two- 
eggs beaten very light, flour the hands and make this paste into 
balls about the size of a pigeon's egg ; throw them into the soup 
five minutes before taking it from the fire ; stir in a large table- 
spoon browned flour rubbed smooth in a little cold water, and finish 
the seasoning by the addition of a glass and a half of sherry or 
Maderia wine, and the juice of a lemon. It should not boil more 
than half an hour on the second day. Serve with sliced lemons. 

MUTTON SOUP. 
Boil a nice leg of mutton, and take the water for the soup, add 

two onions chopped fine, potato, half a cup of barley, and two large 
tomatoes ; season with pepper and salt, boil one hour, stir often (as 
>wley is apt to burn), and, before taking from the fire, add ona 



SOUPS. 

table-spoon flour wet with cold water. Mrs. E. R. Fay, New York 

City. 

NOODLE SOUP. 

Add noodles to beef or any other soup after straining ; they will 
cock in fifteen or twenty minutes, and are prepared in the follow- 
ing manner : To one egg add as much sifted flour as it will absorb, 
with a little salt ; roll out as thin as a wafer, dredge very lightly 
with flour, roll over and over into a large roll, slice from the ends, 
ishake out the strips loosely and drop into the soup. 

OKEA SOUP. 

Take a nice joint of beef filled with marrow, one gallon water, 
.one onion cut fine, two sprigs parsley, half, a peck of okra, one 
quart tomatoes; boil the meat six hours, add vegetables and boil 
two hours more. Mrs. E. L. F. 

OYSTER SOUP WITH MILK. 

Pour one quart cold water over one quart oysters if solid ; if not 
solid, use one pint of water, drain through a colander into the soup- 
kettle, and when it boils skim ; add pepper, then the oysters; season 
with butter and salt, then add one quart rich new milk brought to 
boiling point in a tin pail set in a pot of boiling water, let boil up 
and serve at once. Or, instead of adding the milk, place it, boiling 
hot, in tureen, pour the soup over it and then serve. 

PLAIN OYSTER SOUP. 

Pour a quart oysters in colander, rinse by pouring over them 
pint cold water, put this in porcelain kettle, add a pint boiling 
water, let boil, skim thoroughly, season with pepper and piece of 
butter size of large egg; then add oysters, having removed all shells 
let boil up once, season with salt and serve. Mrs. Lizzie C. Rob- 
inson. 

POT AU FEU. 

Take a good-sized beef-bone with plenty of meat on it, extract 
the marrow and place in a pot on the back of the range, covering 
the beef with three or more quarts of cold water ; cover tightly, 
and allow to simmer slowly all day long. The next day, before heat- 
ing, remove the cake of grease from the top, and add a large onion 
(previously stuck full of whole cloves, and then roasted in the 



316 SOUPS. 

oven till of a rich-brown color), adding tomatoes or any other 
vegetables which one may fancy. A leek or a section of garlic 
adds much to the flavor. Rice may be added, or vermicelli for a 
change. Just before serving, burn a little brown sugar and stir 
through it. This gives a peculiar flavor and rich color to the soup. 
Mrs. Col. Clifford Thompson, New York City. 

GREEN PEA SOUP. 

' Boil three pints shelled pease in three quarts of water ; when quite 
soft, mash through a colander, adding a little water to free the pulp 
from the skins ; return pulp to the water in which it was boiled, add 
a head of lettuce chopped, and half a pint young pease ; boil half 
an hour, season with salt and pepper, and thicken with two table- 
spoons butter rubbed into a little flour. Serve with bits of toasted 
bread. The soup, when done, should be as thick as cream. Some 
omit the lettuce. 

POTATO SOUP. 

To one gallon of water add six large potatoes chopped fine, one 
tea-cup rice, a lump of butter size of an egg, one table-spoon flour. 
Work butter and flour together, and add one tea-cup sweet cream 
just before taking from the fire. Boil one hour. Miss Lida Canby. 

Swiss SOUP. 

Five gallons water, six potatoes and three turnips sliced ; boil five- 
hours until perfectly dissolved and the consistency of pea soup, fill* 
ing up as it boils away ; add butter size of an egg, season with salt 
and pepper, and serve. A small piece salt pork, a bone or bit of 
veal or lamb, and an onion, may be added to vary this soup. 

TOMATO SOUP. 

Skim and strain one gallon of stock made from nice fresh beef; 
take three quarts tomatoes, remove skin and cut out hard center, 
put through a fine sieve, and add to the stock ; make a paste of 
butter and flour, and, when the stock begins to boil, stir in half a 
tea-cup, taking care not to have it lumpy ; boil twenty minutes, 
seasoning with salt and pepper to taste. Two quarts canned 
tomatoes will answer. Mrs. Col. Reid, Delaware. 



SOUPS. 317 

MEATLESS TOMATO SOUP. 

One quart tomatoes, one of water ; stew till soft ; add tea-spoon 
soda, allow to effervesce, and add quart of boiling milk, salt, butter, 
and pepper to taste, with a little rolled cracker ; boil a few minutes 
and serve. Mrs. D. C. Conkey, 

TURKEY-BONE SOUP. 

After a roasted turkey has been served a portion of the meat still 
adheres to the bones, especially about the neck; " drumsticks" are 
left, or parts of the wings, and pieces rarely called for at table. If 
there is three-fourths of a cupful or more left cut off carefully and 
reserve for force-meat balls. Break the bones apart and with stuffing 
still adhering to them, put into a soup-kettle with two quarts water, 
a table-spoon salt, a pod of red pepper broken into pieces, three or 
four blades of celery cut into half inch pieces, three medium-sized 
potatoes, and two onions all sliced. If the dinner hour is one o'clock 
the kettle should be over fire before eight o'clock in the morning ; or 
if the dinner is at six in the evening, it should be on by twelve 
o'clock. Let it boil slowly but constantly until about half an hour 
before dinner ; lift out bones, skim off fat, strain through colander y 
return to soup-kettle. There will now be but little more than a quart 
of the soup. If more than this is desired, add a pint of hot milk 
or milk and cream together; but it will be very nice without this ad- 
dition even though a little more water be added. Prepare the force- 
meat balls by chopping the scraps of turkey very fine ; take half a 
tea-spoon cracker-crumbs, smoothly rolled, a small salt-spoon of cay- 
enne pepper, about double the quantity of salt, a little grated lemon 
peel and half a tea-spoon powdered summer-savory or thyme ; mix 
these together and add a raw beaten egg to bind them. Roll mix- 
ture into balls about the size of a hickory-nut, and drop into the soup 
ten minutes before serving. Have ready in tureen a large table- 
spoon of parsley, cut very fine. Pour in soup, and send to table 
hot. If force-meat balls are not liked, boil two eggs for half an hour, 
cut in slices, put them in tureen with the parsley, and pour the soup 
over them ; or slices of bread (not too thick) can be toasted, but- 
tered on both sides, cut into inch squares, and substituted for the 
nced eggs. Mrs. R. N. Hazard, Kirkwood, Mo. 



318 SOUPS. 

VEGETABLE SOUP. 

After boiling a soup bone or piece of beef until done, add to the 
broth boiling water to make the amount of soup wanted, and when 
boiling again add a large handful of cabbage cut fine as for slaw, 
a half pint of tomatoes, canned or fresh ; peel and slice and add 
three large or four small onions, and two or three potatoes (some 
use a half tea-cup of dried or half pint of green corn ; if dried corn 
is used, it should be soaked). Let boil from half to three-quarters 
of an hour ; if you like a little thickening, stir an egg or yolk with 
a large spoonful of rnilk and a tea-spoon of flour, put hi five or ten 
minutes before taking off; this makes it very rich. Serve with 
crackers. Mrs. H. C. Vosbury. 

VEGETABLE SOUP. 

Three onions, three carrots, three turnips, one small cabbage, one 
pint tomatoes; chop all the vegetables except the tomatoes very 
fine, have ready in a porcelain kettle three quarts boiling water, 
put in all except cabbage and tomatoes and simmer for half an hour, 
then add the chopped cabbage and tomatoes (the tomatoes pre- 
viously stewed), also a bunch of sweet herbs. Let soup boil for 
twenty minutes, strain through sieve, rubbing all the vegetables 
through. Take two table-spoons of best butter and one of flour 
and beat to a cream. Now pepper and salt soup to taste, and 
add a tea-spoon of white sugar, a half cup of sweet cream if you 
have it, and last stir in the butter and flour ; let it boil up and it 
is ready for the table. Serve with fried bread-chips, or poached 
eggs one in each dish. Mrs. H. H. Herbert, Benson, 

VEAL SOUP. 

To about three pounds of a well-broken joint of veal, add four 
quarts water, and set it over to boil ; prepare one-fourth pound 
macaroni by boiling it in a dish by itself with enough water to cover 
it ; add a little butter when the macaroni is tender, strain the soup 
and season to taste with salt and pepper, then add the macaroni 
with the water in which it was boiled ; onions or celery may be 
added for flavoring. Mrs. E. M. Nixon, New Castle, 



SOUPS. 319 

BREAD-DICE FOR SOUPS. 

Take slices of stale bread, cut in small squares, throw in hot lard 
and fry till brown, skim out, drain, and put in the soup-tureen 
before serving the soup. Crackers crisped in the oven are nice to 
serve with oyster soup. Mrs. V. G. H. 

CARAMEL FOR SOUPS. 

For caramel, put one tea-cup sugar and two tea-spoons water in 
a sauce-pan over the fire, stir constantly till it is a dark color, then 
add a half tea-cup water and a pinch of salt, let boil for a few 
moments, take off, and when cold bottle. 

To brown flour, put one pint in a sauce-pan on the stove, and 
when it begins to color, stir constantly till it is a dark brown, being 
careful that it does not burn. When cold put away in a tin can 
or jar covered closely, and keep in a dry place where it is always 
ready for soups or gravies. As it requires more of this for thick- 
ening than of unbrowned flour, it may be well sometimes to take 
half of each. 

A few cloves may be stuck in the meat for soup ; or it may first 
be fried in a sauce-pan with a little butter, turning till brown on 
sides ; or sliced onions may be fried brown and added to soup. 



TURTLE SOUP. 

Boil a turtle very tender in five quarts of water, remove bones, 
cut meat into small pieces ; season with a table-spoon each of mar- 
joram, sweet basil, thyme and parsley, salt and pepper to taste, 
one nutmeg beaten fine, a dozen cloves, same of allspice. Tie these 
in muslin, remove before sending soup to table. Stir a large table- 
spoon of browned flour into a quarter pound of fresh butter, add to- 
soup. Should be three quarts of soup. Fifteen minutes before 
serving add the green fat, then add half a pint of wine, a sliced 
lemon, seeds removed, also force-meat balls ; simmer five minutes, 
take out lemon-peel, and serve. This is for a small turtle. Add 
a slice of good ham if turtle is not fat. 



VEGETABLES. 



All vegetables are better cooked in soft water, provided it ia 
clean and pure ; if hard water is used, put in a small pinch of soda. 
The water should be freshly drawn, and should only be put over 
fire in time to reach the boiling point before the hour for putting 
in vegetables, as standing and long boiling frees the gases and ren- 
ders the water insipid. The fresher all vegetables are, the more 
wholesome. After being washed thoroughly, they should be dropped 
in cold water half an hour before using. Peel old potatoes and let 
them stand in cold water over night, or for several hours, putting 
them in immediately after being peeled, as exposure to the air 
darkens them. Before putting on to boil, take out and wipe each 
dry with a towel. New potatoes are best baked. Full-grown, fair, 
ripe potatoes may be either boiled or baked. Medium-sized and 
smooth potatoes are best ; the kind varies with the season. Green 
corn and pease should be prepared and cooked at once. Put all 
vegetables into plenty of salted water, boiling hot (excepting egg 
plant and old potatoes, which some put on in salted cold water), and 
boil rapidly, without cover, skimming carefully until thoroughly 
done, draining well those that require it. Onions should be soaked 
in warm salt water, to remove the rank flavor for one hour before 
cooking. Never split onions, turnips and carrots, but slice them in 
rings cut across the fiber, as they thus cook tender much quicker. 
If the home garden furnishes the supply of pease, spinach, green 
beans, asparagus, etc., pick them in the morning early, when the 
dew is on, and let stand in cold water till ready for use. Some put 
salt in the water, but in that case only let them remain ten or fif* 

(320) 



VEGETABLES. 321 

teen minutes, unless doubts are entertained as to their freshness (if 
from the market), in which case they can remain longer, afterward 
draining them in a colander. Do not allow vegetables to remain 
in the water after they are done, but drain them in a colander and 
dress as directed in the various recipes. In preparing greens, let- 
tuce, etc., first wash them leaf by leaf in warm water, rather more 
than tepid, having a dish of cold water to place them in imme- 
diately. The warm water more certainly cleans the leaf and does 
not destroy the crispness if they are placed at once in cold water. 
But whether washed in warm or cold water, take them leaf by leaf, 
breaking the heads off, not cutting them. Horse-radish tops are 
considered choice for greens. Pease should not be shelled until just 
before the time of cooking. 

The proportion of salt in cooking vegetables is a heaping table- 
spoon of salt to every gallon of water. When water boils, put in 
your vegetables, and press them down with a wooden spoon. Take 
out when tender, as vegetables are spoilt by being either under or 
overdone. 

Always add both salt and a little soda to the water in which 
greens are cooked, as soda preserves color; for the same purpose 
French cookery books recommend a small pinch of carbonate of 
ammonia. A little sugar added to turnips, beets, pease, corn, 
squash and pumpkin is an improvement, especially when the vege- 
tables are poor in quality. Sweet potatoes require a longer time to 
cook than the common variety. In gathering asparagus, never cut 
it off, but snap or break it ; in this way you do not get the white, 
woody part, which no boiling can make tender. Do the same with 
rhubarb, except being careful that it does not split, and take it very 
close to the ground. Put rice on to cook in boiling salted water, 
having first soaked for about an hour and dried off the surplus 
moisture on a large towel; or steam, or cook in custard-kettle. 

A piece of red pepper the size of finger-nail, dropped into meat 
or vegetables when first beginning to cook, will aid greatly in killing 
the unpleasant odor. Remember this for boiled cabbage, green 
beans, onions, mutton and chicken. All vegetables should be thor- 
oughly cooked, and require a longer time late in their season. 
Potatoes, when old, are improved by removing the skin before 
21 



322 VEGETABLES. 

baking, and either Irish or sweet potatoes, if frozen, must be put 
in to bake without thawing. Cabbage, potatoes, carrots, turnips, 
parsnips, onions and beets are injured by being boiled with fresh 
meat, and they also injure the flavor of the meat. When vege- 
tables are to be served with salt meat, the meat should be cooked 
first and then removed, and the vegetables cooked in the liquor. 

Small-sized white turnips contain more nutrition than large ones, 
but in ruta-bagas the largest are best. Potatoes vary greatly in 
quality ; varieties which are excellent early in the season lose their 
good qualities, and others, which are worthless in the fall, are 
excellent late in the spring. Those raised on gravelly or sandy soil, 
not over rich, are best. 

Old potatoes, may be greatly improved by being soaked in cold 
water several hours after peeling, or all night, being particular to 
change the water once or twice. Peel very thinly, as the best part 
of the potato is nearest the skin. Cut large potatoes, if to be steamed, 
or boiled, in four, and small ones in two pieces, and remove the core 
if defective. If to be boiled (steaming is much preferable) put 
them on in clear fresh boiling water. Keep closely covered and at 
a steady boil for at least twenty minutes, five or ten minutes more 
may be requisite, according to the quality of the potato. Watch 
carefully, and the very instant they present a mealy and broken 
surface remove them from the stove, raise the cover just enough to 
admit the draining off of the water. This may be accomplished 
successfully and quickly, after a little practice, and is far better 
than turning them into a colander, thus suddenly chilling them and 
arresting the further development of the starch, which, after all, is 
the main point to be accomplished. Drain the water off thoroughly 
and quickly, sprinkle in sufficient salt for seasoning, cover the vesel 
closely, give it a shake and set back on the stove, being careful not 
to have it too hot. In a minute or so give it another shake to stir 
up the potatoes, throw in a little hot cream or rich milk with a 
lump of butter and a sprinkle of pepper, cover immediately and 
leave on the stove for another minute. This last process adds 
greatly to the good cooking of potatoes. They are ready now to 
be dished whole or mashed. Some skill is required to mash them 
properly, simple as the operation may appear. The old fashioned 



VEGETABLES. 323 

wooden masher possesses advantages over the new perforated iron 
plate with handle so nearly representing the old time churn dasher. 
Mashed potatoes should be dipped out lightly into a hot covered 
dish and literally coaxed into a delicate mealy heap, instead of being 
stirred and patted and packed and cheesed into a shapely mass. 

If potatoes are very watery and they must be used for food, a 
small lump of lime added to the water while boiling will improve 
them. More so than any other vegetable does this one differ in 
quality, according to variety and manner of culture. However the 
main crop may be raised, every farmer's wife should secure for late 
Spring use a supply of a choice variety cultivated entirely in rotten 
wood soil, or in soil where wood ashes and gypsum are used as fer- 
tilizers. 

The great point in cooking potatoes is, to take them up as soon 
as they are done. Of course it is important to begin to cook them 
at the proper time. When boiled, baked, fried or steamed, they 
are rendered watery by continuing to cook them after they reach the 
proper point. For this reason, potatoes, to bake or boil, should 
be selected so as to have them nearly the same size. Begin with 
the largest first, and continue to select the largest till all are gone, 
Be careful that the water does not stop boiling, as thus the pota- 
toes will be watery. Never boil them very hard, as it breaks them. 
Medium-sized potatoes, when young, will cook in from twenty to 
thirty minutes; when old, it requires double the time. When 
peeled, they boil fifteen minutes quicker. In baking old potatoes 
with meat, now, it is better also to halve them. Leave them in 
the water until the meat is within half an hour of being done. See 
that the pan contains plenty of drippings, and with proper heat 
the potatoes will be brown and crisp without and white and mealy 
within. They may be fried in the meat gravy, or warmed up in 
butter for breakfast. The secret of having potatoes mealy and 
palatable is to cook them rapidly. Steam until the skin cracks, 
and a fork easily penetrates the center. If not to be served at 
once, continue steaming, as they become solid sooner than when 
boiled. 

New potatoes should always be boiled in two waters, and old 
ones are better for it. Put on two kettles of water, set potatoes 



324 VEGETABLES. 

in one, when hot, in a wire basket, and when about half done 
transfer to the other. 



ASPARAGUS. 

"Wash clean ; cat off the white part except a mere end, put 
into slightly salted boiling water, boil five minutes, pour off water, 
2c!d more boiling hot; boil ten to fifteen minutes, then put in a 
virnp of butter, salt and pepper (some stir in a thickening made 
of one tea spoon Sour mixed up with cold water); cut and toast 
tvvo or three thin slices of bread, spread with butter and put in a 
dish, and over them turn asparagus and gravy. The water must 
be boiled down until just enough for the gravy, which is made as 
ubove. Or, cut the asparagus, when boiled, into little bits,, 
leaving out white end, make gravy as above, put the cut aspar- 
agus into a hot dish and turn the gravy over it and serve. 

A simple manner of boiling asparagus is to tie in a bundle, 01 
first wrap in cotton cloth and then tie, and set upright in a sauce- 
pan containing boiling water enough to reach nearly to the tender 
tips ; boil rapidly till tender ; lay a napkin on a hot platter, take 
out asparagus, drain for a moment, place on napkin, unwrap, and 
fold over the asparagus the corners of the napkin, and serve in this 
form, with white sauce in a gravy-boat. 

Or, boiled asparagus may be made cold in ice-box, and served 
with a sauce made of vinegar, pepper, and salt. 

AMBUSHED ASPARAGUS. 

Cut off the tender tops of fifty heads of asparagus ; boil and 
drain them. Have ready as many stale biscuits or rolls as there 
are persons to be served, from which you have cut a neat top slioe 
sad scooped out the inside. Set them in the oven to crisp, laying 
I lie tops beside them, that all may dry together. Meanwhile pul 
ITS to a sauce-pan a sugarless custard made as follows: A pint or less 
of milk, and four well-whipped eggs; boil the milk first, then beat 
in the eggs; set over the fire and stir till it thickens, when add a 
table-spoon of butter, and season with salt and pepper. Into this 
custard put the asparagus, minced fine. Do not let it boil, but 
remove from the fire as soon as the asparagus is fairly in. Fill the 



VEGETABLES. 325 

/oils with the mixture, put on the tops, fitting them carefully ; set 
in the oven three minutes, after which arrange on a dish. To be 
eaten hot. 

EGGS AND ASPARAGUS. 

Cut tender asparagus into pieces half an inch long, and boil 
twenty minutes, then drain till dry, and put into a sauce-pan con- 
taining a cup of rich drawn butter ; heat together to a boil, season 
with pepper and salt, and pour into a buttered dish. Break half a 
dozen ?o-gs over the surface, put a bit of butter upon each, sprinkle 
with salt and pepper, and put in the oven until the eggs are set. 

FRIED ASPARAGUS. 

Blanch the asparagus a couple of minutes, and then drain it; dip 
each piece in batter and fry it in hot fat. When done, sprinkle 
with salt and serve hot. This is nice and easy to prepare. 

BOILED DEN T NER. 

Put meat on, after washing well, in enough boiling water to just 
cover the meat; as soon, as it boils, set kettle on the stove where it 
will simmer or boil very slowly ; boil until almost tender, put in 
vegetables in the following order : Cabbage cut in quarters, turnips 
of medium size cut in halves, and potatoes whole, or if large cut in 
two ; peel potatoes and turnips, and allow to lie in cold water for 
half an hour before using. The meat should be well skimmed 
before adding vegetables ; boil together until thoroughly done 
(adding a little salt before taking out of kettle), when there should 
be left only just enough water to prevent burning ; take up vege- 
tables in separate dishes, and lastly the meat ; if there is any juice 
in kettle, pour it over cabbage. Boil cabbage an hour, white tur- 
nips and potatoes half an hour, ruta-bagas an hour and a half to 
two hours. A soup plate or saucer turned upside down, or a few 
iron table-spoons are useful to place in bottom of kettle to keep 
meat from burning. Parsnips may be substituted in place of cab- 
bage and turnips, cooking them three-quarters of an hour. 

BEETS. 

Remove leaves, wash clean, being careful not to break off the 
little fibers and rootlets, as the juices would thereby escape and they 
would lose "their color ; boil in plenty of water, if young, two hours, 



326 VEGETABLES. 

if old, four or five hours, trying with a fork to see when tender; 
take out, drop in a pan of cold water, and slip off the skin with the 
hands; slice those needed for immediate use, place in a dish, add 
salt, pepper, butter, and if not very sweet a tea-spoon sugar, set 
over boiling water to heat thoroughly, and serve hot with or with- 
out vinegar; put those which remain into a stone jar whole, cover 
with vinegar, keep in a cool place, take out as wanted, slice and 
serve. A few pieces of horse-radish put into the jar will prevent 
a white scum on the vinegar. Or, roast in hot ashes, or bake in 
oven, (turning often in the pan with a knife, as a fork causes the 
juice to flow), and when tender, peel, slice, and dress with salt, 
pepper, butter and vinegar. Or, after beets are boiled and skinned, 
mash together with boiled potatoes, and season to the taste with 
salt ; add a large lump of butter (do not use any milk) ; place in 
a dish, make a hole in center in which put m a generous lump 
of butter; sprinkle with pepper and serve at once. This is a New 
England dish, and very delicious for harvest time, when beets are 
young and sweet. 

BEET GREENS. 

Wash young beets very clean, cut off tips of leaves, looking over 
carefully to see that no bugs or worms remain, but do not separate 
roots from leaves ; fill dinner-pot half full of salted boiling water, 
add beets, boil from half to three-quarters of an hour ; take out 
and drain in colander, pressing down with a large spoon, so as to 
get out all the water. Dish and dress with butter, pepper, and salt 
if needed. Serve hot with vinegar. 

BUTTER BEANS. 

With a knife cut off the ends of pods and strings from both sides, 
being very careful to remove every shred ; cut every bean length^ 
wise, in two or three strips, and leave them for half an hour in 
cold water. Much more than cover them with boiling water; boil 
till perfectly tender. It is well to allow three hours for boiling. 
Drain well, return to kettle, and add a dressing of half a gill cream, 
one and a half ounces butter, one even tea-spoon salt, and half a 
tea-spoon pepper. This is sufficient for a quart of cooked beans. 



VEGETABLES. 327 

DRY LIMA BEANS. 

"Wash one quart of dry lima beans in two warm waters, soak 
three hours, drain, and put on to cook in enough boiling water to 
cover them; cover pot with tin lid, adding more hot water as it 
boils away, boiling rapidly for one and a half hours, when there 
should be only water enough to come up to top of the beans just 
sufficient to make a nice dressing. Five minutes before taking up, 
season with salt and pepper, and stir in a dressing made of one table- 
spoon each of flour and butter, rubbed together until smooth. This 

is a delicious dish. 

STRING BEANS. 

String, snap and wash two quarts beans, boil in plenty of water 
about fifteen minutes, drain off and put on again in about two 
quarts boiling water ; boil an hour and a half, and add salt and 
pepper just before taking up, stirring in one and a half table-spoons 
butter rubbed into two table-spoons flour and half pint sweet cream. 
Or, boil a piece of salted pork one hour, then add beans and boil 
an hour and a half. For shelled beans boil half an hour in water 
enough to cover, and dress as above. 

STEWED CARROTS. 

Take any quantity desired, divide the carrots lengthwise, and boil 
until perfectly tender, which will require from one to two hours. 
When done, have ready a sauce-pan with one or two table-spoons 
butter, and small cup cream ; slice the carrots very thin, and put in 
the sauce-pan ; add salt and pepper, and let stew ten or fifteec 
minutes, stirring gently once or twice, and serve in a vegetable 
dish. Some add more milk or cream ; when done, skim out car- 
rots, and to the cream add a little flour thickening, or the beaten 
yolks of one or two eggs. When it boils, pour over the carrots and 
serve. Carrots may also be boiled with meat like turnips or pars- 
nips, but they take longer to cook than either. Mrs. C. T. C. 

BOILED CORN. 

Put the well-cleaned ears in salted boiling water, boil an hour, OP 
boil in the husk for the same time, remove husks and serve imme- 
diately. Corn thoroughly cooked is a wholesome dish. 



328 VEGETABLES. 

STEWED CORN. 

Cut with a sharp knife through the center of every row of 
grains, and cut off the outer edge ; then with the back of the blade 
push out the yellow eye, with the rich, creamy center of the grain, 
leaving the hull on the cob. To one quart of this add half a pint 
rich milk, and stew until cooked in a covered tin pail, in a kettle 
one-third full of boiling water; then add salt, white pepper, and two 
or three ounces butter ; allow two hours for cooking ; it seems a long 
time, but there is no danger of burning, and it requires no more at- 
tention than to stir it occasionally and to keep good the supply of 
water. If drier than liked, add more milk or cream. Or, after 
cutting corn from the cob, boil the cobs ten or fifteen minutes and 
take out and put corn in same water ; when tender, add a dressing 
of milk, butter, pepper and salt, and just before serving, stir in 
beaten eggs, allowing three eggs to a dozen ears of corn. 

BENA'S STEWED CORN. 

Shave corn off the ear, being careful not to cut into the cob; to 
three pints corn add three table-spoons butter, pepper and salt, and 
just enough water to cover; place in a skillet, cover and cook 
rather slowly with not too hot a fire, from half to three-quarters 
of an hour, stir with a spoon often, and if necessary add more 
water, for the corn must not brown; if desired, a few moments 
before it is done, add half cup sweet cream thickened with tea- 
spoon flour ; boil well and serve with roast beef, escaloped toma- 
toes and mashed potatoes. Some stew tomatoes, and just before 
serving mix them with the corn. 

DRIED CORN. 

For a family of eight, wash a pint of corn through one water, 
and put to soak over night in clean cold water (if impossible to 
soak so long, place over a kettle of hot water for two or three 
hours) ; when softened, cook five to ten minutes in water in which 
it was soaked, adding as soon as boiling, two table-spoons butter, 
one of flour, and a little salt and pepper. Another good way to 
finish is the following: Take the yolk of one egg, one table-spoon 
milk, pinch of salt, thicken with flour quite stiff so as to take out 
with a tea-spoon, and drop in little dumplings not larger than an 



VEGETABLES. 329 

acorn ; cover tightly and cook five or ten minutes; have enough 
water in kettle before adding dumplings, as cover should not be re- 
moved until dumplings are done. 

HOMINY. 

Soak one quart of ground hominy over night, put over the fire 
in a tin pail, set in boiling water \viih water enough to cover, boil 
gently for five hours, as it can not be hurried. After the grains 
begin to soften on no account stir it. The water put in at first 
ought to be enough to finish it, but if it proves too little, add more 
carefully, as too much makes it sloppy. Salt just before taking 
from the stove, as too early salting makes it dark. If properly 
done, the grains will stand out snowy and well done, but round and 

separate. 

PRESERVED CORN. 

Scald corn just enough to set the milk, cut from cob, to every 
four pints of corn add one pint salt, mix thoroughly, pack in jars, 
with a cloth and weight over corn ; w 7 hen wanted for use put in a 
stew-pan or kettle, cover with cold water; as soon as it comes to a 
boil pour off and put on cold again, and repeat until it is fresh 
enough for taste, then add a very little sugar, sweet cream, or but- 
ter, etc., to suit taste. Mrs. S. M. Guy. 

GREEN CORN PUDDING. 

Draw a sharp knife through each row of corn lengthwise, theft 
scrape out the pulp ; to one pint of the corn add one quart of milk, 
three eggs, a little suet, sugar to taste, and a few lumps of butter ; 
stir it occasionally until thick, and bake about two hours, 

BOILED CAULIFLOWER. 

To each half gallon water allow heaped table-spoon salt ; choose 
close and white cauliflower, trim off decayed outside leaves, and cut 
stock off flat at bottom ; open flower a little in places to remove 
insects which generally are found about the stalk, and let cauli- 
flowers lie with heads downward in salt and water for two hours 
previous to dressing them, which will effectually draw out all ver- 
min. Then put into boiling water, adding salt in above propor- 
tion, and boil briskly for fifteen or twenty minutes over a good fire, 
keeping the sauce-pan uncovered. The water should be well 



330 VEGETABLES. 

skimmed. When cauliflowers are tender, take up, drain, and if 
large enough, place upright in dish ; serve with plain melted butter, 
a little of which may be poured over the flowers, or a white sauce 
may be used made as follows : 

Put butter size of an egg into the sauce-pan, and when it bubbles 
stir in a scant half tea-cup of flour ; stir well with an egg-whisk 
until cooked ; then add two tea-cups of thin cream, some pepper 
and salt. Stir it over the fire until perfectly smooth. Pour the 
sauce over the cauliflower and serve. Many let the cauliflower 
simmer in the sauce a few moments before serving. Cauliflower is 
delicious served as a garnish around spring chicken, or with fried 
sweet-breads, when the white sauce should be poured over both. 
In this case it should be made by adding the cream, flour, and sea- 
eoning to the little grease (half a tea-spoon) that is left after fry- 
ing the chickens or sweet-breads. Mrs. W. P. Anderson. 

ESCALOPED CAULIFLOWER. 

Boil till very tender, drain well and cut in small pieces; 
put it in layers with fine chopped egg and this dressing : half 
pint of milk thickened over boiling water, with two table-spoona 
of flour and seasoned with two tea-spoons of salt; one of white 
pepper and two ounces of butter; put grated bread over the 
top, dot it with small bits of butter, and place it in the oven to 
heat thoroughly and brown. Serve in same dish in which it was 
baked. This is a good way to use common heads. A nicer way is 
to boil them, then place them whole in a buttered dish with stems 
down. Make a sauce with a cup of bread-crumbs beaten to froth 
with two table-spoons of melted butter and three of cream or milk, 
one well-beaten egg and salt and pepper to taste. Pour this over 
the cauliflower, cover the dish tightly and bake six minutes in a 
quick oven, browning them nicely. Serve as above. 

HEIDELBERG CABBAGE. 

Select two small, solid heads of hard red cabbage ; divide them 
in halves from crown to stem ; lay the split side down, and cut 
downwards in thin slices. The cabbage will then be in narrow strips 
or shreds. Put into a sauce-pan a table-spoon of clean drippings, 
butter or any nice fat ; when fat is hot, put in cabbage a tea-spoon 
of salt, three table-spoons vinegar (if the latter is very strong, use 



VEGETABLES. 331 

but two), and one onion, in which three or four cloves have been 
stuck, buried in the middle ; boil two hours and a half; if it 
becomes too dry and is in danger of scorching, add a very little 
Water. This is very nice, Mrs. L. S. Williston, Heidelberg, Germany. 

CREAMED CABBAGE. 

Slice as for cold slaw and stew in a covered sauce-pan till ten- 
der ; drain it, return to sauce-pan, add a gill or more of rich cream, 
one ounce of butter, pepper and salt to taste ; let simmer two or 
three minutes, then serve. Milk may be used by adding a little 
more butter ; or have a deep spider hot, put in sliced cabbage, pour 
quickly over it a pint of boiling water, cover close and cook for ten 
minutes, then pour off water and add half pint of rich milk. When 
the milk boils, stir in a tea-spoon of flour moistened with a little 
milk, season, cook a moment, serve. 

DELICATE CABBAGE. 
Remove all defective leaves, quarter and cut as for coarse 

slaw, cover well with cold water, and let remain several hours 
before cooking, then drain and put into pot with enough boiling 
water to cover ; boil until thoroughly cooked (which will generally 
require about forty-five minutes), add salt ten or fifteen minutes 
before removing from fire, and when done, take up into a colander* 
press out the water well, and season with butter and pepper. This 
is a good dish to serve with corned meats, but should not be cooked 
with them ; if preferred, however, it may be seasoned by adding 
some of the liquor and fat from the boiling meat to the cabbage 
while cooking. Or, cut the cabbage in two, remove the hard stock, 
let stand in cold water two hours, tie in thin netting or piece of 
muslin, and boil in salted water for a longer time than when it is 
cut finely. Drain, remove, and serve in a dish with drawn butter 
or a cream dressing poured over it. Mrs. E. T. Carson. 

FRIED CABBAGE. 
Cut the cabbage very fine, on a slaw cutter, if possible ; salt and 

pepper, stir well, and let stand five minutes. Have an iron kettle 
smoking hot, drop one table-spoon lard into it, then the cabbage, 
stirring briskly until quite tender; send to table immediately. 
One half cup sweet cream, and three table-spoons vinegar the 
vinegar added after the cream has been well stirred, and after takea 



332 VEGETABLES. 

from the stove, is an agreeable change. When properly done an 
invalid can eat it without injury, and there is no offensive odor 
from cooking. Mrs. J. T. Liggett, Detroit, Mich. 

SOUTHERN CABBAGE. 

Chop or slice one medium-sized cabbage fine, put it in a stew* 
pan with boiling water to well cover it, and boil fifteen minutes; 
drain off all water, and add a dressing made as follows : Half tea- 
cup wine-vinegar, two-thirds as much sugar, salt, pepper, half tea- 
spoon mustard, and two tea-spoons salad oil; when this is boiling 
hot, add one tea-cup cream, and one egg stirred together ; mix 
thoroughly and immediately with the cabbage, and cook a moment. 
Serve hot. Mrs. P. T. Morey, Charleston, S. C. 

STUFFED CABBAGE. 

Take a large, fresh cabbage and cut out heart ; fill vacancy with 
stuffing made of cooked chicken or veal, chopped very fine and 
highly seasoned and rolled into balls with yolk of egg. Then tie 
cabbage firmly together (some tie a cloth around it), and boil in a 
covered kettle two hours. This is a delicious dish and is useful in 
using up cold meats. Mrs. W. A. Oroffwt, New York City. 

DANDELIONS. 

They are fit for use until they blossom. Cut off the leaves, pick 
over carefully, wash in several waters, put into boiling water, boil 
one hour, drain well, add salted boiling water, and boil two hours ; 
when done, turn into a colander and drain, season with butter, and 
more salt if needed, and cut with a knife ; or boil with a piece of 
salt pork, omitting the butter in the dressing. 

EGG PLANT. 

Peel and cut in slices the purple kind, sprinkle with salt and 
pepper, and let drain on a tipped plate for three-quarters of an 
hour ; make a light batter with one egg, flour and a little water, 
dip the slices into it and fry in butter or lard. Eggs and cracker 
may be used instead of the batter. Or, peel the egg-plant, boil till 
done, then pour off the water, mash fine, and pepper, butter and 
salt to taste, put in a shallow pudding-pan, and over the top place 
a thick layer of crushed cracker. Bake half an hour in a moder- 
ate oven. 



VEGETABLES. 333 

/ 
EGG PLANT. 

Peel and slice one or two medium-sized egg-plants, put on in cold 
Water, boil till tender, drain, mash fine, season with salt and pepper, 
and add a beaten egg and a table-spoon of flour ; fry in little cakes 
in butter or butter and lard in equal parts ; or cut in slices, lay in 
cold well-salted water for an hour or two, roll in egg and cracker 
crumbs, and fry with a little butter. Parsnips and salsify or oyster- 
plant may be cooked in the same way, but the oyster-plant is made 
in smaller cakes to imitate oysters. 

WILTED LETTUCE. 

Place in a vegetable dish lettuce that has been very carefully 
picked and washed each leaf by itself, to remove all insects. Cut 
across the dish four or five times, and sprinkle with salt. Fry a 
small piece of fat ham until brown, cut it in small pieces; when 
very hot add cup of good vinegar, and pour it boiling hot over the 
lettuce; mix it well with a fork, and garnish with slices of hard- 
boiled eggs. Be certain to have the fat so hot that when vinegar is 
poured in, it will boil immediately. Add half a cup or a cup of 
vinegar according to strength of vinegar and quantity of lettuce. 

BAKED MACARONI. 

Take about three ounces macaroni and boil till tender in a stew- 
pan with a little water ; take a pudding dish or pan, warm a little 
butter in it, and put in a layer of macaroni, then a layer of cheese 
grated or cut in small bits, and sprinkle over with salt, pepper 
and small pieces of butter, then add another layer of macaroni, 
and so on, finishing off with cheese; pour on rich milk or cream 
enough to just come to the top of the ingredients, and bake from 
one-half to three quarters of an hour. Rice may be used instead 
of macaroni by first cooking as follows : Pick and wash a cup of rice, 
put in a stew-kettle with three cups boiling water, and set over the 
fire the boiling water makes the kernels retain their shape better 
than when cold water is used. When done put a layer of rice, 
cheese, etc., alternately as you would macaroni, and bake in the 

same way. 

BOILED MACARONI. 

Pour one pint boiling water over five ounces macaroni, let stand 
half an hour, drain and put in a custard-kettle with boiling milk or 



334 VEGETABLES. 

milk and water to cover, cook till tender, drain, add a table-spoon 
butter, and a tea-cup cream, and season with salt and pepper ; grate 
cheese over the top and serve. Mrs. S. R. T. 

MACARONI WITH TOMATOES. 

Take three pints of beef soup, clear, and put one pound of maca- 
roni in it, boil fifteen minutes, with a little salt ; then take up the 
macaroni which should have absorbed nearly all the liquid and 
put it on a flat plate, and sprinkle grated cheese over it thickly, 
and pour over all plentifully a sauce made of tomatoes, well boiled, 
strained, and seasoned with salt and pepper. 

ITALIAN MACARONI. 

Place two pounds of beef, well larded with strips of salt pork, 
and one or two chopped onions, in a covered kettle on the back of 
the stove, until it throws out its juice and is a rich brown ; add a 
quart of tomatoes seasoned with pepper and salt, and allow the 
mixture to simmer for two or three hours. Take the quantity of 
macaroni desired and boil in water for twenty minutes, after which 
put one layer of the boiled macaroni in the bottom of a pudding 
dish, cover with some of the above mixture, then a layer of grated 
cheese, and so on in layers till the dish is filled, having a layer of 
cheese on the top ; place in the oven an hour, or until it is a rich 
brown. Commence early in the morning to prepare this dish. 

BOILED OKRA. 

Put the young and tender pods of long, white okra in salted boil* 
ing water in a porcelain or tin-lined sauce-pan (as iron discolors it), 
boil fifteen minutes, take off stems, and serve with butter, pepper, 
salt, and vinegar if preferred ; or, after boiling, slice in rings, sea- 
son with butter, dip in batter and fry ; season and serve, or stew an 
equal quantity of tomatoes, and tender sliced okra, and one or two 
sliced green peppers; stew in porcelain kettle fifteen or twenty 
minutes, season with butter, pepper and salt, and serve. Miss M. 
E. W.j Sdma, Ala. 

BAKED ONIONS. 

The large Spanish or Bermuda onions are best for this purpose. 
Wash the outside clean, put into a sauce-pan with slightly salted 



VEGETABLES. 335 

water, and boil an hour, replenishing the water with more (boiling 
hot) as it boils away. Then turn off water ; take out onions and 
lay upon a cloth that all moisture may be absorbed ; roll each in a 
piece of buttered tissue-paper, twisting it at the top to keep it 
closed, and bake in a slow oven nearly an hour, or until tender all 
through. Peel, put in a deep dish, and brown slightly, basting 
freely with butter ; this will take fifteen minutes more. Season with 
pepper and salt, and pour melted butter over the top. 

BOILED OR FRIED ONIONS. 

Wash and peel, boil ten minutes, pour off this water, again add 
boiling water, boil a few minutes and drain a second time ; pour on 
boiling water, add salt and boil for one hour ; place in a colander, turn 
a saucer over them, and press firmly to drive off all the water; place 
in a dish and add butter and pepper. Or, about half an hour before 
they are done, turn a pint of milk into the water in which they are 
boiling, and, when tender, season as above. Old onions require two 
hours to boil. To fry onions, slice and boil ten minutes each time 
in three waters, drain, fry in butter or beef drippings, stir often, 
season, and serve hot. 

POTATOES BOILED OR BAKED IN JACKETS. 
Wash clean (a brush is the best implement for cleaning potatoes), 
cut off the ends, let stand in cold water a few hours, put into boil- 
ing water, the larger ones first, and then in a short time adding the 
rest, cover, and keep boiling constantly ; after fifteen minutes throw 
in another handful of salt and boil another fifteen minutes; try with 
a fork, and if it does not quite run through the potato, they are 
done (this is called "leaving a bone in them"). Drain, take to 
door or window and shake in open air to make them mealy; re- 
turn to stove and allow to stand uncovered for a moment. Or, 
when washed, bake in a moderate oven fifty minutes; or, place in 
a steamer half an hour over water kept constantly boiling, serve 
immediately; or, wash and peel medium-sized ones, and bake in 
pan with roast meat, basting often with the drippings. 

BREAKFAST POTATOES. 
Peel, cut in very thin slices into a very little boiling water, 



336 VEGETABLES. 

so little that it will be evaporated when they are cooked, add salt 
to taste, some cream, or a very little milk and a bit of butter. A 
little practice will make this a favorite dish in any family. The 
art is, to cook the potatoes with a very little water, so that it will 
be evaporated at the time the potatoes are done. They must be 
stirred occasionally while cooking. 

POTATOES AND ONIONS. 

Boil potatoes in skins, peel while hot and slice ; about an hour 
before wanted, slice onions, and let stand in salt and water; while 
peeling potatoes, put onions in skillet with a little ham gravy or 
butter and a little water, and cook slightly ; take out, put in vege- 
table dish a layer of onions, then potatoes, then onions, etc., with 
potatoes last ; add a cup of vinegar to skillet (with ham gravy or 
butter), warm and pour over. 

FRIED RAW POTATOES. 

Wash, peel, and slice in cold water, drain in a colander, and drop 
in a skillet prepared with two table-spoons melted butter or beef- 
drippings, or one-half of each ; keep closely covered for ten minutes, 
only removing to stir with a knife from the bottom to prevent 
burning ; cook another ten minutes, stirring frequently until done 
and lightly browned. Sweet potatoes are nice prepared in the same 
manner. Mrs. M. E. Southard. 

FRIED WHOLE POTATOES. 

Peel and boil in salted water, remove from the fire as soon as 
done so that they may remain whole ; have ready one beaten egg, 
and some rolled crackers or bread-crumbs ; first roll the potatoes in 
the egg, and then in the crackers, and fry in butter till a light 
brown, or drop in boiling lard. This is a nice way to cook old 

potatoes. 

MASHED POTATOES. 

Pare and boil till done, drain, and mash in the kettle until per- 
fectly smooth ; add milk or cream, and butter and salt ; beat like 
cake with a large spoon, and the more they are beaten the nicer 
they become. Put in a dish, smooth, place a lump of butter in the 
center, sprinkle with pepper ; or add one or two eggs well-beaten, 
pepper, mix thoroughly, put in baking dish, dip a knife in sweet 



VEGETABLES. 337 

/ 

milk, smooth over, wetting every part with milk, and place in a hot 
oven twenty minutes. To warm over mashed potatoes, season with 
gait and butter, and a little cream or milk, place in a buttered pie- 
pan, smoothing and shaping the top handsomely, and making checks 
with a knife ; brown in a stove or range oven ; place tin on a second 
dish and serve on it. Or, add a little cream or milk to cold mashed 
potatoes, press evenly in a basin, set away, and in the morning slice 
and fry. 

NEW POTATOES. 

Wash, scrape, boil ten minutes, turn off water, and add enough 
more, boiling hot, to cover, also add a little salt; cook a few 
moments, drain, and set again on stove, add butter, salt, and pepper 
and a little thickening made of two table-spoons flour in about a 
pint of milk (a few small ones may be left in the kettle, and 
broken, not mashed with the potato-masher), put on the cover, and, 
when the milk has boiled, pour over potatoes and serve. Or, when 
cooked and drained, put in a skillet with hot drippings, cover, and 
shake till a nice brown. 

POTATOES IN JACKETS. 

Bake as many potatoes as are needed; when done, take off a 
little piece from one end to permit them to stand, from the other 
end cut a large piece, remove carefully the inside, and rub through 
a fine sieve, or mash thoroughly ; put on the fire with half an ounce 
of butter and one ounce of grated cheese to every four fair-sized 
potatoes; and add boiling milk and pepper and salt as for mashed 
potatoes ; fill the potato shells, and sprinkle over mixed bread-crumbs 
and grated cheese ; and put in hot oven and brown. Many prefer 
lo omit cheese and bread-crumbs, filling the shells heaping full and 
then browning. 

POTATOES IN KENTUCKY STYLE. 

Slice thin as for frying, let remain in cold water half an hour; 
put into pudding-dish or dripping-pan, with salt, pepper, and some 
milk about half a pint to an ordinary dish ; put into oven and 
bake for an hour ; take out and add a lump of butter half the size 
of an egg, cut into small bits and scattered over the top. Slicing 
allows the interior of each potato to be examined, hence its value 
22 



338 VEGETABLES. 

where potatoes are doubtful, though poor ones are not of necessity 
required. Soaking in cold water hardens the slices, so that they 
will hold their siuipe. The milk serves to cook them through, and 
to make a nice !>rown on the top; the quantity can only be learned 
by experience ; if just a little is left as a rich gravy, moistening all 
the slices, then it is right. In a year of small and poor potatoes, 
this method of serving them will be very welcome to many a house- 
keeper. Jf/x C. M. Nichols, Springfield. 

POTATOES A LA PARISIENNE. 

Wash and rub new potatoes with a coarse cloth (avoid scraping 
if possible), drop into boiling water, boil briskly until done, taking 
care not to over do (if doubtful on this point press one of the potatoes 
with a fork against the side of the sauce-pun, if done it will yield 
to a gentle pressure). Have ready, in a sauce-pan, some cream and 
butter hot, but not boiling, a little green parsley, pepper and salt ; 
pour off the water from the potatoes and add the cream and butter, 
let stand a minute or two over hot water, and serve. 

POTATO SOUFFLE 

Boil four good-sized mealy potatoes, pass them through a sieve ; 
scald in a clean sauce-pan half tea-cup of sweet milk and table- 
spoon of good butter, add to the potato with a little salt and pepper, 
and beat to a cream ; add one at a time, the yolks of four eggs, 
beating thoroughly, drop a small pinch of salt into the whites and 
beat them to a stiff froth, add them to the mixture, beating as little 
as possible; have ready a well-buttered baking-dish, large enough 
to permit the souffle to rise without running over; bake twenty 
minutes in a brisk oven, serve at once, and in the same dish in 
which it was baked. It should be eaten with meats that have, 
gravies. 

POTATOES IN SEVEN WAYS. 

Sunday, peel, steam, mash, add milk, butter and salt, and then 
beat like cake-batter, the longer the better, till they are nice and light. 
This steaming and beating will be found a great improvement. 

Monday, baked potatoes in their jackets ; if any are left they 
may be warmed over, peeling when cold, and then slicing. 

Tuesday, peel and bake with roast of beef. 



VEGETABLES. 339 

Wednesday, prepare in Kentucky style. 

Thursday, peel, steam, and serve whole. 

Friday, " potatoes a la pancake;" peel, cut in thin slices length- 
wise, sprinkle with pepper and salt, and fry in butter or beef drip- 
pings, turning like griddle-cakes. 

Saturday, potatoes boiled in their jackets. 

RINGED POTATOES. 

Peel large potatoes, cut them round and round in shavings, as 
you pare an apple. Fry with clean, sweet lard in a frying-pan till 
brown, stirring so as to brown all alike, drain on a sieve, sprinkle fine 
salt over them, and serve. 

POTATO RISSOLES. 

Mash potatoes, salt and pepper to taste, if desired add a little 
parsley. Roll the potatoes into small balls, cover them with an egg 
and bread-crumbs, and fry in hot lard for about two minutes. 
Finely minced tongue or ham may be added with good effect, or 
even chopped onions when liked. 

TEXAS BAKED IRISH POTATOES. 

Boil some good Irish potatoes; when done, mash, season with salt, 
pepper and butter; mince a large onion fine, mix well through the 
potatoes, put in oven and brown nicely. Mrs. C. E. S., Galves- 

ton, Texas. 

SARATOGA POTATOES. 

Pare and cut into thin slices on a slaw-cutter four large potatoes 
(new are best), let stand in ice-cold salt water while breakfast is 
cooking; take a handful of the potatoes, squeeze the water from 
them and dry in a napkin; separate the slices and drop a handful 
at a time into a skillet of boiling lard, taking care that they do not 
strike together, stir with a fork till they are a light brown color, 
take out with a wire spoon, drain well and serve in an open dish. 
They are very nice served cold. Mrs. Jasper Sager. 

SWEET POTATOES. 

Wash clean and bake in a hot oven one hour ; or place in steamer 
over a kettle of boiling water from half to three-quarters of an hour ; 
or when almost done, take off, scrape or peel them, place in a drip- 
ping-pan, and bake half an hour; or cut in slices and fry in butter 



340 VEGETABLES. 

or lard ; or peel and slice when raw, and fry, a layer at a time, on 
griddle, or in a frying-pan, with a little melted lard, being careful 
not to cook too long, or they will become too hard ; or drop in boil- 
ino- lard in frying-pan, turning till a nice brown on both sides; or 
halve or quarter, and bake in pan with roast beef, basting them 
often with the drippings. 

BAKED PARSNIPS. 

Put four thin slices salt pork in a kettle with two quarts cold 
water, wash and scrape parsnips, and if large halve or quarter, and 
as soon as water boils place in kettle, boil about half an hour, re- 
move meat, parsnips, and gravy to a dripping-pan, sprinkle with a 
little white sugar, and bake in oven a quarter of -an hour, or until 
they are a light brown, and the water is all fried out. Add a few 
potatoes if liked. Those left over, fried in a hot skillet, with but- 
ter, ham fat or beef drippings, make a nice breakfast dish. It is 
better to dip each slice in a beaten egg before frying. Parsnips are 
good in March or April, and make an excellent seasoning for soups. 

STEWED PARSNIPS. 

Wash, scrape, and slice about half an inch thick; have a skillet 
prepared with a half pint hot water and a table-spoon butter, add 
the parsnips, season with salt and pepper, cover closely, and stew 
until the water is cooked away, stirring occasionally to prevent burn- 
ing. When done, the parsnips will be of a creamy, light brown 

color. Mrs. D. B. 

GREEN PEASE. 

Wash lightly two quarts shelled pease, put into boiling water 
enough to cover, boil twenty minutes, add pepper, salt, and more 
hot water if needed to prevent burning, and two table-spoons butter 
rubbed into two of flour; stir well, and boil five minutes. If pods 
are clean and fresh, boil first in water to give flavor, skim out and 
put in pease. Canned pease should be rinsed before cooking. 

PEASE STEWED IN CREAM. 

Put two or three pints of young green pease into a sauce-pan o 
boiling water; when nearly done and tender, drain in a colander, 
quite dryj melt two ounces of butter hi a clean stew-pan, thicken 
evenly with a little flour, shake it over the fire, but do not let it 



VEGETABLES. 341 

brown, mix smoothly with a gill of cream, add half a tea-spoon of 
white sugar, bring to a boil, pour in the pease, keep moving for two 
minutes until well heated, and serve hot. The sweet pods of young- 
pease are made by the Germans into a palatable dish by simply 
stewing with a little butter and savory herbs. Mrs. W. A. Croffut. 

How TO BOIL RICE. 
Rice should be carefully picked over, washed in warm water/ 

rubbed between the hands, and then rinsed several times in cold 
water till white. Put one tea-cupful in a tin pan or porcelain kettle, 
add one quart boiling water; boil fifteen minutes, not stirring, but 
taking care that it does not burn ; add one tea-spoon salt, pour into 
a dish and send to table, placing a lump of butter in the center. 
Cooked thus the kernels remain whole. 

To boil rice in milk, put a pint rice into nearly two quarts of cold 
milk an hour before dinner, add two tea-spoons salt, boil very slowly 
and stir often ; cook on back part of stove or range so as to avoid 
burning, and take it up into a mold or bowl wet in cold water a short 
time before serving. 

Or, after cooking, drain carefully, stir in two well-beaten eggs, one 
table-spoon grated cheese, half a table-spoon butter, half a tea-spoon 
salt ; bake a few minutes in shallow pans. Some soak rice an hour 

or two before cooking. 

SOUTHERN RICE. 

After thoroughly washing and rubbing the rice, put it in salted 
water enough to cover it twice over, in a custard-kettle, or tin pail 
set in a kettle of boiling water ; cover the whole closely for fifteen 
or twenty minutes, until the grains of rice are full and plump but 
not "mushy;" drain off all the water possible, and replace rice in 
the kettle, allowing it to cook for half an hour longer, when it is 
ready to serve. The grains should be full and soft, and each one 
retain its form perfectly. During the last half hour it should be 
occasionally stirred lightly with a fork, and it is improved by stand- 
ing on the back of the stove a few minutes before serving. Mrs. P. 
T. Morey, Charleston, S. G. 

SALSIFY OR VEGETABLE OYSTERS. 

Wash thoroughly, scrape off skin with a knife, cut across in 
rather thin slices, stew until tender in water enough to cover them, 



342 VEGETABLES. 

with a piece of salt codfish for seasoning. Before sending to table, 
remove codfish, thicken with flour and butter rubbed together, toast 
slices of bread, put in dish, and then add the vegetable oyster. 
This method gives the flavor of oysters to the vegetable, and adds 
much to its delicacy. Or, after stewing until tender in clear water, 
mash, season with pepper and salt, and serve. Mrs. Gov. J. J. 
Bagley, Michigan. 

SALSIFY OB VEGETABLE OYSTERS. 

Parboil after scraping off the outside, cut in slices, dip it into a 
beaten egg and fine bread-crumbs, and fry in lard. Or, slice cross- 
wise five or six good-sized plants, cook till tender in water enough 
to cover, then add a pint or more of rich milk mixed with one 
table-spoon flour, season with butter, pepper and salt, let boil up 
and pour over slices of toasted bread ; or add three pints milk, or 
half milk and water, season and serve with crackers like oyster 
soup. 

CYMLINGS OR SUMMER SQUASH. 

These are better when young and tender, which may be known 
by pressing the nail through the skin ; do not peel or take out 
seeds, but boil whole, or cut across in thick slices ; boil in as little 
water as possible for one-half or three-quarters of an hour, drain 
well, mash and set on back part of stove or range to dry out for 
ten or fifteen minutes, stirring occasionally ; then season with butter, 
pepper, salt and a little cream. If old, peel, cut up, take out seeds, 
boil and season as above. 

WINTER SQUASH. 

Cut up, take out inside, pare the pieces and stew in as little 
water as possible, cook an hour, mash in kettle, and if watery, let 
stand on the fire a few moments, stirring until dry; season with 
butter, cream, salt and pepper; be careful that it does not burn. 
Winter squashes are also cooked by cutting in pieces without paring, 
baking, and serving like potatoes ; or they may be cooked in a 
steamer, and served either in the shell, or scraped out, put in pan, 
mashed, and seasoned with butter, cream, salt and pepper, and then 
made hot and served. 



VEGETABLES. 343 

SUCCOTASH. 

Take pint of shelled lima beans (green), wash, cover with hot water, 
let stand five minutes, pour off, place over fire in hot water, and boil 
fifteen minutes ; have ready corn from six good-sized ears, and add 
to beans ; boil half an hour, add salt, pepper and two table-spoors 
butter. Be careful in cutting down corn not to cut too deep ; 
better not cut deep enough and then scrape ; after corn is added, 
watch carefully to keep from scorching. Or, to cook with meat, 
boil one pound salt pork two hours, add beans, cook fifteen minutes, 
then add corn, omitting butter. Or, string beans may be used, 
cooking one hour before adding corn. 

WINTER SUCCOTASH. 

Wash one pint lima beans (dried when green) and one and a half 
pints dried corn ; put beans in kettle and cover with cold water ; 
cover corn with cold water in a tin pan, set on top of kettle of beans 
so that while the latter are boiling the corn may be heating and 
swelling ; boil beans fifteen minutes, drain off, cover with boiling 
water, and when tender (half an hour) add corn, cooking both 
together for fifteen minutes; five minutes before serving, add salt, 
pepper and a dressing of butter and flour rubbed together, or one- 
half tea-cup cream or milk thickened with one table-spoon flour. 

SPINACH. 

Look over the spinach, wash in four waters and take off stalks, 
boil in a sauce-pan without water for thirty minutes, covering 
closely, drain in a colander and cut with a knife w r hile draining ; 
season with pepper, salt and a little butter, boil two eggs hard and 
slice over the top; serve hot. Or it may, when boiled soft, be 
rubbed through the colander, then put in frying-pan, with a lump 
of butter, seasoned with pepper and salt. When hot, beat in two 
or three table-spoons rich cream. Put thin slices of buttered toast 
(one for each person) on dish and on each piece put a cupful of 
spinach neatly smoothed in shape, with the half of a hard-boiled egg 
on the top, cut part uppermost. 

BAKED TOMATOES. 

Cut a thin slice from blossom side of twelve solid, smooth, ripe 
tomatoes, with a tea-spoon remove pulp without breaking shell; 



344 VEGETABLES. 

take a small, solid head of cabbage and one onion, chop fine, add 
bread-crumbs rubbed fine, and pulp of tomatoes, season with pep- 
per, salt and sugar, add a tea-cup good sweet cream, mix well 
together, fill tomatoes, put the slice back in its place, lay them stem 
end down in a buttered baking-dish with just enough water (some 
cook without water), with a small lump of butter on each, to keep 
from burning, and bake half an hour, or until thoroughly done; 
place a bit of butter on each and serve in baking-dish. They make 
a handsome dish for a dinner-table. Mrs. S. Watson, Upper San- 
dusky. 

ESCALOPED TOMATOES. 

Put in a buttered baking-dish a layer of bread or cracker-crumbs 
seasoned witli bits of butter, then a layer of sliced tomatoes sea- 
soned with pepper, salt, and sugar if desired, then a layer of crumbs, 
and so on till dish is full, finishing with the crumbs. Bake from 
three-quarters of an hour to an hour. Onions, prepared by soaking 
over night in hot water, dried well, sliced in nearly half-inch slices, 
and browned on both sides in a frying-pan with butter, may be 
added, a layer on each layer of tomatoes. 

FRIED TOMATOES. 

Peel tomatoes and cut crosswise in large slices, salt and pepper, 
dip each slice into wheat flour, then into beaten egg, and fry at 
once in hot lard; serve hot. A cup of milk is sometimes thickened 
with a little flour and butter, boiled and poured over them. Estelfa 

Woods Wilcox. 

MOTHER'S SLICED TOMATOES. 

Prepare half an hour before dinner, scald a few at a time in 
boiling water, peel, slice, and sprinkle with salt and pepper, set 
away in a cool place, or lay a piece of ice on them. Serve as a 
relish for dinner in their own liquor. Those who desire may add 

vinegar and sugar. 

STEWED TOMATOES. 

Scald by pouring water over them, peel, slice and cut out all 
defective parts ; place a lump of butter in a hot skillet, put in 
tomatoes, season with salt and pepper, keep up a brisk fire, and 
cook as rapidly as possible, stirring with a spoon or chopping up 
with a knife (in the latter case wipe the knife as often as used 01 



VEGETABLES. 345 

It will blacker* the tomatoes). Cook half an hour. Serve at once 
in a deep dish lined with toast. When iron is used, tomatoes must 
cook rapidly and have constant attention. If prepared in tin or 
porcelain, they do not require the same care. Mrs. Judge Cole. 

TOMATO TOAST. 

Run a quart of stewed ripe tomatoes through a colander, place 
in a porcelain stew-pan, season with butter, pepper and salt and 
sugar to taste; cut slices of bread thin, brown on both sides, butter 
and lay on a platter, and just as the bell rings for tea add a pint 
of good sweet cream to the stewed tomatoes, and pour them over 
toast. Mrs. S. Watson. 

TURNIPS. 

Wash, peel, cut in thin slices across the grain, and place in kettle 
.in as little water as possible ; boil from half to three-quarters of an 
Lour or until you can easily pierce them with a fork ; drain well, 
reason with salt, pepper and butter, mash fine and place on stove, 
stirring frequently until water is all dried out. Do not boil too 
long, as they are much sweeter when cooked quickly. Turnips 
.may be steamed and finished as above, and are better than when 
boiled. They may also be sliced and baked. 

DICED TURNIPS. 

Pare, slice, cut in dice an inch square, boil till nearly done, in as 
little water as possible ; to one quart of turnips, add one table-spoon 
sugar, salt to make it palatable ; when they are boiled as dry as 
possible, add two or three spoons of cream and a beaten egg, and 
serve. Excellent. 

TIP-TOP PUDDING, OR VEGETABLE PUDDING. 

Boil a firm, white cabbage fifteen minutes, changing water then 
for more from the boiling tea-kettle ; when tender, drain and set 
Aside till perfectly cold ; chop fine, add two beaten eggs, a table- 
spoon of butter, three of very rich milk or cream, pepper and salt. 
Stir all well together, and bake in a buttered pudding-dish until 
brown ; serve hot. This dish is digestible and palatable, much re- 
sembling cauliflowers. "Aunt DincJi" 



ORNAMENTAL ICING. 



BY PROF. C. H. KING. 

Ornamental icing consists in working two or more colors of icing 
on one surface, such, for instance, as pink and white, or choco- 
late and white, sometimes with, sometimes without, the addition of 
crystallizing. To ice a cake white and pipe or ornament it with 
pink pipery, or ice it with pink or chocolate icing and pipe it witii 
white icing, would constitute ornamental icing. But there is 
another method called "inlaid," which consists of having different 
colored icing on the same surface, not simply a different colored 
piping on the icing. The best illustration I can give of this will, I 
think, be a chess-board. To do it take a cone, cut a fine point off, 
fill it as instructed in "artistic piping," draw fine lines first 
straight down one inch apart, then across at the same distance at 
right angles ; you have then formed squares one inch across. Now 
fill these in alternately with either white or pink and white, and 
then chocolate icing or pink and chocolate. You then have the 
squares in two colors, the same as they would appear on a chess or 
checker-board. The only point to be here observed is to have your 
icing soft enough to just run smooth ; the lines will prevent it from 
running together. You can work any pattern you choose in this 
manner by simply running a line of piping to form the design, then 
filling in as before described. You can also further vary this by 
marking out any design, and with a small paint-brush washing it 
over with white of egg or gum-water, then covering it with granu- 
lated sugar either plain white or colored ; or you can cover it with 
powdered chocolate or rolled rock candy, either pink or white; shake 
off what will not stick, and you will find the design covered with 
the sugar; now pipe round the edge of the design with a fine cone 
of icing sugar, and it is complete. 

(346) 



ORNAMENTAL ICING. 347 

j 

CRYSTALLIZATION. 

Crystallization consists in simply covering the cake while the 
icing is wet with granulated sugar, plain or pink. (For coloring 
sugar pink see " meringue icing "). Or you can use pink or white 
sugar or rock candy crushed. If you wish to crystallize only a 
portion of the icing, and that in any particular design, first allow 
the icing to dry, then wash the part you wish crystallized with white 
of egg or gum- water, and cover it with the sugar; then shake off 
what will not remain on. 

ARTISTIC PIPING, WITH DIAGRAMS. 

For the benefit of those who wish to excel in the art of orna- 
menting bride or other cakes with icing (technically called "pip- 
ing,") I give a sheet of diagrams, which will almost explain them- 
selves, and will require but little study by those having a taste for 
artistic work (which most ladies have) to master it; and I promise 
you that if you will master this sheet of diagrams before attempting 
any thing more elaborate (on the same principle as you first perfect 
yourself in the scales for music before attempting the playing of a 
piece), that you will succeed beyond your expectations, and will 
soon be able to ornament a cake equal to an expert. I would 
here remark that this applies to all kinds of ornamenting, as it is 
all done in the same manner, no matter whether the material used 
be butter, lard, or savory jelly for the decoration of tongues, roast 
chicken, hams, etc., or sweet jelly, chocolate or sugar for the orna- 
mentation of all kinds of cakes. Learn one, and you have learned 
all. 

For example, if you wish to decorate a tongue, ham, or roast 
chicken, use either butter, lard, or savory jelly, instead of sugar, 
and in precisely the same manner as you would icing. This orna- 
mentation, with the addition of a little parsley, and a cut root 
flower or so, completes the operation of decorating the above-named 
articles. They are sometimes further, or even altogether decorated 
or garnished with "tippets," cut diamond or triangular form, and 
consisting of toasted bread, " aspic" jelly, etc.; but this style of 
garnishing is usually adopted only by those who are not competent 



348 ORNAMENTAL ICING. 

to decorate or garnish with butter, lard, or savory jelly, and who 
are not able to cut their own root flowers. Root flowers are usually 
cut in the form of roses, tulips, dahlias, etc., from white and yellow 
turnips, beets, and carrots, and the edges of the leaves are usually 
tipped with pink color, such as liquid "cochineal." 

To use jelly for decorating or piping cakes, set it in a place- 
where it will get just warm enough to pass through the cone with 
the aid of a gentle pressure; in cold weather it is well to beat it 
with a spoon, in addition to warming it. This makes it one uniform 
consistency. When ready for use fill the cone with it, then pro- 
ceed as directed for piping, using the cone in the same manner as 
if it contained icing. 

To use butter or lard treat it in the same manner as jelly, so as 
to get it just soft enough to pass through the cone. Be very careful 
not to get it too soft or it will not stand. In warm weather you can 
add a little flour to stiffen it, but not too much, or it will not pass- 
through the cone; when ready fill cone with it, same as for icing,, 
and use the cone in the same manner. 

To cut root flowers, wash the roots, and for say a rose, take a good 
shaped turnip, pare it, cut it the proper shape, then with a sharp 
pocket knife (French root-flower cutters may be had of dealers 
in confectioner's supplies,) go all round the bottom edge, so ^X-N^N ; 
then repeat this operation, so /-oo-s, bringing the second cuts be- 
tween the first, and holding the back of the knife blade from you 
and the edge towards you. This causes the cuts to meet at the 
bottom, and then by holding the knife point down, and running it 
all round inside the cut the piece falls out, leaving the leaves 
separate and distinct. Continue this until you reach the center,. 
so .-c^o^o^. A little practice will assist you in this particular, and 
you will soon be able to make other flowers, as the principle is the- 
same; when the flowers are cut tip the edges with a little cochineal. 

To ornament a cake with icing, use prepared ic'ing in the manner 
I shall hereafter describe. The icing may be harmlessly colored, 
as follows: for pink, use u cochineal;" for blue, use indigo; for yel- 
low, use saffron; for green, use blue and yellow, until you attain, 
the required shade of color. 

Although I have given the different colors, should you wish to- 



ORNAMENTAL ICING. 349 

use them, I would not recommend them except in cases where their 
use is required to produce effect, and not to be eaten. Too much 
color, or too great a number of colors, are objectionable and 
not in good taste. I suggest keeping as much as possible to plain 
white, light pink, light cream color, chocolate color, produced by the 
use of chocolate or cocoa, and the natural colors produced by the 
use of the various sweet jellies. By a judicious and artistic arrange- 
ment of the colors the above articles will give, it is possible to 
produce an unlimited variety, and not place any thing before 
guests objectionable in point of color. 

The sugar used for decorating cakes is prepared in the same man- 
ner as that for icing cake (see icing for cakes.) To use it, have 
ready prepared some paper cones, made by folding or rolling up a 
piece of paper in the form of a cornet, and securing the joint with a 
little mucilage or white of eggs (see No. 1, in page of diagrams). 
Now with a sharp knife cut off the point of cone so as to leave hole 
any size needed, from a pin's size to half an inch in diameter (see 
No. 2, for plain round work). If you wish a star (No. 3), cut off 
the point of the cone to form an aperture equal to the center of 
the star you require, then cut out the points, as shown in No. 22. 
If for a leaf, cut as shown in No. 24. Now fill these cones three- 
fourths full with the prepared icing, fold down the top securely, so 
that the sugar will not force back, and all is ready to commence the 
ornamentation. (I would here say that it will save the trouble of 
cutting the cones to use little brass tubes, made for the purpose, at 
a cost of from ten to fifteen cents each. In using these you have 
only to cut off the point of the paper cone large enough to allow the 
tube to come through half its length. These tubes will last a life- 
time, and can be procured from almost any confectioner's supply 
store.) 

The cones being filled with the sugar, and the cake ready iced, 
mark out (as lightly as possible) with a lead-pencil the design on the 
cake; then go over the design with the cones of sugar, in the man- 
ner hereafter described, until the design is complete. (I say this f 
presuming you have mastered the diagrams.) I will now explaiq 
the diagrams, and in so doing hope I shall succeed in making you 
fully understand the use and purposes of the cones, and the various 



350 ORNAMENTAL ICING. 

yet simple "means to the end," that you may be able to so arrange 
the various diagrams as to form a harmonious whole, and surprise 
yourself by producing a design beyond your expectations. 

To practice this, I would recommend that you procure a walnut 
board, about twelve inches square, perfectly smooth. This being 
dark and the sugar white you can easily see the work; and if every 
thing is clean the sugar need not be wasted, as it can be scraped off 
and used for some purpose or other. 

The board being ready and a cone filled with sugar, take the cone 
in the left hand, and place the thumb of the right hand on the folded 
part or top ; use the thumb to press on the cone to force out the 
sugar at the point, in just the same manner you would use a syringe. 
Now force out the sugar with a regular and even pressure, and 
draw a number of fine lines, as even and straight as possible, by 
dropping the point of the cone in the left hand corner of the board, 
and with an onward motion, in accordance with the flow of sugar 
(which will be little or much, in proportion to the pressure you give 
the tube) ; run it straight on to the right hand corner (see No. 4). 
Notice that you can make this line larger by pressing harder on the 
cone. Next repeat this, giving the cone a zigzag motion (No. 5) ; 
then commence light, gradually increasing the pressure, so as to 
produce a line small at one end and large at the other (No. 6); 
then reverse it by beginning heavy and finishing light (No. 7). 
When you wish to disconnect the cone from the sugar, do so by 
taking off the pressure from the cone, and giving a quick, sudden, 
upward jerk. Now do some cross stringing (No. 8), then No. 9 to 
17 ; then with the same cone, held perpendicular (and the sugar 
pushed out until the drop is the required size, then suddenly de- 
tached in the same manner as above mentioned), drop different 
sized drops or dots (No. 18 to 20) ; then with the same cone, by 
commencing at the large end first and gradually drawing it to a fine 
thread do No. 21. Now take the star cut cone (No. 22), and 
drop some star dots, the same as in Nos. 18, 19, and 20; then with 
a circular or rotary motion, make roses (No. 23) ; then repeat with 
this star cone all that you have done with the plain round cone. 
Next take the leaf cone (No. 24), and by beginning at the large 
end of the leaf first, and gradually drawing it to a point, make the 



_ ^ 18. 

QQQOOoooo o 




DIAGRAMS. 



(351) 



352 ORNAMENTAL ICING. 

leaf as long as desired (No. 25) ; by giving the cone a wavy motion 
you form the veins in the leaf. Then put two together (No. 26), 
and with the star cone add a rose (No. 27) ; then three leaves and 
a rose (No. 28) ; then four, as in No. 29 ; then five, with a simple 
plain dot in the center (No. 30;, No\v, with the plain round cone, 
make No. 31, adding to it, for top finish, No. 21; next, with the 
same cone, make the stems of Nos. 32 and 33, and with the leaf 
cone add the leaves. Do the same in No. 34, adding a ring of dots, 
also a roso, with the star cone; next, with the same plain round 
cone, do No. 35, by giving the cone a wavy motion; also No. 36, 
by giving the cone a sudden jerk, first to the left, then to the right, 
then straight down the middle, as shown in No. 37. 

This appears a good deal on paper, but is really nothing w T hen 
you come to do it, as it can all be done on the board at one lesson, 
and two or three lessons should suffice to give you a good insight, 
and each one you do will be better than its predecessor, and you 
will surprise yourself at the ease with which you can produce and 
execute a design, if you only master these diagrams first. 

Having- gone this far, you may now form a design for yourself 
by making whatever combination fancy dictates, from the scrolls, 
lines, curves, etc., shown in the diagrams; it may be somewhat 
crude at first, but practice will perfect. As an example, which 
will explain the whole, I will instruct you how to make a simple 
combination, and thereby produce a bunch of grapes. First, with 
the leaf cone make four leaves (No. 38), and with the plain round 
cone add the stem ; also, with the same kind of cone, only cut a little 
larger, to make a larger drop, add grapes by making a succession 
of dots, gradually making them higher in the middle (No. 39) ; then 
n-5 a finish, with the plain small cone, add the scroll as shown run- 
ning over the grapes. I will also give one other illustration. To 
mike a large leaf, in imitation of those used on bride's cake, first 
mark the outline of the leaf (No. 40), then with the plain round 
cone run the cross lines, as shown in No. 8, also in No. 41 ; then 
with the plain round cone add the edge in dots, as shown iu Nos. 20 
and 42. To illustrate this farther, I furnish a full sketch for the 
top of a wedding or other cake (page 353) made up of the grapes and 
leaves I have described. I must now leave you to the study and 



c^ 
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23 



(353) 



854 ORNAMENTAL ICING. 

practice of the diagrams, assuring you that you will find it much 
more simple than it here appears, and that the results attained at each 
trial will be such as to stimulate you to further efforts and success. 
I will here remark that you can do heavy and light work with the 
same cone by adding pressure ; for instance, if you are using a cone 
with a fine point, by drawing that with a regular motion and even 
pressure, you produce a line of sugar the same size as the hole 
through which it comes ; but if you draw the cone along slower than 
the sugar comes out, you will readily see that you produce a heavier 
line ; also, if you wish to make a very fine line with the same cone, 
use the even pressure, but draw the cone along very fast; you have 
only to bear in mind that there is a limit to the size, and when you 
reach that to press harder simply means to burst the cone ; w r hen the 
limit is reached, if you want a larger flow, you must have another 
cone with a larger opening at the point. This applies to all shapes, 
whether round, star, or leaf. The cone may be used in the same 
manner you would a pen, pressing heavy and light ; for example, 
if you are making a scroll, like No. 11, w T ith a fine round cone, 
when you come to the bend of the scroll, by giving the cone a little 
more pressure you cause more sugar to flow, thus producing the 
fullness in the curve (see No. 11) ; when you have done that with- 
draw the pressure and continue as before. 

1ERINGUE ICING 

Beat the whites of six eggs to a very stiff froth (you can not beat 
them too stiff; and if they are not stiff the meringue will not be 
good.) While beating, add a saltspoonful of salt, also a teaspoon- 
ful of sugar ; when w r ell beaten up add half a pound of sugar, and 
stir it very lightly in, yet be careful to see it is well stirred in. 
This being ready, take the pie after baking (usually a lemon pie), 
and with a knife spread a thin coating of the meringue all over it; 
then with a cone (the same as used in other icing), filled with the 
meringue icing, proceed to work out some design. When finished re- 
turn it to the oven to take a light brown color. You can work any 
design in this as well as in icing-sugar, but the patterns for this are 
larger, consequently are done with a cone with a larger portion cut 
off the point. For centers of meringue pies you can use such designs 



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356 ORNAMENTAL ICING. 

as an ear of corn, an anchor, a " true lover's knot." a Maltese cross, 
a bunch of grapes, or whatever the fancy dictates; you can further 
decorate it with fruit jelly in addition to the meringue piping, put- 
ting on the jelly with a cone, and in the same manner as for piping. 
Chocolate is not used on meringue work, neither is the meringue 
ever colored except in some cases when it is colored a light cream 
color ; pink colored sugar is sometimes sprinkled over it. To color 
this sugar, simply drop a little cochineal color on some granulated 
sugar, and rub it together until colored, then dry it, then rub it 
apart and keep it in a bottle ready for use. It will keep its color for 
years. I give one design (page 355) for the top of a meringue 
pie just as a guide. 

TO MAKE WATER ICING. 

Take any quantity of powdered sugar you require, add cold 
water enough to it to form a thick paste (remember, it will not take 
much) ; beat well, and if too thin so that it runs too much, add a 
little more sugar. To every pound of sugar, add as much cream 
of tartar as will lie on a twenty-five cent piece (a level teaspoon- 
ful); when this icing is prepared, spread it with a knife over the 
cake, and allow it to dry; you can then ornament or decorate it 
with icing sugar in the same manner as for a bride's cake, or use a 
sweet jelly, such as "red currant" or "quince." 

This water icing may also be colored a light shade of pink with 
"cochineal," or a light cream color with saffron. For n mauve 
color, add a drop of indigo blue to the pink color ; but remember 
none of these colors must be heavy, as they are objectionable and in 
bad taste. Water icing is used for tops of pound, sponge, and 
other cakes, also for tops of jelly cakes. (See design for jelly cake, 
page 353.) 

CHOCOLATE ICING. 

Ask any confectioner for a piece of " Baker's eagle cocoa; '' and 
if you can not procure that, ask any grocer for pure cocoa in block,. 
or what is called " Baker's premium cocoa." Place what you need of 
it in a basin, and stand the basin in boiling water until the cocoa 
is dissolved, then add powdered sugar to taste, and beat it 
well in; add also the whites of two eggs (whisked up a little) to 



ORNAMENTAL ICING. 357 

every pound of cocoa used (this gives a gloss) ; beat the sugar 
in well and the whites of eggs ; now with a knife spread the cocoa 
(or rather the chocolate now that it has the sugar in it, for choco- 
late is simply cocoa sweetened) evenly on the cake ; be as quick as 
possible with it, for as soon as it cools it gets hard. If you wish 
simple cocoa icing, use the cocoa and whites of egg only ; but if 
you wish sweet or chocolate icing, add the sugar. To help you a 
little in the first attempt, add one tablespoonful of hot water to a 
pound of cocoa ; this will keep it moist and liquid a little longer, 
but it will take a little longer to harden. 

CREAM CHOCOLATE ICING. 

What is known as cream chocolate icing is done in the same man- 
ner, using half cocoa and half pure cream, and sweetening it to 
taste. In this case use no whites of eggs, but simply dissolve the 
cocoa as before described, then add the sugar, and afterwards grad- 
ually add and well stir in the cream. It is then ready for use. 
Chocolate icing is also used to ice jelly cakes and other small cakes, 
also chocolate-de-clares ; it may also be used as an icing for any 
thing, and can be piped, ornamented, or decorated with icing sugar 
in the same manner as a bride's cake. 

Cocoa may also be mixed with sugar icing ; add little or much 
cocoa as desired, and either ice a cake with this chocolate icing or 
use it for piping or ornamenting in the same manner as icing sugar 
is used. 

TO ICE OR FROST A WEDDING OR ANY FLAT TOP CAKE. 

When the cake is baked and cold, cut off all the rough parts and 
brush off all crumbs ; then prepare an icing *in the manner described, 
but in this case for first icing use ordinary "powdered sugar;" give 
the cake a thin covering with this icing, simply to fill up the 
hollows, so that the second coat of icing, made from finer sugar, may 
rest smoother on it. If in a hurry, and you do not care so much 

f ' */ 

about the appearance, then give one coat of icing only. In that 
case the sugar must be the kind I have mentioned (the finest). When 
a first coat is used, place it in the oven or in some warm place to 
dry, before adding the second coat. 
* Please note where the word icing or ice is used it means frosting. 



358 ORNAMENTAL ICING. 

To add the second coat, prepare some icing in the manner de- 
scribed, and make it just soft enough to run smoothly, and yet not 
run off the cake ; better to be a little too stiff than too thin. To 
ice, place the sugar in a lump in the center of the cake, and let it 
run level of its own accord; or if a little stiff, spread it out with a 
knife, taking care not to spread it quite to the edge of the cake 
(within a quarter of an inch), as it will run to the edge of itself: if it 
is not fully smooth, place a knife under the cake and shake it a 
little, that will cause all the rough parts to become smooth. Next, 
if you desire to ice the sides of the cake, add a little more sugar to 
the icing, and beat it well in; then with your knife place it on the 
sides of the cake until it is fully covered ; then by holding the knife 
perpendicular, with the edge to the icing, and the back leaning a 
little towards the icing, draw it all round the side of the cake ; 
when it comes round to where you started from, suddenly give the 
knife a twist, and turn the back from the icing, and at the same 
time and by the same motion, remove the edge from contact with 
the icing. If you do this neatly and quickly you will hardly be able 
to find the place where you left off. You may not succeed either in 
icing the cake or putting on a smooth side the first time, but prac- 
tice will perfect ; and if you note wherein you failed at first, and 
avoid it the next time, you will soon succeed. The cake now needa 
only to be dried, and it is ready for ornamenting. 

To ornament or decorate it, prepare some icing in the manner 
described, but make it stiff enough to retain its shape, or at least s(* 
that it will not run smooth like the icing on the cake. This is to 
be done by the addition of a little more sugar (a teaspoonful per- 
haps), also a little extra beating; when the icing is ready lightly 
mark out the design on the cake ; then fold up a piece of paper in 
the form of a cone, and secure the joint with white of egg or mucil- 
age, and cut off the point to form just what size hole you choose. 
Now fill the cone three-fourths full with icing, and fold down the 
end ; place cone in left hand to guide it, and with the thumb of the 
right hand placed on the folded part of the cone, force out the sugar 
in lines or dots to follow out the design on the cake. 

Those wishing further instructions in ornamenting an T 
referred to article on Artistic Piping (with 



OENAMENTAL ICISG. 359 

TO PREPARE ICING FOR BRIDE OR OTHER CAKES. 

Procure a clean china bowl with a round (not square) bottom in- 
side ; break into it the whites of three eggs, add about half a 
pound of the finest powdered sugar obtainable (ask a confectioner 
for icing sugar, if that is not obtainable procure " lozenge sugar;") 
now with a wooden spatula, (which is made of a piece of wood about 
ten inches long and one and one-half inches wide at the thick end, 
and gradually tapering off to fit the hand, and not more than half an 
inch thick at the thick end. See diagram No. 40. I recommend 
wood because it is really better in every respect than any metal in- 
strument for the purpose, and once made will last a life time) 
beat the sugar and whites vigorously until it begins to thicken, 
then add as much cream of tartar as will lay on a ten-cent piece, 
and one (not more than two) drop of indigo blue ; now add about a 
quarter of a pound more sugar, and continue beating; continue 
beating and adding sugar, a teaspoonful at a time, until the icing 
is as thick as you wish it, and it is ready for use. Be careful not to 
get any of the yolk of the eggs in, or you can not beat the icing up. 
Be careful that the bowl, spatula, and all the implements used 
are perfectly free from grease. Remember to beat well, and not 
attempt to get the icing thick by the addition of sugar alone, or 
it will run. Good icing depends upon good beating as well as 
sugar ; three whites and one pound of sugar is about the propor- 
tion. 

EXPLANATION OF DESIGNS FOR BRIDE OR OTHER CAKES. 

A reference to the design for bride cake top lS~o. 1 (page 359) 
will show that it is a combination of the scrolls, etc., given in the 
diagrams for artistic piping, and is not given as a design or a work 
of art, but is simply arranged (as I direct in my explanation of 
diagrams) to show how those scrolls, etc., can be connected and 
arranged so as to form a design. After you have made this one, 
you will be surprised how easy a task it will be to do a second. 
Please note that this design is made up of Nos. 36, 20, 13, 18, 6, 
8, and 21 of the diagrams ; also note that I have given two leaves 
of one pattern and two of another. When you pipe cake make all 
four leaves of the same pattern, choosing which you prefer. I have 



360 ORNAMENTAL ICING. 

given two simply to illustrate the diagrams, or I would have 
sketched them all alike. I also give a sketch for the side of the 
cake if you wish to pipe the side. This you will note is No. 17 
in the diagrams, and the bottom is finished off with simple, plain 
round dots (No. 2 in diagrams), but all of one size. 

My sketch for bride's cake top No. 2 (page 361) is more correct as 
a design, and is to be done after you have practiced on No. 1 de- 
sign. I will not refer you to the diagrams for this design, but ask you 
to pick out what numbers of the diagrams are used in making up 
this design, as by so doing it will fix it in your memory. These de- 
signs will answer for the top of any cake as well as for bride's cake; 
if you use them for bride's cake, use nothing but white icing, also 
white piping, and in the center where I have marked ("for vase") 
insert a vase, or bouquet, or spray of flowers, as you see fit. The 
addition of a few sugar roses and silver leaves (procurable at all 
confectioners) will add to the effect. It is also necessary to place 
the cake on a lace paper, particularly if a bride's or wedding cake ; 
and if on a silver or plated salver, so much the better. 

It is not imperative that you use orange blossoms in the decora- 
tion of bride's cake, still it is usually clone. It is also admissible to 
use (very sparingly) pink roses or other flowers, or even yellow 
to match with the orange blossoms or in place of them ; but rather 
than use too much or too many, use none. If you do not wish to 
pipe the side of a bride's cake, place a silver band round it. You 
can procure the baud of any respectable confectioner or caterer. 

DESSERT CAKE. 

A dessert cake (proper) consists of either a pound or sponge cake 
mixture baked in a high mold ; if you have no other use, an ice 
cream mold as represented in the sketch. Well clean and fully 
drv vour mold, then warm it and butter it with butter by the aid 

mf +t J 

of a brush (by warming it the butter goes in all parts) ; when 
buttered turn it bottom up to drain out all excess of butter; when 
drained dust it out with sifted flour, give it a knock to remove any 
excess of flour; it is now ready; now place it, small end down, in a 
tin or something which will prevent its tailing over; now fill it three- 
fourths full with the cake mixture and bake in a steady heat; when 




(361) 



362 ORNAMENTAL ICING. 

baked remove it from the mold. When cold, if to be ornamented, 
have ready prepared some icing (see "icing") thin enough to just run 
smooth but not to run off. Place the cake on a plate, and with a 
spoon place the icing on the top of the cake, and allow it to run 
down the sides ; continue this until all parts are covered ; let it drain 
down a minute or so, then place a knife under the bottom of the 
cake, remove 'it to another plate, and set it in a warm place to 
dry. This method of icing shows up the pattern of the cake, and 
the prettier the mold the prettier pattern of cake you will have. 
To ornament this cake, simply pipe it (as before described), allow- 
ing the pattern of the cake to be the guide ; if you come to any 
part where there is no pattern, then ornament it as you fancy, but 
usually the pattern of the cake will furnish the design. In an ice- 
cream mold there is not much pattern further than fluting. I give a 
sketch of one baked in a pyramid ice-cream mold, (page 353,) to- 
gether with some idea as to how you are to ornament it. Where the 
clots appear, you can substitute red and yellow gum drops if you so 
desire. When you have piped this cake set it on a plate or sal- 
ver on lace paper, place a bouquet or spray of flowers on top (see 
sketch) , add a few silver leaves where you see fit, and it is complete. 
This cake looks very pretty iced a light pink and piped in white ; 
you can not well use chocolate ice for this cake (as the chocolate sets 
too soon), unless you are pretty well accustomed to chocolate icing. 

DESSERT RUSSE. 

This may be made of either sponge or pound-cake mixture, and 
baked in a fancy mold, If the prescribed mold is not available, an 
ordinary two quart ice-cream mold would answer the purpose pretty 
well. After being baked and allowed to completely cool, the cake 
should be iced with thin icing, either pink or white, and piped in 
contrasting colors. Thus, if iced white, it should be piped pink, 
and vice versa. Further ornamentation can be made by a proper dis- 
tribution of pastilles, crystallized fruits, etc., and the whole sur- 
mounted by a small spray or bouquet of flowers. 

Another way of making it is by use of stale cake. If you have 
stale sponge or pound-cake, first cut from it the base with a sharp 
knife (see figure 1, page 355) ; then the piece as per figure 2, then 
the piece as per figure 3. Place the three, one above the other, 
then ice and ornament it. 




Chantilly Custard. 



(363) 



304 OZXAMENTAL ICING. 

Either of the foregoing cakes are left as they come from the 
mold, or in the shape they are cut with the knife. The pieces, 
numbered 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, added, being only for the russe. 

For the russe, produce the cake by either of the above methods, 
remembering to have as large a hole in it as circumstances will 
allow, (see dotted line in Nos. 1,2, and 3,) this, of course, is filled 
with cream ; then piece No. 3 is added and secured. Next take a 
tliiii piece of cake, not more than a quarter of an inch in thickness, 
and cut out the pieces as per Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, and set them 
aside for future use. Next, take a pallet-knife, and cover the whole 
russe with red or some other colored jelly. This done, place on the 
pieces Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, in their respective places (the jelly 
will hold them). Leave the cut part outside, so that none of the 
baked parts will show, and the desired effect is produced. The 
pieces being in their places, you next pipe and otherwise ornament ; 
finish the whole by the addition of a spray or bouquet of flowers on 
the top, or with a bouquet of leaves, piped on with a leaf tube. 
Another way to make it, is to cut the base out of a solid piece of 
cake ; make the hole and fill it with cream ; lay on that a thin piece 
of cake. Then with a cone and tube pile up the cream in pyra- 
mid shape. Have ready six strips cut the proper shape, i. e., the 
same width at the bottom as one of the six sections of the base, 
and gradually tapering to the top. Place these pieces in their proper 
position, fasten them with a little icing, cover the whole with jelly, 
as in the other case, or leave plain, as you choose. In either case 
pipe and otherwise ornament it. If preferable, you can place the 
strips to form piece No. 3, securing them with icing ; then force 
cream through the opening on the top. By this means you get that 
part better filled with cream than by any other means. 

THE CHANTILLY CUSTARD. 

The plates from 1 to 4, inclusive, show the manner of making 
the Gatian for the custard, which is thus described : First, procure 
a mold for sponge-cake or jelly, about one quart or three pints size, 
with a fancy fruit or flower top (see plate No. 1). Bake in this a 
cake or sponge mixture (or plain pound mixture, if you prefer it), 
and when baked and cold it is all the better if kept for a day or 



ORNAMENTAL ICING- 365 

two cut off the top (see figures 2 and 3), and ice it with thin, 
white icing. When thoroughly dry, lightly color the different fruits 
or flowers with their natural colors. Do not lay on the colors too 
heavily, or they will spoil the effect 

Next cut out the center of the cake (see figure 4), and fill the 
cavity thus made with a boiled custard, adding chopped almonds to 
the custard according to taste. When the custard is set and cold 
replace the top (as in figure 3), and pipe the outside of the cake in 
any way you may choose, following the design here given, or se- 
lecting from the design for dessert cake, or from page of diagrams. 

The light and dark balls at the bottom of the present design are 
intended to represent pink and yellow pastilles placed alternately 
(see figure 6). But a much easier, cheaper, handier, and more effect- 
ive mode of adding these balls, which is simply to stick on gum- 
<lrops of the alternate colors. If you can procure a good, clear 
white gumdrop, then use the three colors alternately red, yellow, 
white and the effect is capital. 

The beauty of such a piece of work, amply repays any lady 
who has the time and taste, for the trouble of mastering the ac- 
complishment, and for the small cost of material. The cost of the 
latter, when compared with the prices which would be charged by 
a professional caterer for a similar piece of work, is very small. 

RAISED PIE. 

We here present an original design, composed of five distinct 
plates, arranged and numbered for practical use. The illustration 
(page 367) represents a raised pie. It may be filled to suit the 
taste with either meats or game. 

Figure 1 shows the pie complete, with top of savory or aspic 
jelly, surmounted by a butter lamb on a chopped parsley bed, and 
piped in butter. Cornucopias on each corner are filled with root 
flowers, making a horn of plenty. 

The directions are as follows : Prepare the dough as usual for 
raised pie, and then determine the size. Next cut the base not 
less than one-half inch in thickness as per figure 2. Dock with a 
fork to prevent blistering, and lay aside on the pan ready for 



366 ORNAMENTAL ICING. 

baking. Then prepare the oval bottom, as per figure 3, wash 
over with egg, and place evenly on center of the base. Now roll 
out dough, half an inch thick, in a narrow strip, long enough to go 
all round the oval bottom (measure outside of oval by passing a 
string around it); cut it straight and even, one inch wide. Wet 
the ends, which should be cut slanting to make them fit closely, and 
the lower edge, and wrap this around the oval piece which lies on 
the base, joining ends and bottom edge securely. The edge of the 
strip will rest on the base, with the oval piece inside. Now fill 
this case to within half an inch of the top with bran, place over it 
a thin cover of dough (with a small hole in the center); wash the 
outside (except the top, which only serves to keep the side in place, 
and is not used) with egg, and bake in a moderate oven until it 
takes on a fine chestnut brown. While cold, cut out top, turn out 
bran, and the shell is ready for filling. It is better to make the 
shell the day before using, so as to fill it at leisure. To make 
the cornucopias, fold up the dough the same as you would in 
making a paper cone, and also fill with bran. Bake them separ 
rately from the pie. Now fill shell with meat or game, and next 
place the savory jelly (which should be ready cut in pieces 
one-half inch square) on the top, as per figure 6. Now mold 
a butter lamb and place on top of jelly, as per figure 7. Add 
the chopped parsley, as per figure 8; also place the cornucopia 
in position. Place the cut roots (see figure 4) one in each cor- 
nucopia (see figure 9); place a rim of sliced lemon on the top 
edge, as shown in figure 1, and add the small cut root flowers 
at base of the cornucopias, securing them with butter. Pipe the 
pie any design you choose, or, as in the design, using butter instead 
of sugar. A little parsley under each cut root flower on the corn- 
ucopias adds to the effect. Soften the butter by working it with a 
knife, not ivartning, adding a little yolk of egg to bring it to the 
required softness, and a little flour to toughen it. Figure 5 shows 
one of the cornucopias before it is placed on the shell. Serve cold, 
with a salad, on a large napkin, with a little parsley around it, 
The meat used for filling should always be cold. It is a summer 
dish, and looks well on the table. 

The special directions for making the crust for raised pie are as 



368 ORNAMENTAL ICING. 

follows : Take a quarter of a pound of lard for every pound of flour, 
add half a pint of water, also a pinch of salt ; to make it, add the 
lard to the water, bring it to a boil, then add it to the flour and 
mix as quickly as possible; when mixed wrap it up in a cloth to 
keep warm. Make into the shape or shapes selected as quickly as 
possible, as when it gets cold it hardens; when cold it will retain 
any shape given it while warm. You can use pie-molds, in which 
case simply line the mold with the paste, when the pie is made it 
is well to allow it to stand all night if possible, to get fully fixed 
before baking. Before adding any leaves or other paste decora- 
tions wash it with yolk of eggs, then add the paste leaves, and do 
not wash them. The pie will then bake a rich brown, while 
the leaves remain a pale color, giving a pretty effect. 

A very nice meat for filling is made as follows : Bone two calves' 
feet; chop fine boiled chitterlings; cut up and stew over a gentle 
fire for an hour two chickens, and two sweet breads, in a quart of 
veal gravy ; season with cayenne pepper and salt ; then add six or 
eight force-meat balls (that have been boiled) ; four boiled eggs 
quartered; and, when stewed enough, let stand until nearly cold, 
and place it in pie, cover with aspic jelly, and ornament as above 
directed. In case you do not wish to use the butter-lamb and 
aspic jelly, after filling in meat, place four quarters of a hard- 
boiled egg at equal distances apart on the top of the meat, and 
strew a few cold green peas or asparagus tops on it. This gives a 
pretty effect, and saves the trouble of making the aspic jelly. The 
shell may be filled with any cooked cold meat. Rabbits make a 
nice filling, stewed with a nice cut or two of ham or salt pork. 
Make a force-meat out of the livers beaten in a mortar until fine, 
adding freely of pepper and salt, a little nutmeg, and a few sweet 
herbs. Partridges, or any game birds, may be used, bearing in 
mind that the pie is always to be served cold. 

TO ORNAMENT A JELLY CAKE. 

Trim off the edge of the jelly cake, then give it a thin coating of 
water icing (see water icing) ; next have a cone of white icing ready. 
To the more fully illustrate this, I will request you to follow out 
the pattern in my design (Page 353). After you have made that 



PASTRY. 369 

one, you can do any other you choose, as that one explains the 
whole. Now with the cone of white (or pink sugar, if you prefer 
it), pipe on the white lines in the sketch (see sketch) ; now fill in 
between these lines with fruit jelly (use a cone filled with jelly for 
this purpose) ; next, with the leaf cone, pipe on the leaves for the 
grapes (as described in diagrams for Artistic Piping, No. 38) ; then 
with a plain round cone pipe on the grapes, as described in No. 39, 
in diagrams. (See diagrams. The edge is simple plain dots of 
white sugar. See diagram No. 2.) I would here remark, if yon 
so wish it you can pipe on the bunch of grapes with fruit jelly in- 
stead of sugar. You can also use chocolate ice instead of water 
ice for the top. Then pipe it in sugar and jelly as before, or ice it 
with jelly instead of either chocolate or water icing. In that case, 
where before you used jelly between the white lines of sugar, now 
use chocolate or pink icing. Or if you wish, you can dispense with 
the top icing of either jelly, chocolate, or water icing, and simply 
work out the design as shown in the white piping and jelly. But 
the foregoing is the most artistic ; and I would here remark that 
what I give here is given simply for the instruction of those who 
wish to do artistic work; to others the instructions will be valueless. 
But my experience teaches me that most ladies have a taste for the 
ornamental, and wish to show it in this particular, as well as in 
others. And what would appear difficult to others will be easy to 
them ; and I promise them they will be rewarded for their pains 
when they see how successful they are. 

PASTEY. 

Under the head of pastry is embraced crusts or covering for meat 
pies. Pastry made from butter, and in the same manner as for 
fruit pies, patties, etc. , is too light, brittle and gross for meat pies ; 
also too expensive. Paste made for domestic use, of lard, is also 
open to many objections, among which may be mentioned its ten- 
dency to grow soft and flabby : also its cold, sodden nature, which 
renders it extremely unpleasant to the teeth, also unpleasant to the 
palate ; it also has a tendency to lie heavily and cold on the stom- 
ach, and is altogether undesirable as an ingredient in the man- 
ufacture of pastry. Neither is it any cheaper than suet, and much 
24 



370 PASTRY. 

more difficult to manufacture into good looking pastry, and impossi- 
ble to make into good eating pastry. For as pastry for meat pies, 
patties, mince pies, etc., nothing better than suet can possibly be 
found. It is a little troublesome to those who have not been accus- 
tomed to its use, but if you follow my instructions faithfully you 
will succeed better than you expect, and will, I think, be reim- 
bursed for your trouble, and have a pastry which will give satisfac- 
tion and credit to you as the maker. 

TO USE SUET. 

Allow three quarters of a pound of beef suet for every pound of 
flour; in this case adding a little salt to the water you mix the 
flour with. First take the suet, divest it of all loose skin and 
blood spots, then with a sharp knife shred it in as fine slices as 
possible, then place it in some place where it will just feel the heat, 
nothing more (it must not be any thing like melted). While this 
is softening mix the dough; when mixed roll out in a sheet, the 
same as for best pastry, then lay on the suet to cover the dough, 
then fold and roll the same as for best pastry. (See instructions 
for puff pastry.) This paste will require a few more foldings and 
rollings than as if made with butter. When it is rolled enough, 
proceed to cover the pie dish as you would with other pastry; 
also for patties, mince pies, etc., use and w r ork it off precisely as 
you would for puff pastry. If you were (after shredding the suet) 
to beat it soft with the rolling-pin on the board, you could roll out 
the paste with more ease, and it w r ould not take more than five 
minutes. 

A very fine butter, called " French butter," for making an extra 
short yet flaky pastry, is made as follows : Take three quarters of a 
pound of beet suet, a quarter of a pound of good butter, and the 
yolk of two eggs, and a half teaspoon of salt; remove the skin and 
blood spots from the suet, place it in a mortar, pound it soft, then 
add the butter and salt, pound that well in, then add the eggs, work 
the whole into a smooth mass, then use it in the same quantity and 
in the same manner as for puff pastry. 

This suet crust rolled half an inch thick, and then into cakes with 
a cutter, say two inches in diameter, then washed with eggs and a 



PASTRY. 371 

few cuts given across the top with a sharp knife, and baked a nice 
rich brown in a middling hot even, makes a delicious article for the 
tea-table. It is not as gross as puff paste. 

I give here the best method of making a few of the hundred and 
one articles to be produced with puff and short pastry, etc. The 
following isthe most simple and best method of making short paste. 

SHORT PASTE. 

Take one pound sifted flour, place it in a bowl, add to it half a 
pound good butter. Break the butter up very fine in the flour, 
adding a little salt (according to the saltness of the butter) ; now 
add half a pint of cold water with half a teaspoonful of cream of 
tartar dissolved in it (this is to toughen it), then mix it into an 
easy dough, adding more water, if required. When mixed, work 
well together, and place it near by ready for use. Keep it covered 
with a damp cloth, or between two plates, and in a cool place. 
Short paste is very useful from the fact that it is easy to make, 
and can be kept in better shape, where the shape of the article you 
wish to make is an object. It is also better adapted for lining the 
bottom of paste pans, dishes, etc., as it is firmer than puff paste. 
Consequently it holds together, and when you wish to make a great 
deal of pastry, it is well to make a little short paste for that pur- 
pose, using the short paste for all lining or bottom work, and the 
puff paste for all top work. In using puff paste, when you have 
not made any short paste, cut out all of the tops first, then^take 
the scraps and roll them, using them for lining and bottoms. 

Now suppose we wish to make a few open tarts. 

OPEN TARTS. 

Take the puff paste, after it has received its last rolling, roll out 
evenly in a sheet one-fourth of an inch in thickness (you need not 
roll out the whole of the paste, but cut off a piece sufficient to make 
the number of tarts you wish, and roll them out). The sheet being 
ready, cut the number you require with a scalloped round cutter, 
about two and a half inches in diameter. Place them on the 
baking pans, having turned them over, bringing the bottom on the 
top. Next wash them with egg, or egg and water, then with a 



372 PASTRY. 

small, plain round cutter, one inch in diameter, make a mark in 
the center of each, pressing the cutter half through. Then just 
"dock" each in the center with the point of a knife or a fork (this 
is to prevent their blistering), now bake them. You will then find 
that the part marked with the small, round cutter has detached 
itself from the other part ; this you remove with a penknife or a 
fork, and a hole will be left, into which pour what jam or jelly 
you intend using. This plan is far preferable for making the hole 
to receive the jelly than to place, as some recommend, sliced potatoes 
or small yieces of wood in the center, removing them when baked. 
These certainly form the hole, but their weight keeps down the 
pastry, and consequently it is not so light. By the plan I have 
given you obtain a good hole for the jelly without injuring the 
lightness of the pastry. Some add their jelly before baking, but 
that is wrong, as in baking the heat causes the jelly to boil, and 
it spreads itself over the tart and spoils its appearance. 

OYSTER PATE (A LA PYRAMID). 

Take a piece of short paste, or scraps of puff paste, roll it out 
one-fourth of an inch thick, and cut out the number of pieces you 
require with the same cutter as for open tarts, place them in baking 
pan and "dock" them with a fork. Now cut a like number with 
the same cutter, and of the same thickness, but from the best puff 
paste, wash those cut from the scraps, or short paste, and place 
those cut from the puff paste on them, wash with egg, and " dock" 
them in the middle. Next cut a like number, same thickness, with 
the same cutter, and from puff paste, cut the middle right out of 
these with a plain round cutter, one inch and a half in diameter, 
place these rings on the other parts. These are now ready to 
bake. While they are baking take the piece that comes from the 
middle of the ring piece and roll it out a little larger, then cut 
three other pieces with a scalloped round cutter, each a size smaller 
than the others ; place them on baking pans, " dock" them, wash 
with egg, and bake them. When these parts are all baked, if 
the hole is not deep enough for the purpose, you can, with a 
knife, remove some of the pastry inside the ring. To serve these 
you fill the case, or part with the hole, with chopped oysters, pre- 



PASTRY. 373 

pared in white butter sauce, and then add the other pieces, beginning 
with the largest and finishing with the smallest. You will then 
have a pyramid about six inches high. Place small sprigs of 
parsley between the part containing the oysters and the others, 
also a piece of parsley on each, then dish them and serve. These 
cases will serve for oysters, lob.-ters, or chicken. I would here re- 

*> 

mark that oyster and other pates can be made more simply than the 

above, but my idea is not to attempt to teach what I presume is 
already known, but to furnish you with some ideas which you may 

use with advantage when you wish to place something more elab- 
rate before your special guests than ordinarily. A vol au vent is 
made in precisely the same manner as the above oyster pates, but 
from eight to twelve times larger, and generally oval in shape. It 
is usually filled with cold fricassee of fowl or chicken. The fricassee 
for a vol au vent must be good and well-jellied. Before serving a 
wl au 'vent, place it on an oval dish and garnish it tastefully with 
aspic jelly, parsley, and cut root flowers. An ordinary size for a 
vol au vent would be a case large enough to hold a fricassee of one 
large fowl or two chickens. 

KASPBEKRY PUFF. 

Proceed precisely the same as for open tarts. When you have 
cut the desired number, roll them out thin, about six inches in 
diameter, Now place a teaspoouful of raspberry preserves on it, a 
little from the center, spread it a little, and then bring the back 
part over on the preserve, keeping it back a little from the front 
edge, for if it laps over the bottom edge is prevented from rising. 
It is best to allow the top edge to lie back from the the front edge 
at least one-fourth of an inch. This folding forms a half circle. 
This .being done, wash them with water, or egg and water, and 
dust them with powdered sugar. Also cut a few deep but shor; 
cuts across the top over where the preserve lays when baked, 
the preserve shows through. 

COVENTRY PUFF. 

For these take scraps of puff paste and roll out into a sheet 
one-fourth of an inch in thickness. Cut the number of pieces you 
require with a plain round cutter three inches in diameter. . Roll 



374 PASTRY. 

these out same as for raspberry puffs; add some fancy preserves, 
then fold or lap the paste over in three folds, so that when it is 
folded it will form a triangle. Then turn the folded part down on 
the baking pans, wash these with water, or egg and water; dust 
with powdered sugar, and bake. You do not cut these on the top. 

DEEP FRUIT PIES. 

Fruit pies in deep dishes, such as made by the English and 
French, are preferable to ordinary fruit pie, because you obtain 
more juice and fruit. The best method of making these is as fol- 
lows: Take a deep, oval pie dish (china, not tin), line the edge with 
paste, also about half its depth inside. Now invert a small cup in 
center (an egg cup is best), and one that will stand a little above the 
edge of the dish ; next fill the dish with fruit, then add a little water 
if the fruit has not much juice. Some fruits, such as currants 
and raspberries, have enough juice. Also add sugar to taste ; now 
cover this with a crust of short paste, wash it with water, or white 
of an egg, and dust with powdered sugar. Make a few fancy cuts 
on it before baking, and after it is washed and sugared do not cut 
too deep. These cuts give a rich looking appearance. The cup in 
the center collects the juice, and if the whole of the pie is not eaten 
at one meal, what is left can be supplied with juice by simply lift- 
ing up the cup and allowing the juice to escape. The edge of this 
pie, to be artistic, should be pinched with the finger and thumb, 
then notched with a knife. If you use fruit which gives too much 
juice, you can prevent the boiling over by mixing a little flour with 
the sugar, about one teaspoonful of flour to twelve of sugar. 

ECCLES CAKES OR TARTS. 

Take one cupful of clean, well-picked currants, add to them one 
cupful of granulated sugar and one finely chopped lemon peel ; add 
to this a nice flavoring of ground ginger ard cinnamon and mix the 
whole well together. Now take what short crust paste or cuttings 
of puff paste you require and roll it out in a short one-fourth of an 
inch thick, then cut it up in square pieces two inches square and 
put a teaspoonful of the above preparation of currants, etc. , in the 
center of each piece of pastry ; then pull over the edges allowing 






PASTRY. 375 

them to lap a little in the center ; then flatten them with the hand 
and turn them over (folded part down). Next, with rolling pin, 
roll them out until the currants, peel, etc., breaks through. Then 
place them on the baking pans, give them a few cuts across the top 
with a knife, wash them with milk or milk and egg, dust them with 
sugar and bake them a nice brown in a hot oven. This is a nice 
eating pastry. 

REAL ENGLISH BANBURY CAKE. 

Take an equal quantity of clean, well-picked currants, granu- 
lated sugar and finely chopped lemon peel and mix it all together 
and then add a nice flavoring of ginger and cinnamon ; now add 
good fresh butter, enough to form the whole into a nice paste. Take 
the best puff paste, roll it out in a sheet one-fourth of an inch 
thick ; cut this in pieces two inches square and place a piece of the 
prepared butter, currants, etc., in the center of each; now take the 
two corners, the one nearest to you and the one opposite you, bring 
them up, press them together, and then with the palm of the hand 
press them down flat. This makes the pieces oval in shape and 
leaves two ends which are folded together at libertv to rise ; now 

o */ 

wash the part that is not folded with water and add as much pow- 
dered sugar as you can get to remain on. Bake these in a slow 
heat. These are a little expensive, but are very fine and are the 
real English Banbury. 

FANCY OR BOOK SAUSAGE ROLL. 

Take a piece of best puff paste, roll it out to an eighth of an inch 
in thickness ; then cut it up in squares four inches square, lay them 

out on board ; then have the sausage meat ready, break it off in 
pieces the size of a small egg ; roll them out three inches long and 
place one piece in the middle of each square of pastry, Now wet 
che edge of the pastry with water, then bring the part furthest from 
you over on to the part nearest to you, taking care to let it be back 
from the front at least one-fourth of an inch ; now wash these with 
egg, taking care not to allow the egg to run down over the sides 
of the pastry. Next give a few shallow cuts with a sharp knife ; 
then cut a leaf of pastry, place it in the center (do not wash it), 
and bake them a nice brown. If these are made well the edges 
will rise up and the roll will look like a book. 



376 PASTRY. 

RASPBERRY SANDWICHES. 

Take a piece of puff paste, after it is fully rolled and folded, then 
roll it out, one-fourth inch in thickness and fold it over evenly (like 
a sheet of paper). Now roll this out to an eighth of an inch in 
thickness and about twelve inches in width ; now roll this up in a 
roll the same as you would a sheet of paper ; this sheet of paste 
should be so arranged in size as to form a roll (when rolled up) cf 
two inches or two and a half inches in diameter ; when this is roll- . 
up wet the edge so that it may not unfold again ; next press it flat 
until you reduce it to about three-fbnrths of an inch in thickness; 
now take a sharp knife and cut it off in slices one-fourth of inch in 
thickness, lay these on the pan, cut part down, give them room and 
they will then flow considerably. Now bake them. When baked 
dust them well with powdered sugar and return them to the oven, 
which must, in the mean time, be made very hot so as to melt the 
sugar, thi-s giving them a fine glaze. If you have a salamander to 
hold over them it will glaze them quicker than the oven, but if you 
have no salamander, and can not get the oven hot enough, then 
wash them with the white of an egg, dust them with sugar and re- 
turn them to the oven for a few minutes. When all this is done 
spread raspberry jam or jelly on them and stick two together. You 
can dish them up artistically as fancy directs. They make a pretty 
dish and are all that can be desired in point of eating, and are a 
favorite on all French tables. 

GUTTER TARTS. 

Take small patty pans, line them out with short crust and then 
fill them with red currants, black currants, raspberries or what fruit 
you choose ; heap them up high in the center, add a little powdered 
sugar to each, wet the edge of the paste with water, then lay on F 
top covering about an eighth of inch thick, press the two edges oi 
pastry together and then with a sharp knife pare off the excess of 
pastry from the edges of the patty pans, holding the knife in a slant- 
ing position toward the center of the tart or patty ; now with the 
thumb press the paste around the base of the fruit, about half an 
inch from the edge of the patty pan ; press it hard enough to all 
but break the paste and so as to push the fruit up in a cone in the 



OTT 



PASTRY. 377 

center ; now wash them with water and bake them. The object 
of pressing the paste so thin around the base of the fruit, is that 
the juice of the fruit may break through the paste in baking and 
run around the groove or gutter formed by the pressing of the 
paste, and when baked it has a rich and pretty effect. They take 
their name from the peculiar appearance given to them by the fruit 
juice so running in this groove, and are consequently called gutter 
tarts. They look very pretty and give a fine effect. 

CREAPKECIES. 

Line out shallow patty pans with scraps of best paste rolled in a 
sheet, place a piece of bread in each and bake them in a cool oven ; 
when baked remove the bread and place in a teaspoonful of red 
currant or some other jellies or jam ; next cover this with some 
cheese cake preparation or with a custard that will set. Next 
have ready a little meringue, made in the usual manner from the 
whites of eggs and sugar, place a tablespoonful on each, bringing it 
up cone form ; sprinkle a little pink sugar on this and return them 
to the oven, just to color them a light brown? 

FONCHONETTS. 

Proceed as for " creaprecies." When baked place an almond 
macaroon (procurable at any bakers or grocers if you have none in 
store) in each, cover the macaroon with half quince and half red 
currant jelly. Next have paper cone, same as used for ornament- 
ing a cake with frosting, fill this cone with meringue, same as used 
for the "creaprecies;" next drop a spoonful of meringue in the 
center on the jelly, then with the meringue in the paper cone drop 
a small cone shaped pile on the center, on what is already on 
the jelly; then drop five or six around it. This will give you 
a circle of cones with one in the center ; the cones must not be too 
<mall, as they will not look well ; they should be as large as a 
twenty-five cent piece and at least one inch in height ; now return 
them to the oven just to color them. When cold drop just a little 
red currant jelly on the point of each cone. This makes one of 
the prettiest of fancy pastry dishes, and sets off a table wonder- 
fully well. 

I will give my method of making a beefsteak pie. 



378 PASTRY. 

BEEF STEAK PIE. 

First prepare seasoning of three parts salt and one part black 
pepper, with just a dash of ground nutmeg; next take tender steak, 
enough to fill the dish, cut this up into thin slices, now take each 
slice, sprinkle it with just enough of the above seasoning to season 
it (not too high), then sprinkle it with chopped parsley; next roll 
it up and pass a small wooden skewer through it, to hold it, or you 
can dispense with the skewer if you place the fold downward, to 
prevent its unfolding ; continue this until the dish is full, then add 
water sufficient to make a good gravy, now lay on the top of this a 
few hard boiled eggs sliced, then put on the crust, previously having 
lined the inside edge of the dish with paste ; now wash the top with 
eggs and bake it in a moderate heat ; as soon as it boils, and has 
boiled about ten minutes, the whole should be cooked. By adopting 
this plan the meat will be tender and the gravy much richer than 
by the plan of par-boiling the meat prior to baking ; the point to ob- 
serve being not to bake it too quick. For a simple beefsteak pie, 
cut the steak into strips about half an inch in thickness, season 
them, lay them in the dish, add water for gravy, cover with crust 
and bake. 

THE ECLIPSE ORNAMENTER. Those who wish to practice the art taught in Prof. 
King's lessons, will find the invention, represented in the accompanying cut, a great 
convenience and saving of time, trouble and sugar. It seems to do away with all the 
annoyances which are incident to the use of the paper cones, either with or without the 
tubes mentioned in the lessons. These require a cone for every pattern of tube 
required for the work, or, if tubes are dispensed with altogether, many paper conoa are 
required, in order to produce good work, owing to the end of the cone no matter how 
correctly it may have been cut getting soft, as all paper will, to say 
nothing of the annoyances from bursting, etc., etc., or the loss of 
sugar in each cone. 

No. 4 represents the bag, which may be paper or rubber. No. 3 
the cap which fits in the bag, and to which No. 2, which contains 
the tube No. 1, is screwed. The dotted lines between figures Nos. 
2 and 3 represent where the cup containing the tube screws on. 

To use it unscrew the part of the dotted lines between Nos. 2 and 
3 ; drop the tube into the cup No. 2, then screw it on to cup No. 3 ; 
it is then ready for use. If you wish to change the tube, you have- 
only to unscrew at the dotted lines as stated before, and insert 
what tube you require to continue work. The cut at the side 
shows the tube in the cup, ready to be screwed on the cup No. 3. 

The price of the ornamentor is $2.50, and it may be had by corres- 
pondence with Prof. C. H King, Orange, New Jersey. By a special arrangement any 
lady who is the owner of "Practical Housekeeping" will be supplied at twenty per> 
cent, discount from the retail price. 




A YEAR'S BILL OF FARE. 

The following arrangement of Bills of Fare for every day in the year 
has been made with especial reference to convenience, economy, and 
adaptation to the wants of ladies who are so fortunate as to be obliged to 
look after their own kitchens not for those who employ professional 
cooks. The recipes referred to are all contained in this book, and may be 
quickly found by reference to the alphabetical index. The bills of fare 
are not, of course, arbitrary, but are intended to suggest such a variety as 
will meet the wants of the whole family. The arrangement w r as made for 
a year beginning with Thursday. When the current year begins earlier, 
the last day or days of December may be used to precede those here 
given for January, and the dates changed on the margin with a soft pen- 
-cil, so that they may be readily erased and changed again for subsequent 
years. A daily reference to these pages will, w r e feel sure, save the house- 
wife much puzzling over the question, "What shall we have for dinner ?" 

For the sake of brevity, coffee, tea, chocolate, lemonade in hot weather, 
and milk in cold weather, have not been mentioned in the bills of fare. 
They are of course appropriate to any meal, and are to be used according 
to taste. Soup as a regular dinner course, is always in order, following 
oysters raw when the latter are in season. Soups vary in name far more 
than in quality. Much of the slop served as soup a la this, that and the 
other, would not, except for the name, be recognized as something to be 
taken into the human stomach. This, however, may be a matter of small 
importance when a bountiful dinner of good things is to follow, but in 
cases w r here healthy stomachs are demanding supplies, a really good soup, 
with or without name, is heartily relished, and is very wholesome as pre- 
paring the way for more solid food. In any family where soup is rel- 
ished a sufficient supply may be made daily, or as often as desired, with 
but little trouble and trifling addition to the regular expenses. 

Fresh fish, as a separate course, comes next in order. Large fish of 
some sort are usually considered most elegant, either baked or boiled, for 
dinner, and they are really very nice when they can be procured freshly 
killed and dripping with their native waters. 

Bread is always an accompaniment of every course at dinner, bread and 
butter being more properly a part of dessert, Cheese is to most persons 
a pleasant tit-bit at dessert, and pickles, of one or another variety, appro- 
priate to the dishes served, are seen on the table at nearly every meal. 

On Sunday, in most families, the dinner is delayed until two 6r three 
o'clock and the supper omitted entirely, and in winter when the days are 
ehort, especially in the more northern states, two meals a day is the rule 

<37<J) 



380 A YEARS BILL OF FARE. 

for every day. In large cities, too, where business hours are fewer, and 
the men of the household lunch down town on account of the distance 
residences are from business, the dinner is delayed -until later in the day, 
and the bill of fare varied accordingly. 

Fruits, in their natural state, are too much neglected at the tables of 
people in moderate circumstances. Pies, puddings and other compounds, 
made partly of fruit, are generally less wholesome and really less palata- 
table than the fruit itself in a natural state or with some simple dressing. 
In most localities berries in their season are not costly. Strawberries, 
fresh, ripe and luscious, for breakfast, dinner and supper, can not be sub- 
stituted by any thing more agreeable and refreshing, and as the season 
for this fruit is always short it is scarcely possible to weary of them. 
Scarcely less delicious are the raspberries, blackberries and huckleberries 
which follow soon. Then come ripe watermelons, cantelopes, nutmeg and 
musk melons und grapes, peaches and pears. Those who raise their own 
melons will need no instruction on the subject of serving and eating 
them. After the fruit is well grown, a good shot-gun and a keen eye on 
the '"patch" is all that is necessary to secure a ripe crop. But to the 
dainty housekeeper who must buy her melon after a week or two of 
shipping, reshipping, transporting .and handling, until it has cost nearly 
its weight in gold, the best instructions are: Get your melon as fresh as 
possible; let it remain on ice several hours or all night; if it cuts crisp, 
and has ripe seeds and tastes well flavored, cut the ends off and set up 
on a dish; divide both halves through the middle and serve in long slices- 
or cut in rings; pass a waiter to receive the rinds. But if the meat of 
the melon appears wilted or withered, or is not perfectly ripe, pass it to 
the four-footed beasts, where it should have gone in the first place. Those 
who can afford the more costly tropical fruit, such as bananas and pine 
apples, should slice them as thin as possible, place in the prettiest and 
shallowest glass fruit-stands, and cover well with sugar for some time before 
serving. 

Suggestions for the tasteful decoration of the table will be found under 
"The Dining Room." 

BILL OF FARE FOR JANUARY. 

1. BKEAKFAST Waffles, broiled steak, fried apples. DINNER Roast duck, 
apple sauce, a brown stew, mashed turnips, sweet potatoes baked, celery ; 
prairie plum pudding with sauce, fruit cake, oranges. SUPPER Light bis- 
cuit, whipped cream with preserves, sliced beef. For more elaborate bill of 
fare see page 531. 

2. BREAKFAST Corn muffins, broiled fish, fried raw potatoes. DINNER 
Macaroni soup, salmi of duck, potatoes roasted, oyster salad, canned peas, 
celery sauce ; pumpkin pie. SUPPER Toasted muffins, shaved dried beef, 
tea rusk, baked apples. 

3. BREAKFAST Breakfast wheat, pig's feet souse, breakfast potatoes. DIN- 
NER Boiled bacon with cabbage, potatoes, turnips, carrots, onion sauce, 
chicken pie ; bread pudding with sauce. SUPPER Biscuit, cold bacon shaved, 
bread and milk, sponge cake and jelly 



A YEARS BILL OF FARE. 381 

4. Sunday. BREAKFAST Buckwheat cakes, croquettes of sausage meat, 
breakfast hominy. DINNER Roast turkey, mashed potatoes, Lima beans, 
cranberry sauce, celery ; mince pie, ambrosia, cake. SUPPER Cold biscuit, 
sliced turkey, cranberry jelly, apple sauce. 

5. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, fried tripe, potato cakes. DINNER Escaloped 
turkey, baked potatoes, pickled beets; cottage pudding, cake. SUPPER Cold 
rolls, dried beef frizzled, hot buns, fried apples. 

6. BREAKFAST Graham gems, broiled mutton, potatoes a la pancake. DIN- 
NER Turkey soup, roast beef with potatoes, stewed tomatoes, celery; rice 
pudding, fruit cake. SUPPER Cold buns, sliced beef, Indian pudding (corn 
mush) and milk. 

7. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, fried mush and maple syrup, fried liver. 
DINNER Meat pie with chili sauce, mashed turnips, stewed corn ; apple 
dumplings with sauce, cake. SUPPER Tea roils, sardines with sliced lemon, 
rusk, jelly. 

8. BREAKFAST Beat biscuit, broiled steak, ringed potatoes. DINNER 
Baked chicken- garnished w r ith fried oysters, potatoes in their jackets, cran- 
berry sauce, tomatoes, slaw; molasses pudding, lady fingers. SUPPER Cold 
biscuit, boned chicken, sponge cake, canned peaches. 

9. BREAKFAST Toast, fried fish, potatoes fried. DINNER Stuffed baked 
rabbit, whole boiled potatoes, salsify stewed, celery sauce ; apple float, pump- 
kin pie, cake. SUPPER French rolls, cold tongue, sliced oranges. 

10. BREAKFAST Bread puffs, broiled sausage, whole potatoes fried. DIN- 
NER Saturday bean soup, fried mutton chops, plain boiled rice, potatoes 
baked, beet salad ; March pudding w r ith sauce, fruit meringue. SUPPER 
Plain bread, bologna sausage, jelly cake. 

11. Sunday. BREAKFAST Baked beans and brown bread, fried potatoes. 
DINNER Roast goose, steamed potatoes and turnips, slaw, onion sauce, plum 
jelly; mince pie, jelly tarts, oranges, cakes. SUPPER Cold biscuit, cold 
goose, apple jelly. 

12. BREAKFAST Oatmeal porridge, hashed goose with gravy, plain bread. 
DINNER Roast mutton, potatoes, canned peas, caper sauce ; delicious lemon 
pudding, sponge cake. SUPPER Graham gems, sliced mutton, currant 
jelly. 

13. BREAKFAST Corn batter cakes, croquettes of mutton or pates hot with 
gravy. DINNER Boiled beef with soup, potatoes, 'parsnips, chili sauce; 
baked custard, jelly cake. SUPPER Dry toast, sliced beef, canned fruit. 

14. BREAKFAST Stewed kidneys, Graham bread, fricasseed potatoes. DIN- 
NER Oyster pie, potatoes, tomatoes, salsify, celery; apple pie with cream. 
SUPPER Toasted Graham bread, dried beef, apple fritters with sugar. 

15. BREAKFAST Sally Limn, hash, cracked wheat and cream. DINNER 
Roast duck, potatoes, winter succotash, onions baked, celery; cocoanut pud- 
ding, oranges, jelly cake. SUPPER Toasted Sally Lunn, cold duck, plain 
rice with cream. 

16. J^HEAKFAST Rice cakes, spare ribs broiled, fried raw potatoes. DIN- 
NER Baked fish, canned corn, tomato sauce, fricassee of salmon or halibut, 
baked potatoes; tapioca pudding. SUPPER Warm rolls, cold pressed meat, 
orange sho^t cake. 

17. BREAKFAST Waffles, mutton chops broiled, potatoes fried. DIN- 
NER Chicken pot-pie, canned beans, celery ; peach rolls, oranges. SUPPER 
Tea rolls, bologna sausage sliced and toasted, apples. 

18. Sunday. BREAKFAST Muffins, broiled steak, stewed tomatoes. DIN- 
NER Roast pork with parsnips, potatoes mashed, apple sauce, celery ; cold 
apple pie, rice snow. SUPPER Muffins, cold chicken, canned fruit, light 
cake. 

19. BREAKFAST Fried sausage, buckwheat cakes, potatoes a la dnchesse. 
DINNER Roast beef, baked potatoes, tomatoes, beet salad ; apple dumplings 
with sauce, cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, sliced beef, stewed apples, mush and 
milk. 



382 A YEARS BILL OF FARE. 

20. BREAKFAST Plain bread, fried mush, pig's feet souse. DINNER Boiled 
leg of mutton with soup, potatoes, boiled tongue dressed, canned corn, cel- 
ery sauce ; pumpkin pie, cake. SUPPER Hot biscuit, cold tongue, apple 
fritters with sauce. 

21. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, mutton croquettes, Sweeties' favorites. DIN- 
NER Meat pie, baked sweet potatoes, canned succotash, cabbage salad; 
hot peach pie with cream. SUPPER Cold biscuit, sliced tongue, buns, apples 
and jelly, 

22. BREAKFAST Corn cakes, broiled steak, potato croquettes. DINNER 
Roast duck, potatoes, salsify, onion salad, cranberry jelly ; bread pudding 
with sauce. SUPPER Beefsteak toast, cold duck, currant jelly. 

23. BREAKFAST Buckwheat cakes, broiled fish, potato balls. DINNER 
Oyster pie, mashed potatoes, baked beets, celery sauce ; chocolate pudding, 
oranges. SUPPER Light biscuit, cold pressed meat, bread and milk. 

2i. BREAKFAST Breakfast wheat, broiled spare ribs, tomato sauce. DIN- 
NER Boiled ham with cabbage, potatoes, parsnips, carrots, beets; warrq 
pie of dried fruit. SUPPER Hot rolls, shaved ham, fried apples. 

25. Sunday. BREAKFAST Muffins, broiled tenderloin, cabbage hash. DIN- 
NER Stewed oysters, roast turkey with potatoes, turnips, Lima beans, apple 
sauce, celery ; mince pie, rice snow. SUPPER Muffins, cold turkey, canned 
fruit, tea cakes. 

26. BREAKFAST Corn batter cakes, croquettes of turkey, hominy. DIN- 
NER Boiled corned beef with turnips, potatoes, carrots, horseradish sauce ; 
sago pudding. SUPPER Light biscuit, sliced corned beef, baked apples. 

27. BREAKFAST Graham gems, broiled mutton, potatoes. DINNER Escal- 
oped turkey, baked potatoes, split peas, onion salad ; prairie plum pudding 
with whipped cream. SUPPER Toasted gems, pates of cold turkey, tea rusk, 

jelly. 

28. BREAKFAST Waffles, broiled beefsteak, potatoes. DINNER Chicken 
boiled with soup, w r hole potatoes boiled, plain boiled rice, cabbage salad; ap- 
ple pie, cake. SUPPER Vienna rolls, cold chicken, canned fruit, cake. 

29. BREAKFAST Corn cakes, broiled sausage, fricasseed potatoes. DIN- 
NER Roast beef, potatoes, chicken salad, cranberry sauce, celery ; plain 
boiled pudding with sauce, cake. SUPPER Plain bread, cold beef, rice frit- 
ters with jelly. 

30. BREAKFAST Oat meal porridge, panned oysters on toast, fried raw pota- 
toes. DINNER Baked fish, mashed potatoes, mayonnaise of salmon, salsify 
stewed, cranberry sauce ; brown betty, cake. SUPPER Light biscuit, fish 
balls, apple fritters with sugar. 

31. BREAKFAST Sally Lunn, pork steak, fried potatoes. DINNER Fillet 
of beef stuffed and baked, potatoes, cabbage salad, beets ; baked apple dump- 
lings, cake. SUPPER Toasted Sally Lunn, cold beef, apple croutes. 

BILL OF FARE FOR FEBRUARY. 

1. Sunday. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, broiled sirloin steak, Saratoga potatoes. 
DINNER Chicken pie with oysters, roast potatoes, salsify, dried Lima beans, 
lobster salad, currant jelly ; orange pudding, fruit cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, 
cold tongue, cake and jelly. 

2. BREAKFAST Corn pone, stewed tripe, potatoes a la Lyonnaise. DINNER 
"Whole boiled potatoes and carrots, baked heart, stewed tomatoes ; canned 
fruit and cake. SUPPER Toasted pone, cold heart sliced, plain bread, quince 
preserves with whipped cream. 

3. BREAKFAST Buckwheat cakes, broiled sausage, breakfast hominy. DIN- 
NER Roast mutton, mashed potatoes, baked macaroni, celery, currant jelly ; 
chocolate blanc mange, sponge cake. SUPPER Cold mutton sliced, currant 
jelly, buttered toast, rusk, stewed apples. 

4. BREAKFAST Graham bread, broiled bacon, fried potatoes. DINNER 
Boiled corned beef with horseradish k sauce, whole boiled potatoes and tur- 



A YEAR'S BILL OF FARE. 383 

nips, slaw, hot apple pie with whipped cream, oranges and cake. SUPPER 
Toasted Graham bread, cold corned beef sliced, grape jelly, hot buns. 

5. BREAKFAST Broiled fish, corn batter cakes, potato rissoles. DINNER 
Roast beef with potatoes, tomatoes, canned beans, celery sauce ; tapi- 
oca float, cake. SUPPER Cold roast beef, beat biscuit, floating island, tea 
cakes. 

6. BREAKFAST Broiled oysters on toast, tomato sauce, flannel cakes with 
honey or maple syrup. DINNER Baked or boiled fish if fresh, or friccasee 
if canned, mashed potatoes, fried parsnips, cabbage salad a la Mayonnaise; 
apple dumplings with sauce. SUPPER Dried beef shaved and warmed up 
in butter, corn mush hot with milk, canned fruit and light cakes. 

7. BREAKFAST Broiled mutton chops, fried mush, scrambled eggs. DIN- 
NER Beef soup, whole potatoes boiled, ham boiled, cabbage, parsnips, 
mixed pickles; cottage pudding with sauce, cake. SUPPER Light biscuit, 
cold ham shaved, apple croutes, plain rice with sugar and cream. 

8. Sunday. BREAKFAST Sally Lunn, ham balls, fried raw potatoes, 
DINNER Oyster soup, roast duck, potatoes baked, turnips mashed, cran- 
berry sauce, celery; mince-pie, oranges, iced cakes. SUPPER Cold Sally 
Lunn, cold duck, dried apples. 

9. BREAKFAST Breakfast wheat, croquettes of cold meat or broiled bacon 
with potatoes. DINNER Baked potatoes, apple sauce, salmi of duck, 
pickled oysters, bread and apple pudding with sauce, cake. SUPPER Light 
oiscuit, Yankee dried beef, canned fruit. 

10. BREAKFAST Waffles, broiled steak, breakfast potatoes. DINNER 
Baked chicken, potatoes, salsify, onion sauce, celery ; hot peach pie with 
cream, chocolate cake, oranges. SUPPER Rolls, cold chicken, apple frit- 
ters with sugar. 

11. BREAKFAST Graham gems, fried liver, potatoes. DTNNER Mutton 
soup, boiled mutton with caper sauce, potatoes, canned peas, mixed 
pick?es; boiled fruit pudding with solid sauce. SUPPER Toasted gems, 
cold mutton sliced, short cake and jam. 

12. BREAKFAST Hot pates of mutton with rich, brown gravy, plain 
bread, fried potatoes. DINNER Chicken fricassee, boiled tongue dressed, 
potatoes, boiled onions, tomato sauce ; pumpkin pie. SUPPER Beat bis- 
cuit, cold tongue shaved, cream cakes and jelly. 

13. BREAKFAST Corn muffins, broiled fish, potatoes. DINNER Boiled 
turkey with oyster sauce, mashed potatoes and turnips, grape jelly, celery; 
roly poly of dried fruit with jelly sauce, sponge cake. SCUPPER Toasted 
muffins, cold turkey, currant jelly. 

14. BREAKFAST Buckwheat cakes, broiled spare ribs, potato croquettes. 
DINNER Escaloped turkey, cranberry sauce, boiled middling with cab- 
bage, potatoes, carrots, pickled beets; apple meringue. SUPPER Oatmeal 
porridge/ toasted crackers, bologna sausage, fried apples, cakes. 

15. tiantiay. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, broiled oysters, potatoes. DINNER 
Turkey soup, chicken pie with oysters, potatoes, Lima beans, slaw, celery ; 
mince pie, cranberry tarts, oranges, cakes. SUPPER Cold rolls, sliced dried 
beef, custard cakes and jelly. 

16. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, broiled beef steak, fried potatoes. DIN- 
NER Beau soup, roast beef, currant jelly, potatoes, turnips ; pie. SUPPER > 
Plain bread, beef steak toast, rice fritters with sugar. 

17. BREAKFAST Corn cakes, hash, fried potatoes. DINNER Roast pork with 
sweet potatoes or parsnips, pudding of canned corn, pickled beets, apple 
custard pie, jelly cake. SUPPER Sardines, coffee cakes or sweet buns, pre- 
served fruit. 

18. BREAKFAST Hot biscuit, broiled pork, fried potatoes. DINNER 
Potato soup, mashed "potatoes, salsify, beef steak pudding, celery ; choco- 
late custard, golden cream cake. SUPPER Cold biscuit, cold tongue, cur- 
rant jelly, apple croutes. 

19. BREAKFAST Graham bread, Katy's cod fish, fried potatoes. DINNER 



384 A YEARS BILL OF FARE. 

Baked stuffed heart, potatoes, tomatoes, celery ; corn starch blanc mange. 
SUPPER Toasted Graham bread, cold heart sliced, dried fruit stewed, tea 
cakes. 

20. BREAKFAST Cream toast, fried oysters, plain bread. DINI.ER Oyster 
pie, mashed potatoes, baked squash, tomato sauce, slaw ; hot peach pie 
with whipped cream, cake. SUPPER Light biscuit, marmalade, bread and 
milk. 

21. BREAKFAST Buckwheat cakes, broiled sausage, hominy. DINNER 
Saturday bean soup, boiled potatoes, ham boiled, cabbage, carrots, celery 
sauce ; pumpkin pie. SUPPER Plain bread, shaved ham, lemon fritters with 
sugar. 

'22. Sundaif. BREAKFAST Baked beans and Boston brown bread, fried 
apples. DINNER Oyster soup, roast of mutton, baked potatoes, Lima 
beans, tomatoes, salsify, cranberry jelly, celery, mayonnaise of salmon ; 
mince pie, ambrosia and fruit cake. SUPPER High rolls, mutton, currant 
jelly, chocolate blanc mange, assorted cakes. 

23*. BREAKFAST Beat biscuit, mutton warmed in butter, or broiled fish, 
croquettes of cold vegetables. DINNER Beef a la mode, mashed potatoes 
and turnips, boiled rice, cottage pudding, cake. SUPPER Cold biscuit, dried 
beef, apple tapioca pudding. 

24. BREAKFAST Rice cakes, pigs' feet souse, potato cakes. DINNER 
Chicken pie, stewed onions, turnips, pickled beets; boiled batter pudding 
with cream sauce. SUPPER Buttered toast, baked apples and whipped 
cream, tea cakes. 

25. BREAKFAST Corn batter cakes, broiled bacon, boiled eggs. DINNER 
Roast turkey, mashed potatoes, turnips, canned peas, cranberry sauce, celery; 
poor man's pudding, cranberry tarts. SUPPER Light biscuit, cold tur- 
key, tea rusk, canned fruit. 

26. BREAKFAST Sally Lunn, broiled steak, fried potatoes. DINNER 
Boiled mutton with soup, mashed potatoes, canned corn, tomatoes, celery, 
apple sauce ; bread pudding with fruit, cocoanut cake. SUPPER Cold mut- 
ton, toasted rusk, jelly. 

27. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, turkey hash .and potatoes rissoles. DINNER 
Baked or boiled fish, meat pie, mashed potatoes, plain rice, salsify ; prune 
pudding with whipped cream, cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, fish balls, apple 
fritters w T ith sugar. 

28. BREAKFAST Bread puffs, broiled spare ribs or bacon. DINNER Sat- 
urday bean soup, boiled shoulder or ham with cabbage, potatoes, parsnips, 
carrots, pickled beets; lemon pie. SUPPER Bread and milk hot, cold ham, 
jelly and cake. 

29. Sunday. BREAKFAST Baked beans and Boston brown bread fried 
potatoes, omelet. DINNER Stewed oysters, baked chicken, mashed pota- 
toes, cabbage salad, celery; cranberry tarts, oranges, cakes an<i 
SUPPER Muffins, cold chicken, grape jelly, custard cake and fruits. 

BILL OF FARE FOR MARCH. 

1. BREAKFAST Cream toast, chicken croquettes, boiled eggs. 
Beefsteak pudding, stewed salsify, baked potatoes, lobster salad, tilery; 
one-two-three-four pudding, jelly cake, nuts, raisins. SUPPER Light bis- 
cuit, codfish wath cream, canned fruit and plain cake. 

2. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, broiled mutton chops, fried potatoes. DIN- 
NER Oyster soup, roast beef with potatoes, kidney beans saute, horserad- 
ish sauce; cream pie, sponge cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, sliced beef, jam. 

3. BREAKFAST Corn muffins, broiled fish, escaloped eggs. DINNER 
Boiled salt cod with mashed potatoes, canned peas, cabbage salad a la May- 
onnaise; baked custard, cake. SUPPER Bologna sausage sliced, broiled and 
buttered hot, plain bread, toasted rusk, raspberry jam. 

4. BREAKFAST Muffins, broiled beef steak, breakfast hominy. DINNEB 



A YEARS BILL OF FARE. 385 

Soup of beef bones and vegetables to taste, oyster pie, mashed potatoes, 
stewed celery, pickled beets ; steamed batter pudding with rich sauce, cake. 
SUPPEK Toasted muffins, cold sliced beef, baked apples hot, and tea cakes. 

5. BREAKFAST Yankee dried beef, poached eggs on buttered toast, plain 
bread. DINNER Baked fish, lemon sauce, mashed potatoes, spinach, orange 
pudding with jelly sauce, cake. SUPPER Plain bread, broiled Scotch her- 
ring, crackers split, toasted and buttered, short-cake with jelly. 

6. BREAKFAST- Corn pone or griddle cakes, fried beefsteak, fried onions, 
DINNER Beef a la mode, potatoes Kentucky style, carrots saute, cabbage 
slaw with cream dressing, mixed pickles, Italian cream and cake. SUP- 
PER Cold pone sliced and toasted, or plain bread toast, cold beef sliced, 
warm ginger-bread and chocolate blanc mange. 

7. Sunday. BREAKFAST Sally Lunn, broiled ham, tomato omelet. DIN- 
NER Stewed oysters, roast mutton, mashed potatoes, canned peas, currant 
jelly, celery; moonshine, oranges, nuts and cakes. SUPPER Cold meat 

shaved, tea cakes and preserved fruit. 

8. BREAKFAST Batter cakes, mutton warmed over, potatoes, escaloped eggs. 
DINNER Boiled beef's tongue dressed with sauce piquante, stewed pota- 
toes, boiled onions; half-hour pudding. SUPPER Cold biscuit, shaved 
tongue, orange float. 

9. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, pork chops broiled, hominy grits. DIN- 
NER Tomato soup, pigeon pie, creamed potatoes, canned corn or beans, 
pickles ; steamed pudding with sauce, almonds, raisins. SUPPER Plain 
bread, sardines with lemon, light coffee cake or sweet buns and jam. 

10. BREAKFAST Flannel cakes, mutton chops broi-led, potatoes. DIN. 
NER Beefsteak soup, broiled steak, potatoes boiled whole, salsify, oystei 
salad, sweet pickles, transparent pudding, cream puffs, oranges. SUPPER 
Beat biscuit, cold meat, apple fritters with sugar, sponge cake. 

11. BREAKFAST Graham bread, broiled fish, potatoes. DINNER Corned 
beef boiled with turnips or parsnips, canned corn, boiled onions, horse- 
radish sauce ; cocoanut pie. SUPPER Toasted graham bread, cold beef 
shaved, warm rusk and jelly. 

12. BREAKFAST Corn batter cakes, broiled bacon, boiled eggs, or omelet 
souffle. DINNER Baked or boiled fish or steaks of halibut, mashad 
potatoes, stewed carrots, onion sauce ; eggless ice cream, apples and nuts. 
SUPPER Pates of fish, plain bread, toasted rusk and sweet omelet. 

13. BREAKFAST Bread puffs, fried liver, potatoes. DINNER Saturday 
bean soup, escaloped oysters, tomatoes, pickled beets ; kiss pudding with 
sauce, cake. SUPPER French rolls; cold tongue, bread fritters. 

14. Sunday. BREAKFAST Baked beans with pork and Boston brown bread, 
omelet. DINNER Roast turkey, potatoes, canned corn, plum jelly, young 
lettuce broken up (not cut) heaped lightly in a dish and ornamented with 
sliced eggs ; Charlotte ruase, jelly and sponge cake. SUPPER Cold turkey, 
cranberry jelly, canned fruit, jam and cake. 

15. BREAKFAST Buttered toast with poached eggs, potatoes Kentucky 
style, fried onions. DINNER Roast beef, potatoes boiled in jackets, onion 
sauce, steamed rioe, mixed pickles; birds' -nest pudding. SUPPER, Light 
biscuit, broiled oysters, orange souffle, and plain cake. 

16. BREAKFAST Rice cakes, breakfast stew, baked eggs. DINNER Meat 
pie, mashed potatoes, macaroni with cheese ; peach rolls. SUPPER Plain 
bread, dried beef, whipped cream with preserved fruit. 

17. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, broiled beef steak, potatoes a la Duchesse 
DINNER Boiled leg of mutton with soup, potatoes Kentucky style, baked 
parsnips, sweet pickles; bread pudding, cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, shaved 
mutton, boiled corn mush or hasty pudding with milk. 

IS. BREAKFAST Plain bread, fried mush, broiled bacon. DINNER Roast 
duck, baked .potatoes, stewed tomatoes, currant, plum or grape jelly ; corn 
Starch pie. SUPPER Buttered toast, cold duck, jelly and cream cakes. 

19. BREAKFAST Graham gems, broiled shad or mackerel with cream 

25 



386 A YEAR'S BILL OF FAEE. 

dressing (salt fish should be gently steamed, never boiled), boiled eggs. 
DINNER Salmi of duck, or duck pates hot with gravy, steamed potatoes, 
turnips, celery sauce ; rice pudding with custard sauce, jelly cake, nuts, 
raisins. SUPPER Toasted gems, bologna sausage, tea buns, stewed prunes 
or other dried fruit. 

20. BREAKFAST Sally Lunn, broiled mutton chops, baked omelet. DIN- 
NER Bacon boiled, cabbage sprouts, potatoes, parsnips, pickled beets ; tart- 
lets of dried fruit, warm ginger-cake. SUPPER Toasted Sally Lunn, cold 
pressed meat, rice fritters with sugar, jelly. 

21. Sunday. BREAKFAST Cream toast, broiled ham, fried eggs. DINNER 
Baked chickens with parsnips, potatoes, tomatoes, young lettuce (and a 
well filled caster) ; lemon custard, oranges or apples. SUPPER Cold chicken, 
currant jelly, sweet biscuit and canned fruit. 

22. BREAKFAST Plain b r ead, chicken pates hot, puff omelet. DINNER 
Roast of beef, potatoes, tomatoes, canned corn, Yorkshire pudding, pickled 
beets; ambrosia, cake. SUIER Buttered toast, cold beef sliced, bread frit- 
ters with sugar, jelly. 

23. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, /ried liver, boiled eggs. DINNER Soup (made 
of bones of previous days' roast with vegetables or noodles), oyster pie, 
mashed potatoes, turnips, celery sauce ; iced apples, cake. SUPPER Cold 
rolls, mince of cold beef escalopedjwith eggs, coffee cake. 

24. BREAKFAST Muffins, broiled ham, birds'-nest of eggs. DINNER 
Boiled leg of mutton, whole potatoes, canned peas ; queen of puddings with 
sauce, cake. SUPPER Toasted muffins, cold mutton, currant jelly, Florida 
grape fruit. 

25. BREAKFAST French pancakes, sausage, hominy. DINNER Roast 
duck, bread sauce, parsnips, baked onions, lettuce ; peach dumplings! with 
sauce, cake. SUPPER Plain bread, Welsh rarebit, hot rusk, marmalade. 

26. BREAKFAST Corn muffins, fried ham and eggs. DINNER Fresh fish, 
potatoes a la duchesse, salmi of duck, onion sauce, boiled rice, grape jelly ; 
oread'and raisin pudding with sauce, dried figs and nuts. SUPPER Toasted 
muffins, cold pressed meat, cold rusk, stewed fruit. 

27. BREAKFAST Graham bread, croquettes of fish, omelet with parsley. 
DINNER Boiled corn beef, potatoes, spinach or turnips, carrots, horseradish 
sauce; rice snow balls with custard sauce, canned fruit and cake. SUPPEB 
Toasted graham bread, cold corn beef, oat meal porridge with cream. 

28. Easter Sunday. BREAKFAST Broiled sirloin steak, French rolls, young 
radishes, Saratoga potatoes, boiled eggs, waffles and honey. DINNER Chicken 
soup or green turtle with Italian paste, fresh fish boiled with drawn buti 
ter and sliced eggs, or fish stuffed and baked served with lemon and pars- 
ley, mashed potatoes, glazed ham, pudding of canned corn, tomato sauce, 
chicken salad, pickles, celery, grape jelly, game ; cream pie, assorted cakes, 
Easter jelly (ornamental) frozen custard, fruits, nuts and coffee. SUPPER o^ 
LUNCHEON Cold rolls, cream biscuit, cold ham, currant jelly, oysters baked 
on shell, cakes and fruit, chocolate or tea. 

29. BREAKFAST Plain bread, escalop of cold ham with eggs, potatoes. 
DINNER Roast beef, potatoes, turnips, cabbage salad ; cottage pudding with 
sauce, cake. SUPPER Warm bread and milk, cold meat, preserved tarts. 

30. BREAKFAST Corn cakes, roulades of cold roast beef, potatoes. DIN* 
NER Soup, roast of mutton, potatoes, tomatoes, lettuce dressed ; lemon pie. 
SUPPER Beat biscuits, cold mutton, preserved fruit, plain cake. 

31. BREAKFAST Flannel cakes, broiled ham. stuffed eggs. DINNER Boiled 
tongue, mutton stew with potatoes, steamed rice ; lemon pudding, cake. 
SUPPER Cold biscuit, shaved tongue, rice fritters with sugar. 

BILL OF FAEE FOR APRIL. 

1. BREAKFAST Long breakfast rolls, broiled porter-house steaks, hominy 
croquettes. DINNER Chicken soup, chicken dressed with egg sauce, whole 



A YEAR'S BILL OF FARE. 387 

potatoes, spinach, young lettuce and onions, sweet pickles; orange float, 
caramel cake. SUPPER Cold chicken and currant jelly, cold rolls, snow 
custard, cake. 

2. BREAKFAST Fried frogs, fried potatoes, corn gems, boiled eggs. DIN- 
NER Beefsteak soup, beefsteak pudding, steamed potatoes, mashed turnips, 
slaw ; boiled custard, jelly. SUPPER Plain bread, pates of cold chicken, 
hot short-cake and jam. 

3. BREAKFAST Graham bread, veal cutlets, fricasseed potatoes. DINNER 
Boiled ham with potatoes, canned-corn pudding, parsnips fried, mixed 
pickles ; hot pie of canned peaches, cake. SUPPER Graham toast, cold 
sliced ham, hot rusk, stewed fruit. 

4. Sunday. BREAKFAST Cream toast, broiled mutton chops, young rad- 
ishes, puff omelet. DINNER Beef soup, chicken pie, potatoes in Kentucky 
style, young lettuce and onions; banana pie, mixed cake. SUPPER Plain 
bread, sliced beef, cold rusk, jelly. 

5. BREAKFAST Light rolls, codfish with cream, fried raw potatoes. DIN- 
NER Roast beef, turnips, potatoes, tomato sauce, pickled oysters; baked 
-custard, cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, cold beef sliced, maple biscuit and jam. 

6. BREAKFAST Muffins, fried liver, fried potatoes. DINNER Mutton soup, 
mutton garnished with eggs, pickles, creamed potatoes, canned tomatoes ; 
bread pudding with sauce, oranges and cake. SUPPER Toasted muffins, 
sliced mutton, sponge cake and jelly. 

7. BREAKFAST Flannel cakes, minced mutton or broiled chops, breakfast 
potatoes. DINNER Baked pig, mashed potatoes, parsnips fried, lettuce; 
lemon pudding, jelly cake. SUPPER Yankee dried beef, soda biscuit and 
honey, floating island. 

8. BREAKFAST Sally Lunn, veal cutlets, potato cakes. DINNER Baked 
stuffed heart, potatoes a la pancake, turnips, canned corn, pickled eggs; cup 
custard, cake. SUPPER Light biscuit, cold sliced heart, bread fritters with 
sugar. 

9. BREAKFAST French rolls, broiled fish if salt, fried if fresh, fried raw 
potatoes, tomato sauce. DINNER Baked or boiled fresh fish, mashed pota- 
toes, canned peas or beans, lettuce, onions; Estelle pudding, jelly tarts. 
SUPPER Cold rolls, bologna sausage sliced, steamed crackers, cake and pre- 
served fruit. 

10. BREAKFAST Batter cakes, broiled chops, scrambled eggs, potato rissoles. 
DINNER Saturday bean soup, broiled beefsteak, spinach, potatoes in Ken- 
tucky style, pickled beets ; half-hour pudding with sauce, oranges and cake. 
SUPPER Toasted bread, cold tongue sliced, hot buns and marmalade. 

11. Sunday. BREAKFAST Baked beans and Boston brown bread, omelette 
with parsley. DINNER Vermicelli soup, baked shad or croquettes of canned 
lobster, broiled squabs or pigeon pie, potatoes mashed, turnips, asparagus, 
-spring cresses, dressed lettuce, grape jelly; custard pie, cake. SUPPER Plain 
-bread, canned salmon, cold buns, jelly. 

12. BREAKFAST Corn dodgers, fish croquettes, potato cakes, boiled eggs. 
DINNER Ptoast beef with potatoes, canned tomatoes, pickles; bread pudding 
'with raisins. SUPPER Light rolls, cold beef, tea cake. 

13. BREAKFAST Graham gems, fried sweet breads, oat meal with cream. 
DINNER Mutton soup, boiled mutton with caper sauce, whole potatoes, plain 
-boiled rice, lettuce; orange short cake. SUPPER Toasted gems, cold mutton, 
jelly and cake. 

14. BREAKFAST Vienna rolls, fried pickled tripe, rice cakes, spring rad- 
ishes. DINNER Chicken pot-pie, canned Lima beans, stewed tomatoes, as- 
paragus ; Spanish cream. SUPPER Cold rolls, chicken salad, jelly tarts. 

15. BREAKFAST Batter cakes, veal cutlets, ringed potatoes. DINNER Rag- 
out of beef, boiled potatoes in jackets, canned succotash, wilted lettuce; 
(Chocolate custard, oranges, cake. SUPPER Bread, sliced beef, oat porridge. 

16. BREAKFAST Waffles, broiled mutton, fricasseed potatoes. DINNER 
Lobster soup, baked fish stuffed, baked macaroni, potatoes mashed, am- 



388 A YXMl'ti BILL OF FAR I-:. 

bushed asparagus; mo ;. adding. Scri-in: --(iraham -anlim-s with. 

lemon, to. is!. 

17. I- ';F. \KFAST Corn griddle cakes, lish ball-. -(TMnMcd eggs. DINNER 
Boiled ham \vith v. 'ios, chili sauce; plain boiled pudding with sauce, 
SUITE;; Toasted crackers, cold sliced ham. warm ginger bread. 

18. > B VICFAST Buttered toast witli poached . gg broiled steak. 
DINNER Macaroni soup, baked chickens, mashed potatoes, lettuce salad; 
queen of puddings. SUPPEB Ligiit biscuit, cold chicken, ambrosia. 

19. BUF -<iraham gems, chicken croqueti* '.'iocs, radis!, - 
warmed over mashed potatoes, stewed parsnips. DINNER Boiled corn 1" 
potatoes, turnips, car . canned peaches and cream, jelly cake. SUPPER- 
Toasted gems, cold corned beef shaved, cream fritteis. 

20. BREAKFAST Rolls, stewed kidneys, Chili sauce, fricasseed potatoes, 
fried parsnips. DINNER Split pea soup, meat pie, tomato sauce, mashed 
potatoes, lobster croquettes, spring cresses; cottage pudding, tapioca jelly, 
oranges. SUPPER Cold rolls, bologna sausage, tea rusk and stewed fruit. 

21. BREAKFAST Muffins, breaded veal cutlets, curried eggs, potato cakes. 
DINNER Roast beef, canned succotash, plain boiled rice with tomatoes, 
dressed lettuce ; peach rolls with sauce. SUPPER Toasted muffins, cold beef 
sliced, hot bread and milk. 

22. BREAKFAST Cream toast, broiled ham, boiled eggs. DINNER Mutton 
soup, mutton garnished with beets and cresses, stewed parsnips, pudding 
of canned corn, asparagus 011 toast, onions; orange float, jelly cake. SUPPER 
Soda biscuit, cold mutton, currant jelly, floating island. 

23. BREAKFAST Corn cakes, pates of cold mutton hot with gravy, fried 
raw potatoes. DINNER Fricassee of canned halibut or fresh rish baked, 
mashed potatoes, turnips sliced; bread pudding, oranges, cake. SUPPER 
Plain bread, cold beef, steamed crackers. 

24 / "BREAKFAST Graham bread, croquettes of fish, potato rissoles. DIN- 
NER Ham boiled, potatoes, turnips, onion salad ; rhubarb pie, cake. SUPPER 
Toasted Graham bread, cold ham, cream cakes. 

25. Sunday. BREAKFAST Breakfast rolls, broiled beefsteak, omelet. DIN- 
NER Barley soup, baked lamb with mint sauce, stewed parsnips, potatoes, 
asparagus with eggs, pates of sweet breads, lettuce mayonnaise; chocolate 
blanc mange, strawberries. SUPPER Cold rolls, sliced lamb, cake, jelly. 

26. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, poached eggs, lamb croquettes hot with 
gravy. DINNER Brown stew, baked potatoes, cresses, Lima beans, stewed 
parsnips, onion salad ; rice snow-balls with custard sauce, plain cake. 
SUPPER Buttered crackers toasted, cold pressed meat, lemon fritters with 
sugar. 

27. BREAKFAST Hot biscuit with honey, mutton chops broiled, fried raw- 
potatoes. DINNER Economical soup ; tapioca pudding. SUPPER Cold bis- 
cuit, sliced cold beef, canned fruit with cream and cake. 

28. BREAKFAST Sally Limn, broiled ham, scrambled eggs, fried potatoes, 
DINNER Roast beef with potatoes, carrots, parsnips, lettuce and onion salad; 
cream pie. SUPPER Toasted Sally Lunn, cold beef sliced, tea buns, fruit. 

29. BREAKFAST Vienna rolls, fried fish, fried potatoes. DINNER Roas'i 
loin of veal with potatoes, lettuce, fried asparagus; orange pudding, cake. 
SUPPER Cold rolls, sliced veal, sweet waffles. 

30. BREAKFAST Corn cakes, fried liver, breakfast potatoes. DINNER 
Chicken pot-pie, spinach ; Estelle pudding with sauce. SUPPER Plain bread. 
cold pressed meat or bologna ; cream cakes warm. 

BILL OF FARE FOR MAY. 

1. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, served with fricassee of cold boiled or 
canned fish, boiled eggs. DINNER Bacon boiled with spring greens, pota- 
toes, beets, parsnips; plain boiled rice with cream sauce, jelly cake. SUPPEB 
Steamed crackers, sliced beef, rice fritters with sugar. 



A YEARS BILL OF FARE, 389 

2. Sunday. BREAKFAST Batter cakes, veal cutlets, fried potatoes. DINNER 
Cold bacon garnished with boiled eggs and beet slices, roast chicken, 
2nashed potatoes, asparagus on toast, dressed lettuce and young onions; 
strawberries, mixed cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, cold chicken, jam. 

3. BREAKFAST Light bread, potato cakes, broiled beefsteak. DINNER 
Koast of mutton with potatoes, canned tomatoes, rhubarb sauce, baked 
custards, fruit cake. SUPPER Cold biscuit, sliced mutton, currant jelly, 
sweet buns. 

4. BREAKFAST Corn cakes, fried pickled tripe, breakfast potatoes. DINNER 
. Boiled beef with soup, whole potatoes, asparagus with eggs : cocoanut 
pudding, jelly. SUPPER Plain bread, cold beef, toasted buns with strawberry 
jam or canned fruit. 

5. BREAKFAST Cream toast, broiled ham, omelet. DINNER Boiled tongue 
with Chili sauce, fricasseed potatoes, cresses, boiled asparagus ; ice cream, 
sponge cake. SUPPER Tea biscuit, shaved tongue, sago jelly, lady cake. 

6. BREAKFAST Graham bread, fried mutton chops, fried raw potatoes. 
DINNER Roast of veal with potatoes, stewed onions, pickled beets; cake, 
orange float. SUPPER Toasted Graham bread, sliced veal, tea rusk, 
lemon jelly. 

7. BREAKFAST Muffins, broiled beefsteak, poached eggs, potatoes in Ken- 
tucky style. DINNER Baked or boiled fish (if large, or fried small fish), boiled 
potatoes in jackets, lettuce salad, custard pie. SUPPER Toasted muffins, cold 
rusk with strawberries, or marmalade. 

8. BREAKFAST Bread puffs with maple syrup, fricasseed potatoes, cro- 
quettes of fish. DINNER Boiled leg of mutton, ambushed asparagus, boiled 
macaroni, a la pancake potatoes, bread pudding. SUPPER Cold rolls, cold 
mutton sliced, plain boiled rice with cream and sugar. 

9. Sunday. BREAKFAST Rice waffles, mutton croquettes, fried raw potatoes 
DINNER Roast beef, clam pie, new potatoes, tomatoes, dressed lettuce, young 
beets, strawberry cream and snow custard, coffee and macaroons. SUPPER 
Light rolls, cold beef, cake and jelly, or strawberries. 

10. BREAKFAST Corn batter cakes, broiled bacon, 'warmed potatoes. DIN- 
NER Roast of beef with potatoes, asparagus, cake, oranges. SUPPER Plain 
bread, chipped beef, short cake, marmalade. 

11. BREAKFAST Breakfast wheat with cream, broiled beefsteak, plain bread, 
cottage cheese. DINNER Asparagus soup, meat pie, new potatoes, pickled 
"beets; rhubarb pie. jelly cake. SUPPER 'Tea biscuit, Yankee dried beef, 
sponge cake and fruit, 

12. BREAKFAST Sally Limn, Katy's codfish, fried raw potatoes, scrambled 
eggs. DINNER Pigeon pie, grape jelly, new potatoes, tomato salad ; delicious 
lemon pudding, cake. SUPPER Toasted Sally Lunn, cold pressed meat, van- 
ities with jelly. 

13. BREAKFAST Warm biscuit with maple syrup, veal cutlets, Saratoga po- 
tatoes. DINNER Beef a la mode, whole potatoes, turnips, beets, lettuce; 
rice pudding with cream sauce, oranges. . SUPPER Cold rolls, sliced beef, tea 
cakes, bianc mange. 

14. BREAKFAST Corn muffins, broiled fish, tomato sauce, fried new pota- 
toes. DINNER Fresh fish or canned halibut, cod or salmon, mashed potatoes, 
turn i] is, spinach with eggs ; cream pie, silver cake. SUPPER Toasted muffins, 
omelet with asparagus, bread and milk. 

15. BREAKFAST Light biscuit, broiled steak, potatoes. DINNER Brown 
stew, whole potatoes, beets; Indian meal pudding, with sauce, lady fingers. 
SUPPER Cold biscuit, chipped beef, cream cakes and jelly. 

10. .s<-//'/Vn/. BREAKFAST Breakfast toast, fried veal cutlets, sliced tomatoes. 
DINNER Roast of lamb with mint sauce, currant jelly. ne\v porat - -eeii 
peas ; strawberry short cake. KR Light rolls, cold lamb, jelly and eake. 

17. BREAKFAST Plain bread, minced lamb with poached eirirs on toast. 
DINNER Meat pie, new potatoes, asparagus, lettuce; cherry pie, lady fingers. 
SUPPER Pop-overs, sardines, baked rhubarb. 



390 A YEARS BILL OF FARE. 

IS. BREAKFAST Plain bread, broiled bacon, fried potatoes. DINNER 
Chicken soup, smothered chickens, potatoes in Kentucky style, tomatoes, 
half-hour pudding, oranges. SUPPER Waffles, cold pressed meat, jelly cake. 

19. BREAKFAST Muffins, cod-fish, boiled eggs. DINNEB Veal stew, pota- 
toes mashed or baked, spinach, rhubarb sauce ; plain batter pudding with 
sauce, cake and fruit. SUPPER Toasted muffins, cold veal, cream cakes. 

20. BREAKFAST French rolls, warmed over veal stew, tomato sauce. DIN- 
NER Boiled ham with potatoes, asparagus, peas, tomato salad; rhubarb pie. 
SUPPER Cold rolls, sliced ham, pan cakes with jelly. 

21. BREAKFAST Corn meal gems, ham balls, breakfast potatoes. DINNER 
Baked or boiled fish, whole boiled potatoes, asparagus on toast, lettuce and 
cress salad ; green currant pie, jelly cake. SUPPER Toasted gems, canned 
salmon, oatmeal pudding with cream and sugar. 

22. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, larded sweet-breads, fried potatoes. DIN- 
NER Broiled beefsteak, baked potatoes, turnips, lettuce ; potato pie, light 
cake. SUPPER Light biscuit, beefsteak toast. 

23. Sunday. BREAKFAST Corn dodgers, stewed kidneys, omelet. DINNER 
Baked chicken, new potatoes, diced turnips, baked rhubarb, green peas, let* 
tuce ; Charlotte russe, pine apple ambrosia, cake. SUPPER Cold biscuit, 
sliced chicken, preserved fruit and cake. 

24. BREAKFAST Graham gems, chicken croquettes, fried potatoes. DINNEB 
Roast beef, boiled onions, lettuce, mashed potatoes ; jelly with whipped 
cream. SUPPER Toasted gems, cold beef, rusk and jelly. 

25. BREAKFAST Warm biscuit, broiled bacon, boiled eggs. DINNER Boiled 
mutton with soup, whole potatoes, onions, green peas, lettuce, sweet pickles; 
cherry pie, cream puffs. SUPPER Cold rolls, cold sliced mutton, toasted rusk 
with fruit. 

26. BREAKFAST Corn muffins, broiled steak, fried potatoes. DINNER 
Boiled bacon with greens and potatoes, radishes, lettuce salad ; bread pud- 
ding, oranged strawberries. SUPPER Toasted muffins, cold tongue, jelly tarts. 

27. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, broiled ham, omelet with parsley. DINNEB 
Chicken pie, fricasseed potatoes, asparagus, peas, lettuce; poor man's pud' 
ding. SUPPER Hot biscuits, cottage cheese, stewed fruit and cake. 

28. BREAKFAST Waffles, broiled mutton chops, potatoes. DINNER Fresh 
fish boiled, baked or fried new potatoes, tomatoes, beets, lettuce; cottage 
pudding with sauce, cake. SUPPER Oat-meal and cream, stewed cherries. 

29. BREAKFAST Bread puffs with maple syrup, canned salmon on toast, 
tomato sauce. DINNER Ham boiled with greens, young turnips ; rhubarb 
pie, tapioca jelly. SUPPER Plain bread, shaved ham, hot buns and fruit. 

30. Sunday. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, broiled beefsteak, tomato omelet. DIN- 
NER Roast lamb with mint sauce, clam stew r , new potatoes, young turnips, 

reen peas, lettuce salad ; ice cream and strawberries, centennial drops, cake. 
UPPER Cold rolls, shaved ham, toasted buns and jelly. 

31. BREAKFAST Cream toast, croquettes of cold meat, fried potatoes, DIN- 
NER Meat pie, whole potatoes, asparagus, lettuce ; steamed Indian meal pud- 
ding with sauce, soft ginger-bread. SUPPER Hot biscuit, coal veal, cake and 
fruit. 

BILL OF FARE FOR JUNE. 

1. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, poached eggs, mutton chops. DINNER- 
Roast beef, whole potatoes, ambushed asparagus, tomato salad ; straw borries 
and cream, cake. SUPPER Light biscuit, cold beef sliced, baked pie-plant, 
cake. 

2. BREAKFAST French rolls, croquettes of beef, radishes. DINNER Beef 
boiled with soup, (beef served with drawn butter,) new potatoes, spin- 
ach wkh egg dressing, boiled onions, green currant pie, sponge cake. SUP- 
PER Plain bread, sliced cold beef, sweet pickles. 

3. BREAKFAST Corn cakes, broiled ham, tomato omelet E^NNER Steamed 



A YEAR'S BILL OF FARE. 391 

chicken, green peas, mashed potatoes, dressed lettuce ; strawberries served 
with sugar and cream. SUPPER Warm biscuit, chipped dried beef, young 
onions, lemon jelly. 

4. BREAKFAST Graham bread, fried fish, potatoes a la duchesse. DINNER 
Baked or boiled fresh fish or lobster fricassee, new potatoes, asparagus on 
toast ; baked custard, cake. SUPPER Toasted Graham bread, frizzled ham r 
raspberry shortcake with cream. 

5. BREAKFAST Waffles, broiled mutton or lamb chops, potatoes, stewed 
tomatoes. DINNER Broiled beefsteak, whole boiled potatoes, beets, greens, 
onion salad; berries and cake. SUPPER Hot biscuit, cold pressed meat,, 
tapioca cream. 

6. Sunday. BREAKFAST Twist rolls, fried chickens, potatoes, omelet. DIN- 
NER Clam soup, baked lamb with potatoes, green peas, sliced tomatoes, aspara- 
gus, lettuce a la mayonnaise ; strawberry short-cake with whipped cream. 
SUPPER Cold biscuit, sliced lamb, fruit and light cakes. 

7. BREAKFAST Oranges, corn batter cakes, broiled liver, scrambled eggs. 
DINNER Roast beef, mashed potatoes, beets, cress salad ; plain boiled rice 
with cream. SUPPER Plain bread, bologna sausage, rusk with berries. 

8. BREAKFAST Rice cakes, lamb chops, boiled eggs. DINNER Boiled beef 's 
tongue (fresh) served with Chili sauce, Texas baked potatoes, young beets, 
lettuce dressed; raspberry cream, cake. SUPPER Sliced beef's tongue, 
toasted rusk, berries. 

9. BREAKFAST Muffins, beef steak, potato cakes. DINNER Soup of stock 
boiled yesterday with tongue, chicken pie, mashed potatoes and turnips, 
spinach, lettuce; cream fritters with sauce. SUPPER Toasted muffins, 
Katy's codfish fruit. 

10. BREAKFAST Sally Lunn, veal cutlets, radishes. DINNER Ragout of 
lamb, mashed potatoes, asparagus, lettuce ; lemon pudding, cake. SUPPER 
Toasted Sally Lunn, cold sliced lamb, sliced tomatoes. 

11. BREAKFAST Vienna rolls, breakfast stew, potatoes or tomatoes. DIN- 
NER Fresh fish fried or baked, mashed potatoes, asparagus, beet salad ; rice 
pudding with sauce and cake, oranges. SUPPER Cold rolls, dried beef 
chipped, custard cake with fruit or berries. 

12. BREAKFAST Graham gems, croquettes of fish or breaded veal cutlets, 
escaloped eggs. DINNER Ham boiled with greens, potatoes, beets, young 
onions; economical pudding, Italian rolls. SUPPER Toasted gems, cold 
ham, oat-meal with cream, cake and jelly. 

13. Sunday. BREAKFAST Light rolls, broiled beefsteak, sliced tomatoes, 
omelets. DINNER Baked chicken, mashed potatoes, green peas, pickled 
beets; Bohemian cream with strawberries. SUPPER Cold rolls, cold chicken, 
toast with jelly, fruit. 

14. BREAKFAST Waffles, croquettes of cold chicken, tomatoes. DINNER 
Veal stuffed and baked, asparagus, tomatoes, cresses ; strawberries and 
cream. SUPPER Biscuit, sliced veal, fruit, light cakes. 

15. BREAKFAST Flannel cakes, pates of cold veal, potatoes fried. DIN- 
NER Boiled corned beef, potatoes, turnips, wilted lettuce; cocoanut pudding, 
cake. SUPPER Plain bread, cold corned beef, corn meal mush or hasty pud- 
ding with cream. 

16. BREAKFAST Fried mush, fried potatoes, broiled bacon. DINNER As- 
paragus, soup, roast chicken, whole potatoes, spinach with eggs, beets and 
lettuce; cherry pie. SUPPEE Cold rolls, bologna sausage, raspberries, light 
cakes. 

17. BREAKFAST Corn muffins, pickled tripe, fried potatoes. DINNER^ 
Roast mutton, potatoes, green peas, lettuce ; orange souffle, cake. SUPPER 
Toasted muffins, sliced mutton, sweet buns, fruit. 

18. BREAKFAST Breakfast wheat with cream, plain bread, broiled fish. 
DINNER Baked fish (fresh), baked potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers; boiled 
custard and cake. SUPPER Cold pressed meat, short-cake with fruit. 

19. Buttered toast, poached eggs, broiled mutton chop. DINNER Boiled 



392 A YEAR'S BILL OF FARE. 

shoulder of bacon with greens, potatoes, beets, tomatoes, salad ; bread pud- 
ding. SUPPER Light biscuits, Yankee dried beef. 

i''-. Sunday. BREAKFAST <'ream i<>asi, In-oiled beefsteak, boiled eggs, stcwrd 
tomatoes. DINNER Lamb cutlets broiled ami served with green peas, sum- 
mer squash, young onions, pickled beets; oranged strawberries; cakes. 
SUPPER Cold biscuits, canned salmon , fruit. 

21. BREAKFAST Corn cakes, fried clams, potatoes or hominy croquettes. 
DINNER Eoast of beef with potatoes, string beans, young onions; raspberry 
blanc mange, oranges or bananas and cake. SUPPER Hot tea buns, cold 
beef sliced, cherries, lemon cakes. 

22. BREAKFAST Wattles, breakfast stew, fried potatoes. DINNER Meat pie, 
green peas, potatoes, lettuce; raspberry float. SUPPER Cold buns, chipped 
dried beef, raspberry cream, cakes. 

2:'-. BREAKFAST French rolls, broiled liver, tomatoes. DINNER Stewed 
lamb with mint sauce, potatoes, squash, beets; strawberry short-cake with 
whipped cream. SUPPER Cold sliced lamb, sweet muffins with stewed 
cherries. 

24. BREAKFAST Graham bread, beefsteak smothered with onions, toma- 
toes. DINNER Boiled beef with soup, potatoes, string beans ; cherry dump- 
lings with sauce, cake. SUPPER Toasted Graham bread, cold beef, currants. 

25. BREAKFAST Corn pone, broiled ham, omelet, hominy fritters. DIN- 
NER Boiled salmon or some other variety of fresh fish either fried, baked 
or fricasseed ; mashed potatoes, Lima beans, squash, cucumbers ; oranges. 
SUPPER Cold pone sliced and toasted in the oven, cold tongue, sponge 
cake with fruit. 

26. BREAKFAST Sally Lunn, larded veal cutlets, scalloped eggs. DINNER 
Boiled ham with greens, potatoes, beet greens; raspberries and cream, cake. 
SUPPER Toasted Sally Lunn, sliced ham, floating island. 

27. Xir/i'lay. BREAKFAST French pancakes, veal and ham croquettes, 
poached eggs on toast. DINNER Fried chicken, cold ham, mashed pota- 
toes, Lima beans, cucumbers; snow custard, cherries, cake. SUPPER Cold 
rolls, sliced chicken, stewed cherries and cake. 

23. BREAKFAST Plain bread, ham balls, potato cakes. DINNER Baked 
mutton, potatoes, beets, squash, lettuce; quick puif pudding. SUPPER But- 
tered toast, cold mutton, fritters with sugar. 

29. BREAKFAST Corn cakes, broiled bacon, boiled eggs. DINNER Boiled 
corned beef, turnips, potatoes, young beets ; bananas or oranges. SUPPER 
Steamed oatmeal, crackers, cold com beef, stewed cherries, cake. 

30. BREAKFAST Muffins, broiled steak, tomatoes. DINNER Fried chicken 
with cream gravy, potatoes, squash, lettuce ; gooseberry tarts, corn starch 
blanc mange. SUPPER Light biscuit, bread and milk. 

BILL OF FARE FOR JULY. 

\. BREAKFAST "Warm biscuit, hominy croquettes, broiled ham, sliced to 
niutoes. DINNER Beef's tongue with green peas, potatoes a la Parisien, 
sliced cucumbers ; raspberry float, cake. SUPPER Sliced tongue, hot buns, 
raspberries and cream. 

2. BREAKFAST Corn bread, fried chicken, tomato omelet. DINNER Boiled 
fish with egg sauce, mashed potatoes; squash ; cherry dumplings with sauce, 
lady fingers. SUPPER Cold bacon broiled and served on toast, sliced toma- 
toes, raspberry short-cake. 

3. BREAKFAST Breakfast puffs, ste,wed kidneys, radishes, young onions. 
DINNER Boiled ham with young cabbages, potatoes, cucumbers ; bread cus- 
tard pudding, cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, sliced ham, fried tomatoes, rusk 
with stewed currants. 

4. S'j'/K/a?/. BREAKFAST Fresh berries with cream and sugar, broiled Span- 
ish mackerel, buttered toast, espalloped omelette souffle, flannel cakes with 



A YEAR'S BILL OF FARE. 393 

syrup. DINNER Pea soup, roast tenderloin of beef, new potatoes, tomatoes, 
lettuce a la Mayonnaise, cucumber sliced; pineapple pudding, ice-cream, cake. 
SUPPER Small light biscuit, sliced ham, orange tarts, cake and berries. 

5. BREAKFAST Graham gems, broiled mutton chops, fried potatoes, cot- 
tage cheese. DINNER Ragout of beef, boiled potatoes, young onions, toma- 
toes; rice pudding, oranges, cake. SUPPER Toasted gems, ham salad, stewed 
berries, sweet buns. 

6. BREAKFAST Hot muffins, broiled beefsteak, boiled eggs. DINNER Meat 
pie. boiled potatoes, boiled cauliflower with sauce ; cherry souffle, cake. SUP- 
PEP Toasted muffins, bologna sausage sliced, raspberries. 

7. BREAKFAST Batter cake, breakfast bacon, crushed wheat with cream, 
DINNER Stuffed fillet of veal garnished with green peas, mashed potatoes, 
summer squash, beet salad ; black berries, cream and cake. SUPPER Cold 
rolls, sliced veal, short-cake with berries or jam. 

8. BREAKFAST Cream toast, boiled eggs, broiled ham. DINNER Rice, 
soup, boiled corn beef, potatoes, tomatoes, cucumber salad ; ripe currant 
pie. cake. SUPPER Plain bread, cold corn beef, steamed crackers, stewed 
fruit. 

9. BREAKFAST Hash, fried potatoes, stewed tomatoes with toast. DIN- 
NER Fresh fish either baked, boiled or fried, green beans stewed with 
pork, boiled potatoes, cucumber salad ; cherry pie, cake. SUPPER Warm 
biscuit, ham omelet, light cakes and jelly or berries. 

10. BREAKFAST Waffles, broiled beefsteak, scrambled eggs. DINNER 
Roast beef, Texas baked potatoes, beets, cucumbers, dressed lettuce ; cup 
custards, oranges, cake. SUPPER Plain bread, oat-meal with cream, sliced 
banana or pineapple. 

11. Sunday. BREAKFAST Graham bread, broiled mutton chops, potato 
cakes. DINNER Baked chicken, mashed potatoes, cucumbers, dressed let- 
tuce, vanilla ice cream, blackberries, cake. SUPPER Toast of Graham bread, 
sliced chicken cold, cream cakes and jelly. 

12. BREAKFAST Batter cakes, broiled ham, tomato omelet, radishes. DIN- 
NER Baked lamb, green peas, baked potatoes, squash ; rice custard, berries 
with cream. SUPPER Biscuit, cold lamb sliced, ripe currants with cream. 

13. BREAKFAST Rice muffins, hash, tomatoes. DINNER Economical soup ; 
blackberry pudding with sauce, cake. SUPPER Buttered toast, cold sliced 
meat, blackberries with cream. 

14. BREAKFAST French rolls, vegetable hash, broiled beefsteak, cottage 
cheese. DINNER Mock (or real) turtle soup, baked heart, baked potatoes, 
stewed beans; chocolate pudding, cocoanut cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, sliced 
heart, cottage puffs, stewed berries. 

15. BREAKFAST Cream toast, fried liver, fricasseed potatoes, DINNER 
Clam pie, mashed potatoes, string beans, lettuce; blackberry pie, cake. 
SUPPER Plain bread, dried beef frizzled, rice batter cakes with sugar. 

16. BREAKFAST Muffins, broiled mutton chops, fried potatoes. DINNER 
Fish fresh or canned, whole potatoes, peas, squash, lettuce ; Hamburg cream, 
SUPPER Toasted muffins, cold pressed meat, corn meal mush with cream, 

17. BREAKFAST Plain bread, veal sweetbreads, mush fried, boiled eggs. 
DINNER Boiled ham with potatoes, cabbage, string beans ; warm ginger- 
bread, lemonade. SUPPER Dry toast, cold ham shaved, rusk, blackberries 
and cream. 

18. ^I'lK/'iif. BREAKFAST Vienna rolls, fried chicken with cream gravy, 
fried tomatoes, cottage cheese. DINNER Roast of beef with potatoes, stewed 
tomatoes, cucumbers, wilted lettuce ; Charlotte rus<e, cake. SUPPER Cold 
rolls, sliced beef, blackberries. 

19. BREAKFAST Buttered toast with poached eggs, cold roast beef sliced 
and warmed up with gravy, potatoes fried. DINNER Veal stuffed and baked 
with potatoes, peas; tapioca pudding. SUPPER Light biscuit, cold veal, 
cracked wheat and cream. 

20. BREAKFAST Slap-jacks, veal cutlets, breakfast hominy. DINNER Mut- 



394 A YEARS BILL OF FARE. 

ton soup, boiled mutton dressed with drawn butter, whole potatoes, toma- 
toes, beet salad ; whortleberry pudding with sauce, cake. SUPPER Soda bis- 
cuit, cold mutton, jelly and cake. 

21. BREAKFAST Graham gems, croquettes of mutton, new potatoes fried 
-whole. DINNER Boiled tongue, mashed potatoes, tomatoes stewed ; black- 
berries and cream. SUPPER Pop-overs, cold tongue, oatmeal and cream. 

2-2. BREAKFAST Vienna rolls, beefsteak, potato cake. DINNER Chicken 
croquettes, potatoes, tomatoes, onion sauce; tapioca jelly, oranges. SUP- 
PER Cold rolls, sliced chicken, stewed berries, short cake. 

23. BREAKFAST Sally Lunn, broiled fish, fried raw potatoes. DINNER 
Fresh fish chowder or canned fish in fricassee, potatoes whole, peas, baked 
egg plant, boiled rice ; gooseberry fool, cake. SUPPER Toasted Sally Lunn, 
cold pressed meats, rice custards, sponge cake. 

24. BREAKFAST Rice waffles, veal cutlets breaded, scrambled eggs. DIN- 
NER Ham or shoulder boiled with cabbage and other vegetables, greens; 
baked custard, cake. SUPPER Biscuits, cold ham, bread and milk iced, 
blackberries with cream. 

25. Sunday. BREAKFAST Breakfast rolls, frizzled ham and eggs, tomato 
omelet, cottage cheese. DINNER Okra soup, boiled chickens, sweet pickles, 
escaloped cauliflower, stewed corn, lettuce ; ambrosia of oranges and cocoa- 
nut, almond cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, sliced chicken, huckleberries and 
cream. 

26. BREAKFAST Rolls, fried pickled tripe, tomato omelet. DINNER Es- 
caloped chicken, whole potatoes, string beans, summer squash, onions, rad- 
ishes; berries with cream, cake. SUPPER Plain bread, cold pressed meat, 
crackers with fruit. 

27. BREAKFAST Muffins, broiled mutton or lamb chops, fried potatoes, to- 
matoes. DINNER Roast beef, cauliflower boiled with sauce, Lima beans, 
raw tomatoes; huckleberry roll with sauce, cake. SUPPER Toasted muffins, 
sliced beef, cake and lemonade. 

28. BREAKFAST Cream toast, broiled beefsteak, puff omelet, stewed toma- 
toes. DINNER Boiled corned beef with turnips, potatoes, beans, cabbage ; 
sliced bread pudding, cake. SUPPER Light biscuit, cold corn beef, egg 
rolls. 

29. BREAKFAST Waffles, fried chickens, fricasseed potatoes. DINNER 
Roast chicken, potatoes, squash, baked tomatoes ; gooseberry tarts, cake. 
SUPPER Plain bread, cold chicken, jelly and cake. 

30. BREAKFAST Graham gems, broiled ham with poached eggs. DINNER 
Fish, fresh or canned, potatoes mashed, onions stewed with cream, Lima 
beans, lettuce; huckleberry pie, cream puffs. SUPPER Graham toast, sar- 
dines, "vanities" with jelly. 

31. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, potato cakes, omelets with tomatoes. DIN- 
NER Boiled ham or shoulder with cabbage, potatoes and other vegeta- 
bles, cucumber salad ; custard pie. SUPPER Light biscuit, shaved ham, blanc 
maoge with jelly and cake. 

BILL OF FARE FOR AUGUST. 

1. Sunday. BREAKFAST Xutmeg melon, broiled mackerel, potatoes whole, 
buttered toast, flannel cakes with syrup. DINNER Chicken soup, roast ten- 
derloin of beef, new potatoes, boiled corn in the ear; blackberry pie, ice 
cream, cake, watermelon. SUPPER Light biscuit, sliced cold beef, chicken 
sandwiches, cake and berries. 

2. BREAKFAST Graham gems, broiled mutton chops, fried potatoes, sliced 
cucumbers. DINNER Roast beef, boiled potatoes, macaroni with cheese, 
young beets, tomatoes; rice pudding, cake. SUPPER Toasted gems, dried 
beef frizzled, stewed berries, sweet buns. 

3. BREAKFAST Hot muffins, broiled beefsteak, boiled eggs. DINNER 
Meat pie, boiled potatoes, green corn pudding, dressed lettuce; watermelon. 



A YEARS BILL OF FAKE. 395 

SUPPER Toasted muffins, chipped dried beef, cold buns and jelly or black- 
berries. 

4. BREAKFAST Light rolls, mutton chops breaded, crushed oatmeal with 
cream. DINNER Stuffed fillet of veal, mashed potatoes, summer squash, 
boiled beets sliced; lemon meringue pie, cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, sliced 
Veal, warm biscuit and honey. 

5. BREAKFAST Fried chicken, whole boiled potatoes, onions and radishes. 
DINNER Vegetable soup, boiled corn beef, potatoes, corn, wilted lettuce; 
chess pie, cake. SUPPER Plain bread, cold corn beef, stewed fruit. 

6. BREAKFAST Breakfast stew, fried potatoes, fried cabbage. DINNER 
Gumbo soup, fresh fish baked or boiled, succotash, boiled potatoes; berries. 
SUPPER Warm biscuit, Katy's codfish, light cakes and lemon jelly. 

7. BREAKFAST Waffles, broiled beefsteak, scrambled eggs. DINNER Boiled 
ham with potatoes, turnips and cabbage ; apple sauce, jelly^cake. SUPPER 
Plain bread, sliced ham, cracked wheat. 

8. Sunday. BREAKFAST Nutmeg melon, broiled veal cutlets, vegetable 
hash, corn fritters. DINNER Chicken pudding, cold sliced ham, baked mashed 
potatoes, sliced tomatoes, cucumbers; watermelon. SUPPER Light biscuit, 
cold sliced ham, cream cakes and jelly. 

9. BREAKFAST Batter cakes, Katy'"s codfish, tomato omelet. DINNER 
Baked lamb, creamed cabbage, stewed tomatoes ; cream pudding. SUPPER 
Biscuit, cold lamb sliced, preserve puffs. 

10. BREAKFAST Plain bread, hash, stewed tomatoes. DINNER Beef a la 
mode, boiled potatoes, green corn pudding, sliced tomatoes; tapioca cream. 
SUPPER Buttered toast, cold pressed meat, chocolate custard. 

11. BREAKFAST French rolls, broiled beefsteak, cottage cheese. DINNER 
Corn soup with chicken, celery, mashed potatoes, stewed beans, sliced cu- 
cumbers and onions ; watermelon. SUPPER Cold rolls, chicken salad, apple 
sauce, bonny clabber. 

12. BREAKFAST Cream toast, fried liver, potato cakes, stewed tomatoes. 
DINNER Roast leg of mutton with potatoes, green corn, tomatoes; musk 
melon. SUPPER Plain bread, dried beef frizzled, boiled rice with cream. 

13. BREAKFAST Rice cakes, mutton stew, fried potatoes. DINNER Meat 
pie, young corn, boiled cauliflower; grapes, plain cake. SUPPER Toast, cold 
pressed meat, Graham mush with cream. 

14. BREAKFAST Plain bread, broiled bacon, Graham mush fried, boiled 
eggs. DINNER Boiled ham with potatoes, cabbage, string beans; lemon pie, 
cake. SUPPER Light biscuit, cold ham shaved, apple sauce. 

15. Sunday. BREAKFAST Nutmeg melons, fried chicken with cream gravy, 
fried tomatoes, cottage cheese, corn fritters. DINNER Roast loin of veal, 
mashed potatoes, creamed cabbage, tomatoes ; watermelon. SUPPER Cold 
rolls, sliced veal. 

16. BREAKFAST Buttered toast with poached eggs, cold roast veal sliced 
and warmed up with gravy, potatoes fried. DINNER Roast beef with pota- 
toes, peas, tomatoes, corn pudding, lettuce ; watermelon. SUPPER Light bis- 
cuit, cold sliced beef, apple snow. 

17. BREAKFAST Nutmeg melon, corn oysters, broiled bacon. DINNER 
Broiled prairie chicken with currant jelly, Texas baked potatoes, sliced 
tomatoes; cake, orange float. SUPPER Spoon biscuit, cold beef, jelly and 
cake. 

18. BREAKFAST Corn gems, croquettes of mutton, fried apples, fried pota- 
toes. DINNER Boiled tongue, whole boiled potatoes, tomatoes stewed; fried 
bananas. SUPPER Toasted bread, cold tongue, oatmeal with cream. 

19. BREAKFAST Breakfast rolls, fried sweet breads, fried potatoes. DIN- 
NER Brown stew, baked potatoes, stewed corn, escaloped tomatoes ; water- 
melon. SUPPER Sliced cold beef, biscuit, floating island. 

20. BREAKFAST Nutmeg melon, Sally Lunn, broiled beefsteak, potatoes. 
DINNER Fresh fish chowder, potatoes whole, peas, boiled onions, tomato 



396 A YEAR'S BILL OF FARE. 

salad; snowflakes, cake. SUPPER Toasted Sally Lunn, cold pressed meat, 

sponge cake ami idly with whipped cream. 

21. BREAKFAST Bread puiVs, \<-.\\ cutlets breaded, scrambled eggs. DIN- 
NEE Ham or shoulder boiled with cabbage and oilier vegetables, beets 
sliced; baked custard. SUPPER Warm biscuits, cold ham, bread and milk 
ice-!. 

22. &in>fl<vi. BREAKFAST Nutmeg melons, breakfast rolls, cold boiled ham, 
shaved t'.imato omelet, corn oysters. DINNER Okra soup, fried gumbo, 
boiled chicken, sweet pickles, plain boiled rice; ice-cream cake. SUPPER 
Cold rolls, sliced chicken, rice with sugar and cream. 

_''!. BREAKFAST Rice cakes, broiled breakfast bacon, fried cabbage. DIN- 
NER Chicken escaloped, whole potatoes, string beans, boiled corn in the ear: 
"-.' arermelon, plain cake. SUPPER Hot biscuit, cold pressed meat, fried 
apples. 

24. BREAKFAST Muffins, broiled mutton or lamb chops, rice croquettes 
with gravy. DINNER Roast beef with potatoes, cauliflower with sauce, Lima 
beans, raw tomatoes ; baked apples with cream. SUPPER Toasted muffins, 
sliced beef, jelly, cream. 

25. BRKAKFAST Cream toast, broiled steak, fricasseed potatoes. DINNER 
Broiled corned beef with turnips, potatoes, stewed beans; bread pudding with 
custard, cake. SUPPER Light biscuit, cold corn beef, apple fritters with 



sugar. 



26. BREAKFAST Waffles, fried chickens with corn dodgers, stewed toma- 
toes. , DINNER Broiled prairie chicken with currant jelly, mashed potatoes, 
creamed cabbage ; mock strawberries, cake. SUPPER Plain bread, Yankee 
dried beef, jelly and cake. 

27. BREAKFAST Graham bread, fried fish, potato rissoles. DINNER Fish, 
fresh or canned, potatoes boiled in jackets, stewed tomatoes, Lima beans; 
watermelon. SUPPER Graham toast, bologna sausage, "vanities" with 
jelly. 

28. BREAKFAST Bread puffs, fried potatoes, poached eggs. DINNER 
Boiled ham or shoulder with vegetables, cucumber salad ; warm gingerbread 
and lemonade. SUPPER Light biscuit, shaved ham, blanc mange with jelly 
and cake. 

29. Sunday. BREAKFAST Xutmeg melon, French pancakes, broiled ham, 
sliced tomatoes. DINNER Roast prairie chicken, mashed potatoes, boiled 
onions ; peaches and ice-cream. SUPPER Plain bread, sliced chicken, water- 
melon. 

30. BREAKFAST Corn bread, broiled mackerel, potato cakes. DINNER 
Roast beef with potatoes, corn boiled in ear; watermelons, cake. SUPPER 
Toast, cold beef, apple fritters. 

31. BREAKFAST Breakfast stew, fricasseed potatoes, breakfast rolls. DIN- 
NER Boiled ham with cabbage, potatoes, beets, cucumbers; custard pie, 
cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, sliced ham, rusk, apple sauce. 

BILL OF FARE FOR SEPTEMBER. 

1. BREAKFAST Milk toast, broiled steak, fried potatoes. DINNER Chicken 
pie, boiled potatoes, young carrots, green corn ; peach short cake. SUPPER 
Biscuit, sliced tomatoes, grapes. 

2. BREAKFAST Biscuit, broiled bacon, tomatoes. DINNER Beef a la mode, 
potatoes boiled, onions baked, egg plant, cabbage salad ; apple pie, mixed 
cakes. SUPPER Pop-overs, honey, peaches and cream. 

3. BREAKFAST Graham gems, mutton chops, potatoes. DINNER Baked 
fish, potatoes, green corn, stewed tomatoes, pickled beets ; peach dumplings 
with sauce, cake. SUPPER Oyster stew, crackers, celery, fruit, 

4. BREAKFAST Xutmeg melons, corn oysters, steak. DINNER Beef boiled 
with cabbage and potatoes, succotash ; apple roly-poly with custard sauce, 
sponge cake. SUPPER Sliced beef, peaches and cream. 



A YEARS BILL OF FARE. 397 

5. Sunday. BREAKFAST Nutmeg melon, vegetable hash, broiled veal cut- 
lets, tomatoes fried. DINNER Baked chickens, potatoes, green corn pud' 
ding, tomatoes, plum sauce; sliced peaches, ice-cream, cake. SUPPER 
Cold chicken, sliced tomatoes, baked pears. 

0. BREAKFAST Breakfast rolls, fried liver, fried tomatoes. DINNER Roast 
beef, potatoes, green corn, fried egg plant, onion salad; watermelon. SUP- 
'PER Toasted biscuit, cold beef, fruit. 

7. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, hash, green corn oysters. DINNER Meat 
pie, potatoes, young turnips, stewed onions, pickled beets; apple dumplings 
with cream sauce, cake. SUPPER Canned salmon, biscuit and jam. 

8. BREAKFAST Toasted Sally Limn, chickens broiled, cucumbers. DIN- 
NER Roast mutton, baked sweet potatoes, green corn, apple sauce, slaw; 
bread pudding with sauce, cake. SUPPER Toasted bread, sliced mutton, baked 
pears. 

9. BREAKFAST Corn muffins, breakfast stew of mutton, tomatoes. DIN- 
NER Veal pot pie, Lima beans, baked ^gg plant; peach meringue, lady cake. 
SUPPER Pressed chicken, warm biscuit, baked sweet apples. 

10. BREAKFAST Batter cakes, veal croquettes, cottage cheese. DINNER 
Boiled or baked fish with potatoes, green corn, tomatoes, slaw ; peaches and 
cream, cake. SUPPER Cold tongue, bread and iced milk. 

11. BREAKFAST Short cake, mutton chops, potatoes. DINNER Economical 
soup, pickled beets ; apple meringue, cake. SUPPER Soused beef, warm 
rolls, grapes. 

12. Sunday. BPEAKFAST Rolls, breakfast stew, stewed okra. DINNER 
Broiled prairie chicken, sweet potatoes, green corn, boiled cauliflower, plum 
sauce, cabbage salad; ice-cream, cake. SUPPER Sliced veal, biscuit, baked 
pears. 

13. BREAKFAST Cream toast, prairie chicken stew, fried potatoes. DINNER 
Roast loin of veal, potatoes, baked tomatoes, onions, cabbage ; apple snow, 
cake. SUPPER Sliced ho,libut, dry toast, grapes. 

14. BREAKFAST Light biscuit, broiled bacon, tomatoes. DINNER Chicken 
pie, potatoes, Lima beans, stewed onions, slaw ; mixed cake, custard. SUP- 
PER Sliced veal, biscuit, baked pears. 

15. BREAKFAST Graham bread, broiled steak, tomatoes. DINNER Boiled 
bacon with potatoes and beans, green corn pudding, raw tomatoes, baked 
egg plant ; apple pie, cake. SUPPER Raw oysters and sliced lemon, biscuit 
and cake. 

16. BREAKFAST Hot muffins, fried chicken, fried cabbarge. DINNER 
"ilagout of beef, potatoes, carrots, corn ; compote of pears. SUPPER Cold 
/Sliced beef, sliced tomatoes, egg rolls. 

17. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, poached eggs, broiled ham. DINNER 
Devilled crabs, potatoes, corn stewed, onions; apple meringue pie. Sup. 
PER Sardines, toast, baked peaches. 

18. BREAKFAST Plain bread, green corn fritters, mutton chops. DINNER 
Chicken fricassee, mashed potatoes, pickled beets; peach cake with whipped 
cream. SUPPED -Sliced veal loaf, warm light biscuit, fried bananas. 

19. Sunday. BREAKFAST Nutmeg melon, fried oysters, baked potatoes. 
DINNER Baked chickens, sweet potatoes, succotash, baked tomatoes ; frozen 
custard, mixed cakes, watermelon. SUPPER Sliced chicken, biscuit, apple 
sauce. 

20. BREAKFAST Nutmeg melon, corn bread, broiled steak, fried sweet po- 
tatoes. D;:?NER Roast beef with potatoes, corn, escaloped cauliflower; wa- 
termelon, cake. SUPPER Cold sliced beef, biscuit, floating island. 

21. BREAKFAST Hash, fried cabbage, sliced cucumbers. DINNER Meat 
pie, young turnips, Lima beans; bread and apple pudding with cream sauce, 
cake* SUPPER Sliced dried beef, baked pears, biscuit. 

22. BREAKFAST Hot muffins, fricasseed sweetbread, fried apples, fried raw 
potatoes. DINNER Boiled beef with soup, potatoes, corn; peaches with 
cream, cake. SUPPER Sliced beet', biscuit, sliced tomatoes with cream. 



398 A YEARS BILL OF FARE. 

23. BREAKFAST Plain bread, corn oysters, fried potatoes, mutton chops. 
DINNER Chicken pudding baked, sweet potatoes, corn, tomatoes ; apple frit- 
ters with sauce, cake. SUPPER Cold tongue, biscuit, blanc mange with 
jelly. 

24. BREAKFAST Cream toast, broiled steak, tomatoes. DINNER Baked or 
boiled fish, potatoes boiled in jackets, escaloped cauliflower, slaw ; baked cus- 
tard, cake. SUPPER Mock strawberries, chipped dried beef, pop-overs. 

25. BREAKFAST Bread puffs, codfish, fried potatoes. DINNER Broiled 
steak, mashed potatoes, creamed cabbage ; steamed pudding with sauce, cake. 
SUPPER Beefsteak toast, rice with milk, fruit. 

26. Sunday. BREAKFAST Nutmeg melon, waffles, broiled chicken, toma- 
toes. DINNER Veal pot pie, sweet potatoes, corn, baked onions ; peach 
pyramid, ice cream. SUPPER Toasted bread, canned salmon, baked pears. 

*27. BREAKFAST Breakfast rolls, warmed-over pot pie, fried carrots. DIN- 
NER Roast leg of mutton with potatoes, succotash; baked apples, cake. 
SUPPER Sliced mutton, warm biscuit, floating island. 

28. BREAKFAST Hot muffins, broiled beefsteak, fried raw potatoes. DIN- 
NER Meat pie, corn, onions ; corn starch pudding, cake. SUPPER Yankee 
dried beef, sliced tomatoes, peaches and cream. 

29. BREAKFAST Melons, hot rolls, broiled chickens, sliced tomatoes. DIN- 
NER Boiled beef with potatoes, turnips, green corn, pickled beets; apple 
pie, cakes. SUPPER Cold corned beef chipped, plain bread sliced thin, rusk, 
Btewed pears. 

30. BREAKFAST Fruit, broiled bacon, corn bread, fried tomatoes. DIN- 
NER Roast lamb with mint sauce, baked potatoes, green corn pudding, 
boiled onions, small pickles ; cocoanut pudding, chocolate cake, fruit. SUP- 
PER Cold lamb sliced, cottage cheese, light buns, peaches and cream. 

BILL OF FARE FOR OCTOBER. 

1. BREAKFAST Broiled steak, flannel cakes, fried potatoes. DINNER Baked 
or boiled fish, potatoes boiled, fried egg plant; peach pie, cake. SUPPER 
Dried beef frizzled, light biscuit, stewed quinces. 

2. BREAKFAST Veal cutlets, plain omelet, hot biscuit, fried potatoes. DIN- 
NER Boiled mutton with soup, potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets and pickles; 
apple dumplings with sauce, cake and fruit. SUPPER Cold mutton sliced, 
apple sauce, warm biscuit, cake, jelly. 

3. Sinulay. BREAKFAST Broiled oysters, baked apples, corn batter cakes. 
DINNER Baked chickens stuffed, Lima beans, baked sweet potatoes, corn, 
squash, beets, celery ; frozen peaches, grapes, cake. SUPPER Sardines, bread, 
coffee cake, sliced peaches. 

4. BREAKFAST Biscuit, broiled bacon, fried potatoes. DINNER Roast beef 
vith potatoes, turnips, corn, tomatoes ; bread pudding with sauce, cake, fruit. 
SUPPER Sliced beef, bread, cake, stewed peaches. 

5. BREAK FAST Hash or beef croquettes, muffins, fried cabbage. DINNER 
Meat pie, steamed potatoes, corn, fried egg plant, beets; custard baked, cake, 
fruit. SUPPER Sliced tongue, bread, chocolate, blanc mange, rnsk. 

6. BREAKFAST Mutton chops broiled, potatoes fried, buttered toast. DIN- 
NER Veal pot pie, sweet potatoes, lima beans, tomatoes, pickles; apple frit- 
ters with sauce, grape tarts, cake. SUPPER Cold tongue, currant or plum 
jelly, baked quinces. 

7. BREAKFAST Corn muffins, fried liver, fried sweet potatoes. DINNER 
Chicken fricassee, baked potatoes, turnips, beets; rice apples, cake, fruit 
SUPPER Chicken pates, peaches with cream, bread. 

8. BREAKFAST Waffles, veal cutlets, potato croquettes. DINNER Baked 
or boiled fish, mashed potatoes, corn, stewed tomatoes ; rice pudding, cocoa- 
nut cake, fruit. SUPPER Canned corned beef sliced, buns, fried apples with 
Sugar. 

9. BREAKFAST Bread puffs, croquettes of fish with potatoes, tomatoes. 



A YEAES BILL OF FARE. 399 

DINNER Saturday bean soup, broiled beafsteak, boiled cauliflower, potatoes 
"boiled in jackets, pickles; plain boiled pudding with sauce, cake, fruit. SUP- 
PEE Beafsteak toast, bread, stewed pears. 

10. Sunday. BREAKFAST Baked beans with Boston brown bread, baked apples 
with cream. DINNER Oyster soup, roast wild duck, grape jelly, celery, 
mashed potatoes and turnips, slaw ; compote of pears, cake. SUPPER Sliced 
duck, bread and milk. 

11. BREAKFAST Graham gems, broiled mutton chop, croquettes of cold 
vegetables. DINNER Roast beef with potatoes, carrots, plain boiled rice; 
baked custard, cake, grapes. SUPPER Cold beef sliced, bread, rice fritters 
with sugar. 

12. BREAKFAST Hash, fried okra, biscuit. DINNER Boiled mutton with 
soup, celery, slaw; sliced pineapples, cake. SUPPER Sliced mutton, cottage 
cheese, bread, cake, grape jam. 

13. BREAKFAST Corn batter cakes, croquettes of mutton and vegetables. 
DINNER Beef a la mode, mashed potatoes and turnips, succotash; apples, 
.grapes, cake. SUPPER Cold beef, bread, cake, baked pears. 

14. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, croquettes of cold beef and vegetables. 
DINNER Fried or smothered chickens, mashed potatoes, Lima beans, pickles; 
bird's nest pudding, cake. SUPPER Canned corned beef sliced, rolls. 

15. BREAKFAST Broiled mutton chops, fried potato cakes, muffins. DIN- 
NER Baked or boiled fish, boiled whole potatoes, corn, delicate cabbage; 
peach meringue, cake. SUPPER Bologna sausage, toasted muffins, honey. 

16. BREAKFAST Plain bread, veal cutlets, breakfast wheat. DINNER Boiled, 
beef with vegetables; cocoanut pudding, cake. SUPPER Soused beef, light 
"biscuit, fried apples. 

17. Sunday. BREAKFAST Vegetable hash, fried oysters, stewed tomatoes. 
DINNER Broiled pheasant, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, onion sauce ; peach me- 
ringue pie, plum jelly, cake, fruit. SUPPER Cold beef sliced, rusk, baked 
apples. 

18. BREAKFAST Biscuit, veal cutlets breaded, potatoes. DINNER Roast beef 
with potatoes, tomatoes; plain boiled rice, cake. SUPPER Chipped dried 
'beef, baked apples, rice waffles with sugar. 

19. BREAKFAST Veal croquettes, fried cabbage, fried potatoes. DINNER 
Boiled mutton with soup, potatoes, squash ; apple tapioca pudding, cake. 
SUPPER Sliced mutton, light buns, fried apples. 

20. BREAKFAST Pates of cold mutton, fried potatoes, plain bread. DIN- 
NER Boiled corned beef with potatoes, turnips, carrots, ; plain batter pud- 
ding, with sauce, cake, fruit. SUPPER Sliced corned beef, grape jam, pop- 
overs. 

21. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, broiled bacon, fricasseed potatoes. DINNER 
Meat pie, boiled onions, stewed tomatoes, beets ; apple dumplings with sauce, 
cake. SUPPER Cold pressed meat, cake, stewed grapes. 

22. BREAKFAST Plain bread, fried fish, corn dodgers, tomatoes. DINNER 
Baked or boiled fish, whole boiled potatoes, tomatoes, creamed cabbage ; mo- 
lasses pudding, cake. SUPPER Dried beef frizzled, buns, baked apples. , 

23. BREAKFAST Graham bread, mutton chops, fried potatoes. DINNER 
Broiled steak, Heidelberg cabbage, turnips, pickles ; cocoanut pudding, choc- 
olate cake, grapes. SUPPER Beefsteak toast, mush and milk, light biscuit, 
baked pears. 

24. Sunday. BREAKFAST Fried oysters, fried mush, poached eggs. DINNER 
Roast wild ducks, grape or plum jelly, mashed potatoes, tomatoes, Lima 
beans ; sliced peaches, ice cream, cake, grapes. SUPPER Sliced duck, sliced 
tomatoes, sponge cake, jelly. 

25. BREAKFAST Corn cakes, broiled ham, tomatoes or potatoes. DINNER 
Roasted beef with potatoes, turnips, plain rice boiled ; sago pudding, cake. 
SUPPER Cold sliced beef, bread, butter, apple sauce. 

26. BREAKFAST Rice cakes, broiled steak, fried potatoes. DINNER Meat 



400 A YEARS SILL OF FARE. 

pie, Lima beans, stuffed cabbage salad; molasses pudding, cake. SUPPER 
Sardines, dry toast, baked appk-. 

27. r.REAKKAsr Hash of mutton, Sally Lunn, fried onions. DINNER 
Breaded chicken, haked sweet potatoes, tomatoes; baked quinces, cake. 
SUPPER Cold presskd meal, rolls, tried apples. 

28. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, veal cutlets, fried sweet potatoes. DINNER Rag- 
out of beef, potatoes, turnips, tomatoes baked; Italian cream, cake, fruit. 
SUPPER Dried beef chipped, preserves with whipped cream. 

2!>. BREAKFAST Corn cakes, broiled bacon, omelette. DINNER Baked or 
boiled fish, whole potatoes, creamed cabbage, tomatoes, beets; boiled Indian 
pudding with sauce, cake. SUPPER Bologna sausage, rusk toasted hot. 
quince jelly. 

30. BREAKFAST Fruit, rolls, broiled mutton chop, potato croquettes. DIN- 
NKR Broiled steak, Saturday bean soup, potatoes, turnips and carrots, 
pickles ; warm apple pie, fruit cake. SUPPER Hot biscuit, cold tongue, fried 
apples, tea cakes. 

31. Sunday. BREAKFAST Baked beans, Boston brown bread, baked apples. 
DINNER Stewed oysters, roast veal with sweet potatoes, apple sauce, tomatoes, 
cabbage salad ; cold apple pie, jelly cake, grapes and apples. SUPPER Toasted 
muffins, sliced veal, bananas. 

BILL OF FARE FOR NOVEMBER. 

1. BREAKFAST Biscuit, croquettes of veal, breakfast hominy. DINNER 
Veal stew, turnips, beets ; baked apples with cream, cake. SUPPER Cold bis- 
cuit, bread and milk, fried apples. 

2. BREAKFAST Graham gems, fried liver, fried cabbage, raw potatoes fried. 
DINNER Baked chicken with potatoes and parsnips, mashed turnips, celery ; 
apple dumplings with sauce, cake. SUPPER Light biscuit, cold sliced chick- 
en, corn starch blanc mange with jelly. 

3. BREAKFAST Breakfast wheat, chicken croquettes, plain bread. DINNER 
Boiled leg of mutton with soup, macaroni with cheese, boiled cauliflower, 
whole boiled potatoes, slaw ; baked custard, jelly cake. SUPPER Biscuit, 
dried beef frizzled, hot short cake, jam. 

4. BREAKFAST Corn muffins, broiled liver, hominy. DINNER Veal pot 
pie, escaloped oysters, celery, slaw; tapioca cream, cake. SUPPER Toasted 
muffins, sliced tongue, rusk, stewed pears. 

5. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, poached eggs, warmed-over pot pie. DINNER 
Baked or boiled fish, mashed potatoes, tomato sauce, beets; custard pie, 
cake. SUPPER Light biscuit, cold pressed meat, bread and milk. 

6. BREAKFAST Bread puffs, croquettes of fish, potatoes. DINNER Larded 
liver, mashed potatoes, delicate cabbage ; rice pudding, cake. SUPPER Cold 
biscuit, apple fritters with sugar, tea cakes. 

7. Sunday. BREAKFAST Cream toast, fried chickens, escaloped eggs. DIN- 
NER Roast wild goose with apple sauce, celery, turnips, sweet potatoes; 
pumpkin pie, cake. SUPPER Tea rolls, cold sliced goose, gelatine blanc 



mange. 



8. BREAKFAST Corn cake, broiled mutton chops, hominy. DINNER Roast 
beef with potatoes, potatoes, turnips, cabbage salad ; lemon pie, farina pud- 
ding, cake. SUPPER Cold roast beef, bread fritters, honey. 

9. BREAKFAST Sally Lunn, breakfast stew, fried potatoes. DINNER Stewed 
beef, mashed boiled onions, mashed potatoes, Lima beans, jelly ; rice apples, 
cake. SUPPER Toasted Sally Lunn, sliced cold beef, fried apples, rusk. 

10. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, fried pork steak, potato cakes, tomatoes. 
DINNER Boiled chicken with soup, plain rice, whole potatoes, slaw ; apple 
dumplings, cake. SUPPER Cold chicken, rice fritters, tea cakes. 

11. BREAKFAST Waffles, broiled steak, fried potatoes. DINNER Toad-in- 
the-hole, whole potatoes, turnips, onion sauce ; cream pie, cake. SUPPER 
Cold rolls, canned salmon, black caps. 



A YEARS BILL OF FARE. 401 

12. BREAKFAST Fried mush, oyster fritters, plain bread. DINNER Baked 
or boiled fish, mashed potatoes, canned peas, tomatoes, grape jelly ; cottage 
pudding with sauce. SUPPER Eolls, cold mutton sliced, rice fritters, jelly 
and cake. 

13. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, croquettes of fish, potato cakes. DINNER Eco- 
nomical soup ; Estelle pudding, cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, soused beef, stewed 
fruit, tea cakes. 

14. XuH'f't.f. BREAKFAST Oyster omelet, vegetable hash, baked apples, pota- 
toes. DINNER Stewed oysters, roast wild duck, mashed potatoes, boiled 
onions, celery; Charlotte russe, fruit cake. SUPPER Cold duck sliced, light- 
biscuit, grapes, sponge cake, currant jeliy. 

15. BREAKFAST Cream toast, broiled pork, potato cakes. DINNER Ron-t 
beef, sweet potatoes, boiled turnips, chicken salad; economical pudding. SUP- 
PER Oatmeal mush, cold roast beef, cranberry tarts, cake. 

16. BREAKFAST Graham bread, croquettes of duck, potatoes. DINNER 
Spiced beef tongue, baked potatoes, macaroni with cheese ; grapes, cake. 
SUPPER Toasted Graham bread, cold tongue, baked pears. 

17. BREAKFAST Batter cakes, broiled mutton chops, potatoes. DINNER 
Oyster pie, baked sweet potatoes, diced turnips, celery; apple pie with 
whipped cream. SUPPER Cold rolls, chipped beef, custard cakes, mar- 
malade. 

18. BREAKFAST Waffles, hash, fried sweet potatoes. DINNER Brown stew, 
baked potatoes, plain rice, slaw; pumpkin pie, cake. SUPPER Cold sliced 
beef, short cake, jam. 

19. BREAKFAST Corn batter cakes, broiled sausage, hominy. DINNER Tur- 
bot, mashed potatoes, turnips, Heidelberg cabbage ; prune whip, cake. SUP- 
PER Light biscuit, bologna sausage, baked quinces. 

20. BREAKFAST Graham gems, veal cutlets, potatoes. DINNER Chicken pot 
pie ; warm apple pie, cake. SUPPER 'Toasted gems, dried beef, baked apples. 

21. Suiidai/. BREAKFAST Cream toast, broiled oysters with pork, fried raw 
potatoes. DINNER Stewed oysters, roast goose, Texas baked potatoes, boiled 
onions, cranberry sauce, celery; peach pie, jelly cake. SUPPER Cold bis- 
cuit, sliced goose, grapes, cakes. 

22. BREAKFAST Breakfast wheat, broiled steak, potatoes, plain bread. DIN- 
NER Roast goose warmed over, baked potatoes, macaroni with cheese; grape 
pie, cake. SUPPER Buttered oast, cold sliced goose, fried apples, rusk. 

23. BREAKFAST Corn gems, fried liver, beefsteak, potatoes. DINNER Roast 
pork with sweet potatoes or parsnips, tomatoes, beets, apple sauce ; bread and 
fruit pudding, cake. SUPPER Toasted gems, dried beef, canned fruit. 

24. BREAKFAST Pates of pork, fried sweet potatoes, plain bread. DIN- 
NER Beef a la mode, steamed potatoes, Heidelberg cabbage, beets, plain rice; 
cocoanut pudding, cake. SUPPER Cold meat, rice fritters, baked apples. 

25. Tkanksyiviny dfuj. BREAKFAST Grapes, oatmeal with cream, panned 
oysters with toast, hot rolls, broiled mutton chops, raw potatoes fried. 
flannel cakes with maple syrup or honey. DINNER Turtle, chicken, ' o" 
oyster soup, baked fish if large an.d fresh, or stewed if canned (cod, hal- 
ibut, or salmon.) mashed potatoes, celery, roast turkey, baked sweet pota- 
toes. Lima beans, stewed tomatoes, onions, beets, cranberry sauce, cabK 
salad, green pickles; pumpkin pie, mince pie, plum pudding, ici-cream. a^- 
sorted cakes, oranges and grapes, nuts. SUPPER Light biscuit, shaved cold 
turkey, currant jelly, cheese sandwiches, tea cakes, apples and jelly. 

26. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, turkey hash or croquettes of meat and 
vegetables. DINNER Escaloped turkey, turnips, beets, potatoes, slaw, corn 
starch pudding, cakes. SUPPER Light biscuit, cold turkey, cranberry sauce, 
Welsh rarebit. 

27. BREAKFAST Corn bread, broiled spare ribs, potatoes. DINNER Turkey 
sou}), venison steak, potatoes a la pancake, carrots, boiled beets; custard 
pie, cake. SUPPER Cold rolls, cold tongue, mush and milk. 

28. Sunday. BREAKFAST Graham gems, veal cutlets, omelet, DINNER 

26 



402 A YEARS BILL OF FARE. 

Oyster roll, cold sliced tongue, turnips mashed, baked sweet potatoes, cel- 
ery ; pumpkin pie, grapes, cake. * SUPPER Light biscuit, cold tongue, cur- 
rant jelly, cake. 

29. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, fried venison, fried sweet potatoes. DIN- 
NER Roast mutton, baked potatoes, baked turnips, plum jelly; grapes, 
chocolate cake. SUPPER Light biscuit, sliced mutton, doughnuts, 

30. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, mutton croquettes, potatoes. DINNER Boiled 
corned beef with turnips and potatoes, pickled beets. Chili sauce; peach 
roll. SUPPER Cold rolls, sliced corn beef, baked apples, rusk. 

BILL OF FARE FOR DECEMBER. 

1. BREAKFAST Corn batter cakes, devilled oysters, fried potatoes. DIN- 
NER Chicken pie with oysters, canned Lima beans, cabbage salad ; pump- 
kin pie. cake, SUPPER Hot tea rolls, bologna sausage, canned fruit, cake. 

2. BREAKFAST Buckwheat cakes, sausage, croquettes of hominy. DINNER 
Veal pot-pie, canned tomatoes, apple sauce ; eggless plum pudding, jelly cake. 
SUPPER Biscuits, frizzled beef, fried apples, cake. 

3. BREAKFAST Waffles, broiled steak, omelet. DINNER Stewed fish, 
mashed potatoes, celery, turnips ; baked apple dumplings with solid sauce, 
cake. SUPPER Toast, pressed meat, cream fritters, apple jelly. 

4. BREAKFAST Graham bread, broiled spare ribs, fried raw potatoes. DIN- 
NER Broiled beefsteak, Heidelberg cabbage, potato souffle, turnips, celery; 
molasses pudding, cake. SUPPER Toasted Graham bread, cold tongue, float- 
ing island. 

5. Sunday. BREAKFAST Flannel cakes, beefsteak toast, potato cakes. DIN-? 
NER Roast haunch of venison, mashed potatoes, tomatoes, apple sauce, cel- 
-ery ; fig pudding with lemon sauce, cake. SUPPER Tea buns, cold venison, 
canned fruit, lady fingers. 

6. BREAKFAST Cream toast, fricatelli, potato cakes. DINNER Baked veal, 
potatoes, plain boiled rice ; peach roll, cake. SUPPER Cold veal sliced, but- 
tered, toast jelly and cake. 

7. BREAKFAST Sally Lunn, veal patties, corn dodgers. DINNER Veal pie, 
carrots, boiled beets ; crumb pie, cake. SUPPER Toasted Sally Lunn, baked 
apples and buns. 

8. BREAKFAST Corn muffins, breaded veal, cutlets, Saratoga potatoes. DIN- 
NER Stewed oysters, roast mutton with potatoes, tomatoes, celery ; pine- 
apple ice-cream, jelly cake. SUPPER Toasted muffins, cold mutton sliced, 
apple croutes. 

9. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, cracked wheat, breakfast stew. DINNER Roast 
quails, baked potatoes, Lima beans, celery ; pumpkin pie, cake. SUPPER 
Cold rolls, cold tongue sliced, baked apples, tea cakes. 

10. BREAKFAST Buckwheat cakes, smoked sausage broiled, hominy croe 
quettes. DINNER Baked or boiled fish, mashed potatoes, squash, cabbag- 
salad ; hot peach pie wih cream, cake. SUPPER Light biscuit, oyster 
steamed, canned fruit with cake. 

11. BREAKFAST Buckwheat cakes, rabbit stewed, potato cakes. DINNER 
Chicken fricassee, baked potatoes, baked turnips ; cottage pudding with sauce, 
cake. SUPPER French rolls, Welsh rarebit, jam. 

12. Sunday. BREAKFAST Muffins, broiled spare ribs, fried potatoes. DIN- 
NER Roast turkey garnished with fried oysters, mashed potatoes, turnips, 
cranberry sauce, celery, English carrot pudding. SUPPER Light biscuit, cold 
turkey, jelly and cake. 

13. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, fried apples, cold turkey broiled. DIN- 
NER Roast turkey warmed over, potatoes whole, canned corn ; canned fruit 
and cream. SUPPER Cold turkey, mush and milk, buns, jam. 

14. BREAKFAST Plain bread, fried corn, mush, breakfast bacon, fried 
cabbage. DINNER Roast beef with potatoes, canned tomatoes, creamed cab- 



A TEAR'S BILL OF FARE. 403 

bage, mince pie, cake. SUPPER Hot short cake, boiled oysters on the half 
shell, tea rolls, canned fruit. 

15. BREAKFAST Crumb griddle cakes, breakfast stew, fried potatoes. DIN- 
NER Boiled corned beef with turnips, potatoes and cabbage; baked apple 
dumplings with sauce, cake. SUPPER Biscuit, cold beef, canned cherries. 

16. BREAKFAST Graham rolls, croquettes of codfish with potatoe. DIN- 
NER Baked chickens with parsnips, mashed potatoes, celery, currant jelly ; 
preserves with whipped cream. SUPPER Plain bread, cold chicken, toasted 
rusk, jelly. 

17. BREAKFAST Cream toast, broiled steak, potatoes. DINNER Steamed 
fish, steamed potatoes, celery, Lima beans, stewed tomato ; mince pie. SUP- 
PER Cold rolls, chicken pates, baked apples. 

18. BREAKFAST Waffles, croquettes of fish, fried potatoes. DINNER Sat- 
urday bean soup, broiled venison steak, mashed potatoes, beets; vinegar pie, 
cake. SUPPER Toast, cold ham, buns, jelly. 

19. Sunday. BREAKFAST Buttered toast, broiled oysters, potato cakes, fried 
parsnips. DINNER Roast domestic ducks, mashed potatoes and turnips, 
boiled onions, celery sauce, plum jelly ; fig pudding with lemon sauce, cake. 
SUPPER Tea rolls, salmi of duck, apple croutes. 

20. BREAKFAST Corn batter cakes, broiled bacon, potatoes. DINNER Roast 
spare rib, baked potatoes, salsify, cabbage salad ;plain Indian pudding with 
sauce. SUPPER Biscuit, cold pressed meat, sliced apples. 

21. BREAKFAST Johnny cake, sausage, hominy croquettes. DINNER 
Roast rabbits, baked potatoes, slaw; apple meringue pie, jelly cake. SUP- 
PER Light biscuit, dried beef frizzled. 

22. BREAKFAST Fried pork steak, fried raw potatoes, fried cabbage. DIN- 
NER Venison roast with potatoes, boiled onions, plum jelly ; chocolate pud- 
ding, cake. SUPPER Sliced venison with jelly, sweet wafers, canned fruit. 

23. BREAKFAST Breakfast stew of cold venison, fried potatoes, Indian pan- 
cakes. DINNER Spanish pot-pie, canned tomatoes; starch pudding. SUP- 
PER Graham mush and milk and jam. 

24. BREAKFAST Sally Lunn, broiled beefsteak, potatoes a la Lyonnaise, bread 
cakes with syrup. DINNER Chicken soup, chicken dressed with parsley and 
egg sauce, potatoes, salsify, slaw ; hot apple pie with cream. SUPPER Cold 
chicken, French rolls, apple sauce. 

25. Christmas. BREAKFAST Grapes and bananas, broiled oysters on toast, 
waffles with honey. DINNER Raw oysters served with sliced lemon : turtle 
soup ; baked fresh fish ; roast turkey garnished with fried oysters, mashed 
potatoes, Lima beans, pickled beets, mayonaise of chicken salad, celery, cran- 
berry sauce; Christmas plum pudding with rich sauce; mince pie, sponge 
and lady cake mixed, fruit and nuts. SUPPER OR LUNCHEON Curried oys- 
ters, Vienna rolls, slaw, apple trifle with whipped cream, lady fingers, cake. 

26. Sunday. BREAKFAST Corn muffins, oysters in shell, croquettes of tur- 
key, potato rissoles. DINNER Turkey soup, quail on toast, walled oysters, 
boiled onions, celery and slaw ; ice-cream, cake. SUPPER Bread and milk, 
lemon fritters with sugar, rusk. 

27. BREAKFAST Buckwheat cakes, broiled spare ribs or sausage, pates of 
turkey hot with gravy, horniny. DINNER Escaloped turkey, baked pota- 
toes, canned corn ; mince pie, cakes. SUPPER Biscuit, cold tongue, cakes. 

28. BREAKFAST Hot rolls, fried liver, oyster omelet. DINNER Oyster soup, 
roast pig (garnished with boquettes of beets, carrots and green picklea 
carved), whole steamed potatoes, parsnips, beets, macaroni with cheese ; 
peach pie with cream. SUPPER Cold rolls.sliced tongue, apple croutes, cake. 

29. BREAKFAST Cream toast, veal, sweet breads, potatoes " fried whole." 
DINNER Mutton soup, mutton dressed with caper sauce, baked potatoes, 
canned peas, celery, cranberry jelly; cocoanut pudding, cake. SUPPER Cold 
mutton, short cake with jam. 

30. BREAKFAST Graham gems, broiled veal cutlets, fried potatoes. DIN* 
HER Roast stuffed chicken, mashed potatoes, salsify, canned corn, currant 



404 A YEARS BILL OF FARE. 

jelly, celery; prairie plum pudding. SUPPER Raw oysters, French rolls, 
jellied chicken, grape jelly, assorted cakes. 

31. liiniAKr AST Fried oysters, potatoes a la Duchesse, waffles with maple 
syrup, linked apples. ]>INNER Boiled fish with Hollandaise sauce, steamed 
potatoes, canned tomatoes, canned succotash; queen of puddings. SUPPER 
Fricasseed oysters, slaw, celery, wattles and honey, canned pears. 

NOTK. Observe that these bills of fare are made with ( ivi< -rence to the ordinary 

routine of the week in the kitchen, the meals for each day being planned to save labor 
and fuel, and to interfere as little as possible with the special work of the day. Thus 
Monday's bill of fare will not fit any other day of the week, if Monday is set apart as 
washing day. The housekeeper should aim "at variety on successive meals rather 
than in the same meal, remembering that a few dishes d a; ntiiy cooked and served make 
a far more attractive dinner than many dishes less perfectly cooked and served. 

ADDITIONAL BILLS OF FARE. 

NEW YEAR'S TABLE. When receiving calls on New Year's day, the table 
should be handsomely arranged and decorated, and provided with rather 
substantial dishes, such as would suit the taste of gentlemen. Too great 
profusion, especially of cakes, confectionery, and ices, is out of taste. Selec- 
tions may be made from the following : Escaloped oysters ; cold tongue, 
turkey, chicken, and ham, pressed meats, boned turkey, jellied chicken; 
sandwiches or wedding sandwich rolls; pickled oysters, chicken and lobster 
salads, cold slaw garnished with fried oysters ; bottled pickles, French or 
Spanish pickles; jellies; charlotte-russe, ice-creams, ices; two large hand- 
some cakes for decoration of table, and one or two baskets of mixed cake, 
fruit, layer, and sponge cake predominating ; fruits ; nuts ; coffee, chocolate 
with whipped cream, lemonade. 

REFRESHMENTS. For small evening parties, sociables, receptions, etc., 
where the refreshments are handed round or are served on a sideboard, and 
are of a simple character, every thing should be excellent in the highest 
degree, delicately prepared, and attractively served. Sandwiches and coffee, 
chocolate or tea, a variety of nice cake, jellies, ice-cream or ices, and fruits 
are appropriate. For a more pretentious occasion, a simple table prettily 
decorated with flowers, and set with fruit, lobster salad, chicken croquettes, 
pickled oysters, and one or two kinds of ice-creani and cake, and coffee and 
tea is quite enough. 

REFRESHMENTS FOR TWENTY. For a company of twenty allow one gallon 
oysters, four chickens and eight bunches of celery for chicken salad, fifty 
sandwiches, one gallon of ice-cream, two molds charlotte-russe, two quarts 
of lemon jelly, one light and one dark fruit cake, two layer cakes, and one 
white or sponge cake; for coffee use one and a half pints ground coffee and 
one gallon of water; fruit cake especially, and, indeed, all rich cake, should 
be cut in thin slices with a keen-edged knife ; a small piece of each variety is 
always preferred to a plate overloaded with one or two kinds. 

REFRESHMENTS FOR A HUNDRED. For a larger company of a hundred the 
refreshments maybe more elaborate: Two gallons of pickled oysters; two 
large dishes of lobster salad; two small hams boiled and sliced cold, five cold 
tongues sliced thin, twelve chickens jellied or pressed, each dish garnished 
with sprigs of parsley, slices of lemon and red beets, or curled leaves of 
celery, or the tender center leaves of lettuce ; two gallons of bottled pickles 
or a gallon and a half of home-made ; twelve dozen biscuit sandwiches ; five 
quarts jelly, four gallons ice-cream ; fifteen large cakes, to be made from 
recipes for rich fruit, delicate, layer, and sponge cakes; twelve dozen ^each of 
almond macaroons and variety puffs; four large dishes of mixed fruits; five 
pounds roasted coffee and five gallons water, which should be served at the 
beginning, and six gallons of iced lemonade to serve at the close. 

REFRESHMENTS FOR ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-FIVE. Six gallons oys- 
ters; three small hams, five large turkeys, ten tongues; six chickens and 
twelve bunches of celery for salad; three gallons pickles; seventeen dozen 



BILLS OF FARE. 405" 

buns-, twelve loaves bread made in wedding sandwich rolls or in plain sand- 
wiches; twenty-two large cakes; fifteen dozen large oranges sliced, seventeen 
dozen mernigues, ilfieen dozen pears, thirty pounds grapes ; seven gallons ice- 
cream and four gallons lemon ice ; coffee made of twelve pints ground coffee 
and eight gallons water; serve coffee at the beginning, and lemonade at the 
close. 

FOR THE PICNIC. 

In the "Sunny South," picnics are in order as early as April, but in the 
more northern latitudes should never be attempted before the latter part of 
May or June, and September and October are the crowning months for them 
around the northern lakes, where hunting and fishing give zest to the sports. 
First, be up "at five o'clock in the morning," in order to have the chicken, 
biscuit, etc., freshly baked. Provide two baskets, one for the provisions, and 
the other for dishes and utensils, which should include the following: Table- 
cloth and an oil-cloth to put under it, napkins, towels, plates, cups, forks, a 
few knives and table-spoons, tea-spoons, sauce dishes, tin cups (or tumblers, if 
the picnickers are of the over-fastidious variety); a tin bucket, for water, in 
which a.bottle of cream, lemons, oranges, or other fruit may be carried to the 
scene of action; another with an extra close cover, partly filled with made 
chocolate, which may be readily reheated by setting in an old tin pail or pan 
in which water is kept boiling a la custard-kettle; a frying-pan; a coffee-pot, 
with the amount of prepared coffee needed tied in a coarse, white flannel 
bag; a tea-pot, with tea in a neat paper package; tin boxes of salt, pepper, 
and sugar; a tin box for butter (if carried) placed next to block of ice, which 
should be well wrapped with a blanket and put in a shady corner of the pic- 
nic wagon. For extra occasions, add a freezer filled with frozen cream, with 
ice well packed around it, and heavily wrapped with carpeting. To pack the 
basket, first put in plates, cups, and sauce dishes carefully with the tow- 
els and napkins, and paper if needed; then add the rest, fitting them in 
tightly, and covering all with the table-cloth, and over it the oil-cloth. Tie 
the coffee and tea-pots, well wrapped up, and the frying-pan to the handles. 
Pack provision basket as full as the law allows, or as the nature of the occa- 
sion and the elasticity of the appetites demand. 

The following bills of fare may be picked to pieces and recombined to suit 
tastes and occasions : 

SPRING PICNICS. Cold roast chicken ; ham broiled on coals ; fish fried or 
broiled; sardines; tongue; hard boiled eggs; eggs to be fried or scrambled; 
Boston corn bread ; buttered rolls ; ham sandwiches prepared with grated 
ham ; orange marmalade ; canned peaches ; watermelon and beet sweet- 
pickles ; euchered plums; variety or bottled pickles; chow-chow; quince 
or plum jelly; raspberry or other jams; Scotch fruit, rolled jelly, chocolate, 
Minnehaha, old-fashioned loaf, and marble cake ; coffee, chocolate, tea; cream 
and sugar; salt and pepper; oranges. 

SUMMER PICNICS. Cold baked or broiled chicken ; cold boiled ham ; 
pickled salmon; cold veal loaf; Parker House rolls; light bread; box of 
butter; green corn boiled or roasted; new potatoes; sliced tomatoes; sliced 
cucumbers; French and Spanish pickles; peach and pear sweet-pickles; 
lemon or orange jelly; strawberries, raspberries, or blackberries ; lemonade; 
soda-beer or raspberry vinegar; coffee and tea; ice-cream; lemon or straw- 
berry-ice ; sponge, white, Buckeye, or lemon cake ; watermelon, muskmelon, 
nutmeg-melon. 

FALL PICNICS. Broiled prairie chicken; fish chowder; clam chowder; 
clams roasted or fried; beef omelet; cold veal roast; sardines; cold roast 
chicken; pot of pork and beans; rusk, Minnesota rolls, Boston brown bread; 
potatoes, Irish or sweet, roasted in ashes; egg sandwiches (hard-boiled eggs, 
sliced, sprinkled with pepper and salt, and put between buttered bread); 
mangoes ; piccalilli ; Chili sauce ; quince marmalade ; baked apples ; musk 
and nutmeg-melon; crab apple jelly; grape jelly; black, orange, velvet, 
sponge, and three-ply cake ; combination pie. 



FRAGMENTS. 



Mother's hash does n't taste of soap grease, rancid butter, spoiled cheese, 
raw flour, boarding-house skillets, hotel coffee, garden garlics, bologna sau- 
sage, or cayenne pepper; neither is it stewed and simmered and simmered 
and stewed, but is made so nicely, seasoned so delicately, and heated through 
so quickly, that the only trouble is, "there is never enough to go round." 
Cold meat of any kind will do, but corned beef is best ; always remove all 
surplus fat and bits of gristle, season with salt and pepper, chop fine, and to 
one-third of meat add two-thirds of chopped cold boiled potato, and one 
onion chopped very fine ; place in the dripping-pan, dredge with a little 
flour, and pour in at the side of the pan enough water to come up level with 
the hash, place in oven, and do not stir; when the flour is a light-brown, and 
has formed a sort of crust, take out. add a lump of butter, stir it through 
several times, and you will have a delicious hash. Or, by cooking longer, it 
may be made of cold raw potatoes, which peel, slice, and let lie in salt and 
water a half hour before chopping. If of meat and potatoes, always use the 
proportions given above, and before chopping, season with pepper and salt, 
and a chopped onion if you like (if onions are not to be had, take them out 
of pickle jar), place in hot skillet with just enough water to moisten, add a 
little butter or some nice beef drippings, stir often until warmed through, 
cover and let stand on a moderately hot part of the stove fifteen minutes. 
When ready to dish, run the knife under and fold as you would an omelet, 
and serve hot with tomato catsup. In making hash meats may be combined 
if there is not enough of a kind. Do not make hash or any other dish greasy. 
It is a mistaken idea to think that fat and butter in large quantities are 
necessary to good cooking. Butter and oils may be melted without changing 
their nature, but when cooked they become much more indigestible and 
injurious to weak stomachs. 

AFTER THANKSGIVING DINNER, 

a most excellent hash may be made thus: Pick meat off turkey bones, shred 
it in small bits, add dressing and pieces of light biscuit cut up fine, mix 
together and put into dripping-pan, pour over any gravy that was left, add 
water to thoroughly moisten, but not enough to make it sloppy ; place in a 
hot oven for twenty minutes, and, when eaten, all will agree that the turkey 
is better this time than it was at first; or warm the remnants of the turkey 
over after the style of escaloped oysters (first a layer of bread-crumbs, then 
minced turkey, and so on) ; or add an egg or two and make nice breakfast 
croquettes. The common error in heating over meats of all kinds is pitting 
(406) 



FRAGMENTS. 407 

into a cold skillet, and cooking a long time. This second cooking is more 
properly only heating, and should be quickly done. All such dishes should 
be served hot with some sort of tart jelly. Always save a can of currant 
juice (after filling jelly cups and glasses), from which to make jelly in the 
winter, and it will taste as fresh and delicious as when made in its season. 

ALWAYS SAVE 

all the currants, skimmings, pieces, etc., left after making jelly, place in a stone 
jar, cover with soft water previously boiled to purify it, let stand several 
days ; in the meantime, take your apple peelings, without the cores, and put 
on in porcelain kettle, cover with water, boil twenty minutes, drain into a 
large stone jar ; drain currants also into this jar, add all the rinsings from 
your molasses jugs, all dribs of syrups, etc., and when jar is full, drain off 
all that is clear into vinegar keg (where, of course, you have some good cider 
vinegar to start with). If not sweet enough, add brown sugar or molasses 1 , 
cover the bung-hole with a piece of coarse netting, and set in the sun or by 
the kitchen stove. In making vinegar always remember to give it plenty oi 
air, and it is better to have the cask or barrel (which should be of oak) only 
half full, so that the air may pass over as large a surface as possible. Vine- 
gar must also have plenty of material, such as sugar, molasses, etc., to work 
upon. Never use alum or cream of tartar, as some advise, and never let your 
Finegar freeze. Paint your barrel or cask if you w r ould have it durable. 
Company, sickness, or other circumstances may prevent making 

SWEET PICKLES 

in their season, but they can be prepared very nicely at any time, by taking 
pear, peach, plum, or apple preserves, and pouring hot spiced vinegar over 
them ; in a few days they will make a delightful relish. It very often hap- 
pens in putting up cucumber pickles that you can only gather or buy a few 
at a time ; these can be easily pickled in the following manner : Place in a 
jar, sprinkle with salt, in the proportion of a pint salt to a peck cucumbers, 
cover with boiling water, let stand twenty-four hours, drain, cover with 
fresh hot water ; after another twenty-four hours, drain, place in a jar, and 
cover with cold, not very strong vinegar ; continue to treat each mess in this 
manner, using the two jars, one for scalding and the other as a final recep- 
tacle for the pickles, until you have enough, when drain and cover with 
boiling cider vinegar, add spices, and in a few days they will be ready for 
use. Never throw away even 

A CRUMB OF BREAD, 

but save it and put with other pieces ; if you have a loaf about to mold, cnt 
in thin slices, place all together in a dripping-pan and set in oven to dry> 
and you will find that when pounded and rolled it will be very nice for 
dressing, stuffing, puddings, griddle-cakes, etc. When to be used for bread- 
ing meats, etc., it must be made very fine. Keep in a covered box, or in a 
paper bag tied securely and hung in a dry place. It is much more economi- 
cal to prepare meats with a dressing of some kind, since they "go so much, 
further. " 



406 F A GUESTS. 

SAUSAGE TOAST is made by scalding the sausages in boiling water, frying- 
to light brown, chop fine, and spread on bits; of toast. 

H \ M 1- \i.i.s. < 'hop line, cold, conked ham ; add an egg for each person, aiul 
a little flour: heat together, make into l>alh. and t'ry bro\vn in hot h,utter. 

( '<>KN-Mr. \i, 'AKI-;. Two-thirds cup hiitter, one cup sugar, three cgL's 
beaten separately, t\vo and a lialf cups corn nu-al, one and a half of flour, 
two of sweet milk, two tea-spoons civam tartar, one of soda. 

PHILADELI'III \ Sri; APPLE. Mix potatoes (or any cold vegetables) and meat, 
turn into a skillet with meat gravy from previous day. Stir up until dry 
and crisp, resembling a very dry hash ; serve in small deep dish. 

To CLARIFY MOLASSES. Heat over the tire and pour in one pint of swcr-t 
milk to each gallon of molasses. The impurities rise in scum to the top, 
which must be skimmed off before the boiling breaks it. Add the milk as 
soon as placed over the fire, mixing it thoroughly with the mobiles. 

CUCUMBER RELISH may be made of the large cucumbers. Pare and cut in 
two. take out seeds, and grate, strain out most of the water, season highly 
with pepper and salt, add a little sugar, and as much vinegar as you. have 
cucumbers ; put in small bottle and seal. 

BEEFSTEAK TOAST. Chop cold steak or tongue very fine, cook in a little 
water, put in cream or milk, thicken, season with butter, salt, and pepper, 
and pour it over slices of toast. Prepare boiled ham in the same way, adding 
the yolk of an egg. 

BREAKFAST PUFFS may be made on baking day, by taking up a little 
dough, pulling out to thickness of doughnuts, cut* two and one-half inches 
in length, drop in boiling lard, and fry like doughnuts; to be eaten with 
butter like biscuit. 

SHELLED ALMONDS are more economical for use in cakes. One poun-1 
of unshelled almonds only makes six and one-half ounces or one coffe-cup- 
ful when shelled, while the unshelled are generally only double the price, 
and sometimes not that per pound. 

MIXED SANDWICHES. Chop fine, cold ham, tongue and chicken ; mix with 
one pint of the meat half a cup melted butter, one table-spoon salad-oil, one 
of mustard if desired, the yolk of a beaten egg, and a little pepper ; spread 
on bread cut thin and buttered. Ham alone may be prepared in this way. 

STEAK PUDDING. Mix one quart flour, one pound suet (shredded fine\ a 
little salt, and cold water to make stiff as for pie-crusfc, roll out half an inch 
thick ; have steak (beef or mutton) well seasoned with pepper and salt, lay 
them on the paste and roll it up. tie in a cloth, and boil three hours. Some 
add a few oysters and a sliced onion to the steak. 

MUTTON PIE AND TOMATOES. Spread the bottom of a baking-dish with 
"bread-crumbs, and fill with alternate layers of cold roast mutton, cut in thin 
slices, and tomatoes, peeled and sliced ; season each layer with pepper, salt 
and bits of butter. The last layer should be of tomatoes spread with bread- 
crumbs. Bake three-quarters of an hour, and serve immediately. 

LANCASHIRE PIE. Take cold beef or veal, chop, and season as for hash; 
have ready hot mashed potatoes seasoned as if for the table, and put in a 
shallow baking-dish first a layer of meat, then a layer of potatoes, and so on, 
till dish is heaping full ; smooth over top of potatoes, and make little holes 
in which place bits of butter; bake until a nice brown. 

BREAD-CRUMBS FOR PASTRY. Many puddings that are commonly baked in 
a crust, such as cocoa-nut, potato, apple, and lemon, are equally as good and 
more wholesome, made by strewing grated bread-crumbs over a buttered 
pie-plate or pudding-dish to the usual depth of crust ; pour in the pudding, 
strew another layer of bread-crumbs over the top, and bake. 

SQUAB PIE. Trim a deep dish with paste as for chicken pie. put in a layer 
of sliced sour apples, season with sugar and spice ; add a layer of fresh, rather 
lean pork, sliced thin, seasoned with salt and pepper; and thus place alter- 
nate layers of apple and pork until the dish is nearly full ; put in a little 
water and cover with paste ; bake slowly until thoroughly done. 



FRAGMENTS. 409 

MARSH MALLOW PASTE. Dissolve one pound of clean gum arable in one 
quart of water; strain, add one pound of refined sugar, and place over the 
fire, stirring continually until the sugar is dissolved and the mixture has be- 
coine the consistency of honey. Next, add gradually the whites of eight 
eggs well beaten, stirring the mixture all the time, until it loses its sticki- 
ness and does not adhere to the ringers when touched. The mass may now 
be poured out into a pan or box. slightly dusted with starch, and when cool 
divided, into small squares. 

APPLE CROUTES. Pare, halve and core good smooth apples, cut slices of 
bread, without crust, to fit the fiat side of each half apple; dust the apple all 
over with sugar, a little nutmeg or cinnamon, arrange these or. the slices of 
bread in a pie plate, bake in a moderate oven. The apples will retain their 
-hape, and if peeled with care or carved lightly in shells or other fanciful 
designs make a very presentable dish for tea or a hasty lunch, beside being 
simple and healthy. 

ECONOMICAL IXPIAX PUDDIXG. Scald one quart of sweet milk, into it stir 
five rounded tablespoons Indian meal, one teacup brown sugar or five table- 
spoons molasses, one teaspoon ginger, and a little salt; put in moderate oven 
to bake, and in half an hour stir in one cup cold rich milk; bake two hours. 
This is much improved by adding a teacup of raisins when the cold milk is 
added. Serve with cream or hot sauce. 

SOUSED BEEF left after soup. Cut the meat and bristle off bone in small 
pieces, salt, pepper and spice with mace, and pour over it hot vinegar, or an 
-equal quantity of water and strong vinegar will be better. Good for supper; 
may be warmed over for breakfast. 

Ax ECONOMICAL DISH. Season mashed potatoes with salt, pepper, butter 
.and cream: place a layer in a pie dish; upon this place a layer of cold 
meat or fish, finely chopped, then alternate until dish is full; then strew 
bread crumbs over top and bake brown. 

To REGULATE TIME ix COOKERY. Mutton A leg of eight pounds will re- 

-quire two hours and a half; a chine or saddle of ten or eleven pounds, two 

hours and and a half; a shoulder of seven pounds, one hour and a half ; a. 

loin of seven pounds, one hour and three-quarters ; a neck and breast, about 

the same time as a loin. 

Beef The sirloin of fifteen pounds, from three hours and three-quarters to 
four hours ; ribs of beef, from fifteen to twenty pounds, will take three hours 
to three hours and a half. 

Vt-al A fillet, from twelve to sixteen pounds, will take from four to five 
hours, at a good fire ; a loin T upon the average, will take three hours ; a 
.shoulder, from three hours to three hours and a half; a neck, two hours; a 
breast, from an hour and a half to two hours. 

Liiinb Hind-quarter of eight pounds will take from an hour and three- 
quarters to two hours; fore-quarter of ten pounds, about two hours; leg of 
five pounds, from an hour and a quarter to an hour and a half; shoulder or 
breast, with a quick fire, an hour. 

Pork A leg of eight pounds will require about three hours; griskin, an 
hour and a half; a spare-rib of eight or nine pounds will take from two hours 
and a half to three hours to roast it thoroughly; a bald spaiv-rib of eight 
pounds. -an hour and a quarter; a loin of five pounds, if very fat. from two 
hours to two hours and a half; a sucking pig, of three weeks old, about an 
.hour and a half. 

Pon'tfi; A very large turkey will require about three hours; one of ten 
pounds, t\vo hours ; a small one an hour and a half. 

A full-grown fowl, an hour and a half; a moderate sized one, an hour and 
a quarter. 

A pullet, from half an hour to forty minutes. 

A goose full-grown, two hours. 

A duck, full size, from an hour and a quarter to one hour and three 
quarters. 



410 FRAGMENTS. 

Venison A buck haunch which weighs from twenty to twenty-five pounds 
will take about four hours and a half roasting ; one from twelve to eighteen 
pounds, will take three hours and a quarter. 

A LUNCH DISH. Chop the lean of cold roast beef or steak very fine, sep- 
arating it first from all the fat; nearly fill a pudding dish with cold boiled or 
baked macaroni ; in the center put chopped beef, carefully flavored with 
salt, pepper, thyme, and, if to your taste, a little liquor poured off from 
canned tomatoes. Pour sour stock or gravy over beef and macaroni, cover 
with bread crumbs, over which pour two tablespoonfuls of melted butter, 
and bake half an hour. 

SOYER'S RECEIPT FOR COOKING EGGS. Take two or three large onions, slice- 
them very thin, and fry till a nice brown. Have ready three or four hard- 
boiled eggs cut in slices, and a cupful of nice gravy, with a little flour of ar- 
rowroot mixed with it ; add the eggs to the onions, then pour in the gravy, 
and stir in all till the gravy has thickened, Serve very hot. If a white in- 
stead of a brown dish is wished for, the onions must be stewed in butter, and 
the sauce made of veal broth mixed with a little milk and flour. Pepper 
and salt to taste. 

ASPIC JELLY. To three pints of clear stock (that made from knuckle of 
veal is good) add two ounces of gelatine that has been softened in cold 
water. Beat up the whites and shells of two eggs and one yolk; add them 
to the stock, and put into a saucepan, with a tablespoonful of catsup, one of 
vinegar, and a teaspoonful each of savory, thyme, marjoram and parsley, 
and a smaller quantity of mace, cloves, allspice, white pepper and salt, 
and one wineglass of wine. Set it over a slow fire, stirring till it boils ; 
let it cook slowly for a few minutes, giving it constant attention ; then 
set it aside to settle; strain it through a coarse cloth or a fine sieve, and 
set it away to harden. It should be perfectly clear, and may be cut into 
blocks or dice for garnish, or cut into thin slices and alternated with 
slices of ham or beef, or it may be melted and poured upon chopped chicken 
in a mold. There are many other ways in which it may be useful and orna- 
mental. It is very nourishing, and generally very acceptable to sick per- 
sons, especially if given to them in small quantities ice-cold. 

To MAKE KITCHEN VEGETABLES TENDER. When peas, beans, etc., do not 
boil easily, it has usually been imputed to the coldness of the season, or 
the rains. This peculiar notion is erroneous. The difficulty of boiling 
them soft arises from an excess of gypsum imbibed during their growth. To 
correct this, throw a small quantity of carbonate of soda (common baking 
soda) into the pot along with the vegetables. 

To KEEP CHEESE MOIST. Many housekeepers complain that their cheese 
becomes dry, and some use a kind of bell-glass to put their cheese in. A 
very simple expedient will keep cheese in the best condition. Take a linen 
cloth, or cheese cloth, dip it in w r hite wine, squeeze out excess of wine, and 
wrap up the cheese in it. By doing this the cheese is not only kept moist, 
but its flavor is improved. 

To CLEAN VEGETABLES OF INSECTS. Make a strong brine of one pound and 
a half of salt to one gallon of water, into this place the vegetables with the 
stalk ends uppermost, for two or three hours ; this will destroy all the in- 
sects which cluster in the leaves, and they w T ill fall out and sink to the bot- 
tom of the water. 

To DRESS SALT MACKEREL. Take mackerel from the salt, and lay them in- 
Bide downward in a pan of cold water for two or three days; change the 
water once or twice, and scrape the fish clean without breaking it. When* 
fresh enough, wipe one dry and hang it in a cool place ; then fry or broil ; or 
lay one in a shallow pan, the inside of the fish down; cover it with hot 
water, and set it over a gentle fire or in an oven for twelve or fifteen 
minutes; then pour off the water, turn the fish, put bits of butter in the 
|jan, and over the fish sprinkle pepper, then let it fry for five minutes, then 
dish it. 



FRAGMENTS. 411- 

SCRAPPLE. It is composed of the head-meat, trimmings of the hams and 
shoulders, flitch, smaller parts of the chine, the heart, part of the liver and 
the skin off the parts intended for lard and sausage. The spleen, kidneys and 
cracklings are used by some and rejected by others. The feet and ears may 
also be used. The head is split between the jaws, and after the tongue is 
taken out it is split through the middle the other way. Cut off one or two 
inches of the snout and take off the jaw-bone and nasal cavities as far as 
the teeth extend, and cut across at the eye and also at the opening of the ear. 
The meat may then be cleaned put evenly. Put the head meat into the boiler 
.after putting in water to cover it, add the rest of the meat in a quarter of an 
hour. The meat must be boiled until it will readily separate from the 
bones; (the skins should be boiled separately as they take a long time to 
boil); then taken from the liquid, the bones removed and the meat chopped 
fine. Strain the liquid to get out the small bones, and add to it enough 
water to make five parts liquid to three of meat. Set the liquid to boiling, 
and as soon as it commences stir in meal and boil fifteen or twenty minutes, 
stirring all the time. Make a moderately thick mush, then put in meat, mix- 
ing thoroughly and season to taste. It takes about as much meal as meat, 
but no buckwheat nor flour. The Indian meal must be ground fine, of new 
corn, well dried before grinding. The meat must be very finely chopped. 
Put away in tin pans or earthern pots in cold place. Unless kept very 
cold, it will not keep many weeks, but its popularity generally keeps it from 
spoiling. It is be fried for the table, and eaten hot, of course. Those who 
are unacquainted w r ith this dish, and many of our readers are, should give 
it a trial. 

DRIED PUMPKIN. Take ripe pumpkins, cut into small pieces, stew soft, 
mash and strain through a colander, as if for making pies. Spread this 
pulp on plates, in layers some half an inch thick ; dry it in a stove oven, 
'which should be kept at so low a temperature as not to scorch it. In about 
a day it will become dry and crisp. The sheets thus made can be stowed 
away in a dry place, and are always ready for use, cither for pies or stew- 
ing. On going to use, soak portions of the article in a little milk over night, 
when it will return to as delicious a pulp as if made of a pumpkin when 
fresh. 

PLAIN BOILED INDIAN PUDDING. Scald one and a half pints Indian meal 
with half pint boiling water; add four tablespoons Graham flour, one pint 
milk (either sweet or sour), two tablespoons molasses, half a teaspoon ginger, 
a little salt and one level teaspoon soda (or a little more if sour milk is used) ; 
two tablespoons chopped suet will make it more light and tender, but may 
be omitted. Put- into it a well-greased pudding-boiler (two-quart), leaving 
room to swell, and boil three or four hours in a kettle of water. Or it 
may be tied in a pudding-cloth, leaving room to swell; or steamed in a 
small tin pail for same length of time. 

VEAL AND HAM PIE. Cut the veal and ham into thin slices, lay a slice 
-of ham (about one-third the slice of the veal, season it with the season- 
ing as given above, and roll them up and place them in the dish, add 
water and chopped (not sliced) hard-boiled eggs, place on the crust and 
bake in a moderate heat, the same as for beefsteak pie. If the ham is very 
salt use less salt and more pepper in the seasoning. Parsley is a great 
favorite generally with veal. Those wishing it can add it ; also force meat 
balls. Catsup, either mushroom or tomato or a little Worcestershire sauce, 
may also be added. Some are very fond of sausage meat added to the 
"veal pie ; but all these are mere matters of taste. Prof. C. H. King. 

POTTED BEEF. Put the beef in a kettle, with some little slices of salt 
pork at the bottom ; sprinkle with salt and a little Cayenne peeper, pour 
-over two tablespoon fuls of vinegar, and set the kettle over the fire, cover- 
ing it closely. When it has fried a little at the bottom, turn the meat, 
and in ten minutes add a half pint of water. Do not let the meat boil 
dry, but add a little water occasionally, letting it cook slowly, and keep it 
closely covered. 



412 FRAGMENTS. 

BEEF OMELET. Three pounds beef chopped fine, three eggs beaten 
together, six crackers rolled fine, one table-spoon salt, one tea-spoon pepper, 
one table-spoon melted butter, sage to taste. Mix well and make lik>- a 
loaf of bread; put a little water and bits of batter into the pan. invert a pan 
over it. baste occasionally, bake an hour and a quarter, and when cold 
slice very thin. 

CHICKEN- OR BEEF CROQUETTES. Take cold chicken, or roast or boiled 
beef or veal, mince very tine, moisten with the cold gravy if at hand, or 
moisten well, and add one egg, season with pepper, salt and an onion or sage ; 
make into small calces, cover with egg and bread-crumbs, and fry in lard 
and butter. One cup fresh boiled rice may be added before making into- 
cakes. 

APPLE-BUTTER CUSTARD PIE. Beat together four eggs, one tea-cup apple- 
butter, one of sugar, one level table-spoon allspice, add one quart sweet milk 
and pinch of salt; bake in three pies with an under-crust; and, by the way. 
never omit a pinch of salt in custard and lemon pie ; and, in fact, many kinds 
of fruit pies, such as green-apple, currant, gooseberry, and pie-plant, are 
improved by it. 

SWEETIE'S FAVORITES. Three eggs, cne tea-spoon sugar, one coffee-cup 
sweet milk, one of warm water, four table-spoons potato yeast, flour enough 
to make stiff batter; beat yolks and sugar well, stir in milk, water, and yeast, 
and lastly flour, stir well, and set in warm place to rise ; when light, beat 
whites to a stiff froth, and stir into batter with a pinch of salt; bake like 
"batter cakes. These are splendid for breakfast if set the night before. 

POTATO CAKES. Mix thoroughly with cold, mashed potatoes left from 
dinner, the well-beaten yolk of "an egg ; make into cakes as you would sau- 
sages, place in skillet with a table-spoon hot ham or beef-drippings, cover 
tightly, and, in five minutes, when lower side is browned, turn, remove cover, 
fry until the other side is a nice brown ; serve hot. Make up after dinner 
ready for frying for breakfast. 

PO'TATOES'A LA DUCHESSE are now the most fashionable, and, if a really good 
potato is capable of being improved, perhaps this is the best method. Take 
cold, mashed potatoes, roll out and form into little biscuit-shaped cakes (a 
little flour will be required to form them, but do not mix flour with the 
potato), arrange cakes on a pie-plate, glaze them over with beaten egg, and 
bake to a delicate brown. 

ESCALOPED TURKEY. Moisten bread-crumbs with a little milk, butter a pan 
and put in it a layer of crumbs, then a layer of chopped (not very fine) cold 
turkey seasoned with salt and pepper, then a layer of crumbs, and so on un- 
til pan is full. If any dressing or gravy has been left add it. Make a thick- 
ening of one or two eggs, half a cup of milk, and quarter cup butter and 
bread-crumbs ; season and spread it over the top ; cover with a pan, bake 
half an hour and then let it brown. 

BREAKFAST STEW. Cut three-fourths of a pound of cold roast beef into 
small pieces, heat slowly with half a pint cold water, one table-spoon Chili- 
sauce, a tea-spoon salt, and half a tea-spoon pepper. Rub two table-spoons 
flour with some butter and a little of the hot gravy, add to the beef, let 
cook until the flour is done, and then serve with bits of dry toast. Slices 
of onions may be first cooked and the meat added to them, with or without 
Chili-sauce. 

BOXNY CLABBER. This dish is in perfection in the summer, when milk 
sours and thickens very quickly. It should be very cold when served. A 
nice way is to pour the "milk before it has thickened into a glass dish, and 
when thick set on ice for an hour or two, and it is ready to serve, and 
really a very pretty addition to the supper table. Serve in sauce dishes or 
deep" dessert plates, sprinkle with sugar (maple is nice), and a little grated 
nutmeg if liked. 

CORX MEAL WAFFLES. To the beaten yolks of three eggs, add one quart 
of sour milk or butter-milk, corn meal to make a batter a little thicker 



FEAGMENTS. 413 

than for pan-cakes, one tea-spoon salt, one of soda dissolved in a little warm 
water, then the well-beaten whites; flour may be used instead of corn meal. 
This is also a good rule for pan-cakes, making the batter thinner. For dress- 
ing for waffles, put on the stove a half cup cream, a table-spoon butter, 
and two of sugar; when hot, put two table-spoons on each waffle when 
placed in the dish to serve. 

EGOLESS SQUASH OR PUMPKIN PIE. Stew the squash or pumpkin till very 
dry, and press through a colander ; to each pint of this allow one table- 
spoon butter, beat in while warm one cup brown sugar or molasses ; a lit- 
tle salt, one table-spoon cinnamon, one tea-spoon ginger, and one half tea- 
spoon soda; a little allspice may be added, but it darkens the pies; roll a 
few crackers very fine, and add a handful to the batter, or thicken with two 
tablespoons flour or one of corn starch. As the thickening property of 
pumpkin varies, some judgment must be used in adding milk. 

SCKAPPLE. Scrape and clean well a pig's-head as directed in " Pig's-head 
Cheese," put on to boil in plenty of water, and cook four or five hours 
until the bones will slip easily from the meat; take out, remove bones, and 
chop the meat fine, skim off the grease from liquor in pot, and return the 
chopped meat to it; season highly with salt.and pepper, and a little pow- 
dered sage if liked, and add corn meal till of the consistency of soft mush ; 
cook slowly one hour or more, pour in pans, and set in a cool place. This 
is nice sliced and fried for breakfast in winter, and will answer in place of 
meat on many occasions. 

FRICASSEED* AND FRIED POTATOES. Slice cold boiled potatoes, put into a 
dripping-pan, add milk, salt, pepper, and small lump of butter, allowing 
half a pint of milk to a dozen potatoes, place in oven for about fifteen min- 
utes, stir occasionally with a knife to keep from burning; they should 
brown slightly on the'top; or put in sauce-pan lump of butter, when melted 
add a level table-spoon flour, cook a few minutes and add a tea-cup new milk 
or cream, season with salt and pepper; w T hen it boils, add sliced potatoes, and 
boil till potatoes are thoroughly heated. To fry, slice and fry in butter or 
ham or beef-drippings, using only enough fat to prevent sticking ; sprinkle 
with salt, cover with tin lid so that they may both fry and steam. 

WELSH KARE-BIT. Cut thin slices of bread, remove the crust, and toast 
quickly ; butter it, and cover with thin slices of rather new rich cheese, 
spread* over a very little made mustard, and place on a pie-tin or plate in a 
hot oven till the cheese is melted, w r hen cut in square pieces of any size 
desired, and serve at once on a hot platter, as it is quite spoiled if allowed to 
get cold. The mustard may be omitted if desired; and some think it more 
delicate to dip the toast quickly, after buttering, into a shallow pan of boil- 
ing water; have some cheese ready melted in a cup, and pour some over each 
slice. The best way to serve is to have little plates made hot, place a slice on 
each plate, and serve one to each person. 

YANKEE DRIED BEEF. Slice very thin, put in frying-pan witli water to 
cover, let come to boiling point, pour off, and add pint of milk, lump of 
butter, and a thickening of a little flour and milk, stir well, and, just before 
serving, some add an egg, stirring it in quickly; or, chip very fine, freshen. 
add a lump of butter and six or eight eggs, stir well, and serve at once. 
Cold boiled or baked beef may be sliced and cooked in the same way. O, 
after the freshening, first frizzle it in butter, dredge with flour, and add f .he 
milk. When ends or thin pieces of dried beef become too dry and hard, 
put in cold water and boil slowly six or eight hours, and slice when cold ; or, 
soak over night in cold water, and boil three or four hours. Many think all 
dried beef is improved by this method. 

CURD OR COTTAGE CHEESE. Set a gallon or more of clabbered milk on 
the stove hearth or in the oven after cooking a meal, leaving the door open; 
turn it around frequently, and cut the curd in squares with a knife, stirring 
gently now and then till about as warm as the finger will bear, and the whey 
shows all around the curd ; pour all into a coarse bag, and hang to drain in 



414 FRAGMENTS. 

a cool place for three or four hours, or over night if made in the evening. 
When wanted, turn from the bag, chop rather coarse with a knife, and dress 
with salt, pepper, and sweet cream. Some mash and rub thoroughly with 
the cream ; others dress with sugar, cream, and a little nut-meg, omitting 
the salt and pepper. Another way is to chop fine, add salt to taste, work 
in a very little cream or butter, and mold into round balls. 

POTATOES A LA LYONNAISE are much simpler than the name implies. Rub a 
lump of good butter over the inside of a clean, smooth, slightly warmed 
skillet, turn in some cold boiled potatoes cut up, add pepper, salt, a little 
chopped parsley, and perhaps the least bit of onion very fine. Shake from 
time to time and see that they do not brown. ''Fried white" is the accepted 
slang in fashionable hotels for this very elegant mystification in the art of 
potato cooking. If, for your stomach's sake, you should prefer to have your 
potatoes actually fried a savory crisp brown, drop in smoking hot lard or nice 
drippings (never in butter, as it scorches too quickly; warm up or sauti fry 
in a well-greased frying-pan in butter, but fry, or rather boil, in lard or 
drippings). 

STUFFED BEEFSTEAK is as nice for dinner as a much more expensive 
joast, and it can be prepared from a rather poor flank or round steak ; pound 
well, season with salt and pepper, then spread with a nice dressing may use 
some of the bread-crumbs roll up and tie closely with twine (which always 
^ave from the grocer's parcels), put in a kettle with a quart boiling water, 
boil slowly one hour, take out and place in dripping-pan, adding water in 
which it was boiled, basting frequently until a nice brown, and making gravy 
of the drippings ; or you may put it at once into the dripping-pan, omit the 
toiling process, skewer a couple slices salt pork on top, add a very little water, 
baste frequently, and, if it bakes too rapidly, cover with a dripping-pan. It 
.is delicious sliced down cold. 

How TO MAKE NICE GRAVY is a problem many housekeepers never solve. 
Remember that grease is not gravy, neither is raw flour. Almost any kind 
-of meat-liquor or soup-stock, from which all fat has been removed, may be 
.made into nice gravy, by simply adding a little seasoning and some thicken- 
ing; if browned flour is used for the latter, the gravy w r ill require but little 
cooking, but when thickened with ra\v flour, it must cook until thoroughly 
-done, or the gravy w r ill taste like so much gummy paste. It is best to brown 
& quart of flour at a time. Put in a skillet, set in the oven or on top of the 
stove, stir often until it is a light-brown, put into a wide-mouthed bottle, 
cork and keep for use. All gravies should be w r ell stirred over a rather hot 
iire, as they must be quickly made, and must boil, not simmer. 

POTATO FLOUR is an addition to many kinds of breads, cakes, and pud- 
dings, making them more light and tender. Wash, peel, and grate into an 
earthen pan, filled with pure, soft cold water; w T hen the water begins to 
clear by the settling of the pulp to the bottom, pour off the water and add 
more, stir pulp w r ith hand, rub through a hair sieve, pour on more water, 
let stand until clear, pour off and renew again, repeating several times until 
the farina is perfectly white and the water clear. The air darkens it, and it 
must be kept in the water as much as possible during the process. Spread 
the prepared farina before the fire, covering with paper to keep it from dust; 
when dry, pulverize it, sift, bottle, and cork tightly. Potato jelly may be 
made by' pouring boiling water on the flour, and it will soon change into a 
jelly ; flavor and sweeten to taste. 

STEWS, if properly prepared, are very palatable. If made from fresh meat, 
they should be immersed in boiling water at first, and then placed where it 
will simmer slowly until done ; season, add thickening, and flavor with an 
onion, or a tea-spoon of curry powder; or prepare a poor beefsteak by first 
trimming off all the fat and cutting in convenient pieces, fry in butter or 
drippings to a nice brown on both sides, then add a little sliced onion, car- 
rots, or turnips, seasoning, a tea-spoon Chili-sauce, and one pint soup stock, 
or water ; stew gently two or three hours, skim off any grease, and stir in a 



FRAGMENTS. 415 

little flour mixed with milk. To make a stew of cold meat, first make the 
gravy of stock, add a fried sliced onion, pepper and salt, and a tea-spoon 
catsup ; let it boil, and set aside to cool ; when nearly cold, put in thinly- 
cut slices of cold meat, and a few slices cold potatoes, and let heat grad- 
ually until it comes to the boiling point ; serve with bread cut in dice and 
fried. 

MEAT PIE. Put a layer of cold roast beef or other bits of meat, chopped 
very fine, in bottom of dish, and season with pepper and salt, then a layer 
of powdered crackers, with bits of butter and a little milk, and thus place 
alternate layers until dish is full ; wet well with gravy or broth, or a little 
warm water ; spread over all a thick layer of crackers which have been sea- 
soned with salt and mixed with milk and a beaten egg or two ; stick bits of 
butter thickly over it, cover with a tin pan, and bake half to three-quarters 
of an hour; remove cover ten minutes before serving, and brown. Make 
moister if of veal. Or, another way of making the pie is to cover any bits or 
bones, rejected in chopping, with nearly a pint of cold water, and let them 
simmer for an hour or more ; strain and add a chopped onion, three table- 
spoons Chili-sauce, a level table-spoon of salt, and the chopped meat; let 
simmer a few minutes, thicken with a table-spoon of flour mixed in water, 
let boil once, take off and let cool; put a layer of this in a pudding-dish, 
then a layer of sliced hard-boiled eggs and a few slices from cold boiled pota- 
toes, then the rest of the meat, then eggs, etc. ; cover with pie-crust or a 
"baking-powder crust, make an opening in the center, and bake forty min- 
utes. 

To STUFF A HAM, wash and scrape the skin till very white, cut out a piece 
from thick part (use for frying), leaving the skin on the ham as far as possible, 
as it makes a casing for the stuffing ; put in a boiler and steam for three hours ; 
take out and score in thin slices all around the skin ; fill the space cut out with 
a stuffing made of bread-crumbs, same as for poultry, only not quite so rich, 
seasoned rather highly with pepper and sage ; wrap around a strip of cotton 
cloth to keep in place, and bake in the stove one and a half hours, turning so 
as to brown all sides nicely. The last half hour sift lightly with powdered 
sugar and cinnamon. (Some peel off the skin after steaming, stuff and roast 
as before.) What remains after once serving is delicious sliced down cold. 
The first we ever ate was at a thanksgiving dinner, cooked in a Southern 
kitchen, by an old-fashioned fire-place, in an iron bake-oven, and the savory 
flavor lingers still in our memory. Nicely cured boiled ham is a never-fail- 
ing source of supply, from which quite a variety of dishes may be prepared. 

GRATED HAM is one of the nicest relishes for supper or lunch, or for sand- 
wiches. Cut a good-sized piece from the thickest portion of a boiled ham, 
trim off the fat, grate the lean part, and put in the center of a platter ; slice 
some tiny slips of the fat and place around the edge, together with some ten- 
der hearts of lettuce-heads, and serve for supper or lunch. 

To economize the scraps left from boiled ham, chop fine, add some of the 
fat also chopped, and put in a baking-plate, first a layer of bread-crumbs, 
then a layer of mixed fat and lean, then another layer of crumbs, and so on 
till all is used, putting a few bits of fat over the top ; pour over it a little 
water, or a dressing of some kind, and set in oven till a nice brown. This is 
delicious for breakfast, or for a "picked up dinner," after having made a 
soup from the bone, well cracked and simmered for three hours with a few 
sliced potatoes and rice, or dried corn and beans which have first been soaked 
and parboiled. In boiling hams, always select an old ham ; for broiling, one 
recently cured. After boiling and skinning a ham, sprinkle well with sugar 
and brown in oven. 

THE CARE OF FAT AND DRIPPINGS is as necessary in any family as the 
care of last year's garden seeds or the " Family Record." Especially when 
much meat is used, there is a constant accumulation of trimmings of fat, 
drippings from meats, etc., which should be tried out once in two or three 
days in summer in winter once a week will do. The fat which rises ajter 



416 FRAGMENTS. 



boiling beef, pork, and poultry, is UM-.I for shortening or frying. Cut up in 
small pieces, put in skillet, cover, try out slowly, stir occasionally, and skim 
well ; add the cakes of fat saved from the top of meat liquor, slice a raw 
potato and cook in it to clarify it (some add a pinch of soda), strain all the 
clear part into a tin can or stone jar, or pour over drippings a quart of boil- 
ing wat( T and strain through muslin or a fine sieve, let cool, take out the 
cake which forms on the top, scrape the refuse from the bottom, pour again 
into a skillet and heat until all the water is out, then pour into a jar, and 
you will find it very nice to use either alone or with butter and lard in fry- 
ing potatoes, doughnuts, etc. The leaf fat of mutton should always be tried 
out l>y itself, and used for chapped hands and such purposes." The fat 
which is not nice enough for any of the above uses, should be tried out and 
placed in a jar, kettle, or soft wood cask of strong lye, to which all soap 
grease should be consigned. Eemember that the fat from boiling ham or 
from boiling meats with vegetables is never fit for cooking purposes, but 
should be thrown into the soap grease. After skinning and trimming the 
boiled ham, the fat which remains may be tried out and used for drippings, 
and is as sweet as butter. Observe never to use for this soap grease lean 
meat or raw fat. Keep a stick with which to stir occasionally, and it will 
need but little boiling to make the best of soft soap. 

Mother has many other valuable ideas on how to stop the numberless 
little "leaks," which keep many a family in want, while a little care and 
economy in these minor details would insure a fair competency ; but she 
thinks it better to have the ideas she has already given thoroughly digested 
before clogging them with others. She says a neat clean home, a tidy table, 
and well cooked palatable meals, are safeguards against the evils of the ale- 
house, the liquor saloon, and the gambling-table. So that we may, with our 
frying-pans and soup-kettles, wage a mighty war against intemperance, for 
seldom is a well-fed man a drunkard; and thus our attempts at palatable and 
economical cooking may "kill two birds with one stone." 

By the way, she has just taken up a paper from which she reads this item 
by Prof. Blot : " Wasting is carried on so far and so extensively in American 
kitchens that it will soon be one of the common sciences." " Just as I told 
you," says mother, as she folds her hands complacently together, looks down 
at the bright figures of the carpet, and repeats in her slow-measured way: 
" After all, whether we save or spend, the life is more than meat, and the 
foodv more than raiment." 




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COOKS' TIME-TABLE. 



417 





Mode of 
Preparation. 


Time of 
Cooking 


Time of 
Digest'* 




Raw 


H.M. 


H.M. 

2 50 


Apples sweet and. mellow 


Raw 




1 50 




Boiled 


15 to 30 ' 


2 30 




Boiled 


1 00 ' 


2 30 




Boiled 


45 i 


3 45 


Beef - 


Roasted 


* 25 


3 00 




Broiled 


15 


3 00 


Beefsteek . 


Fried 


15 


4 00 


Beef, salted. 


Boiled 


* 35 


4 15 


Buss fresh 


Broiled 


20 


3 00 


Beets, youn " 


Boiled 


2 00 


3 45 


Beets, old 


Boiled 


4 30 


4 00 




Baked 


45 


3 15 


Bread, wheat 


Baked 


1 00 


3 30 


Butter . 


Melted 




3 30 


Cabbage 


Raw 




2 30 


Cabbage and vinegar 


Raw 




2 00 


Cabbage .... 


Boiled 


1 00 


4 30 


Cauliflower 


Boiled 


12 00 


2 30 


Cake, sponge 


Baked 


45 


2 30 


Carrot, orange 


Boiled 


1 00 


3 15 


Cheese, old 


Raw 




3 30 


Chicken 


Fricasseed 


1 00 


3 45 


Codfish, dry and whole 


Boiled 


* 15 


2 00 


Custard, (one quart) 


Baked 


30 


2 45 


Duck, tame 


Roasted 


1 30 


4 00 


Duck, wild 


Roasted 


1 00 


4 50 


Dumpling, apple 


Boiled 


1 00 


3 00 


Esrscs. hard .. 


Boiled 


10 


3 30 


Eo'o'S,, SOlt 


Boiled 


3 


3 00 


Eoro-s 


Fried 


5 


3 30 


Eggs 


Raw 




2 00 


Fowls, domestic, roasted or 


Boiled 


1 00 


4 00 


Crelatine ~ 


Boiled 




2 30 


Ooose, wild 


Roasted. 


* 20 


2 30 


Lamb 


Boiled 


* 20 


2 30 


Meat and vegetables 


Hashed 


80 


2 30 


Milk 


Ra\v 




2 15 


Milk 


Boiled 




2 00 


Mutton 


Roast 


* 25 


3 15 


Mutton 


Broiled 


20 


3 00 


Onions * 


Boiled 


1_2 00 


3 00 


Oysters 


Roasted 




3 15 


Oysters 


Stewed 


5 


3 30 


Parsnips 


Boiled 


1 00 


3 00 


Pig's feet 


Soused 




1 00 


Pork 


Roast 


* 30 


5 15 


Pork 


Boiled 


* 25 


4 30 


Pork, raw or 


Fried 




4 15 


Pork 


Broiled 


20 


3 15 


Potatoes 


Boiled 


30 


3 30 


Potatoes 


Baked 


45 


3 30 


Potatoes 


Rousted 


45 


2 30 


Rice 


Boiled 


20 


1 00 


Salmon, fresh 


Boiled 


8 


1 45 


Sausage 


Fried 


25 


4 00 


Sausage 


Broiled 


20 


8 30 


Soup, vegetable 


Boiled 


1 00 


4 00 


Soup, chicken 


Boiled 


2 00 


3 GO 


Soup, oyster or mutton. 


Boiled 


t3 30 


3 30 


Spinach 


Boiled 


1 2 00 


2 30 


Tapioca 


Boiled 


1 30 


2 00 


Tomatoes 


Fresh 


1 00 


2 30 


Tomatoes. ... . 


Canned 


30 


2 30 


Trout, salmon, fresh, boiled or 


Fried 


30 


1 30 


Turkey, boiled or 


Roasted 


* 20 


2 30 


Turnips 


Boiled 


45 


3 30 


Veal 


Broiled 


20 


4 00 


Venison Steak 


Broiled 


20 


1 35 



* Minutes to the pound. f Mutton soup. 

The time given is the general average ; the time will vary slightly with the quality of the article 

27 



TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

1 quart sifted flour (well heaped) weighs 1 Ib. 

3 coffee-cups sifted flour (level) weigh 1 Ib. 

4 tea-cups sifted flour (level) weigh 1 Ib. 
1 quart unsifted flour weighs 1 Ib. 1 oz. 

1 quart sifted Indian meal weighs 1 Ib. 4 oz. 

1 pint soft butter (well packed) weighs 1 Ib. 

2 tea-cups soft butter (well packed) weigh 1 Ib. 
1% pints powdered sugar weigh 1 Ib. 

2 coffee-cups powdered sugar (level i weigh 1 Ib. 
2% tea-cups powdered sugar (level) weigh 1 Ib. 

1 pint granulated sugar heaped) weighs 14 oz. 

1% coffee-cups granulated sugar (level) weigh 1 Ib. 

2 tea-cups granulated sugar (level) weigh 1 Ib. 

1 pint coffee "A" sugar weighs 12 oz. 

1% coffee-cups coffee "A" sugar level) weigh 1 Ib. 

2 tea-cups coffee "A" sugar (well heaped) weigh. 1 Ib. 
" pint best brown sugar weighs 13 oz. 

^Z coffee-cups best brown sugar level) weigh 1 Ib. 
2% tea-cups best brown sugar (level) weigh 1 Ib. 
2% coffee-cups Indian meal (level) equal 1 qt. 
3% tea-cups Indian meal (level) equal 1 qt. 

1 table-spoon (well heaped) granulated "coffee A" or best brown sugar, loz. 

2 table-spoons (well rounded) of powdered sugar or flour weigh 1 oz. 

1 table-spoon (well rounded) of soft butter weighs 1 oz. 
Soft butter size of an egg weighs 2 oz. 

7 table-spoons granulated sugar (heaping) equal 1 tea-cup. 

5 table-spoons sifted flour or meal (heaping) equal 1 tea-cup. 
4 table-spoons soft butter (well heaped) equal 1 teai-cup. 

3 table spoons sweet chocolate grated weigh 1 oz. 

2 tea-spoons (heaping) of flour, sugar or meal, equal 1 heaping table-spoon, 

LIQUIDS. 

1 pint contains 16 fluid ounces (4 gills). 

1 ounce contains 8 fluid drachms ,% gill). 

1 table-spoon contains about % fluid ounce. 

1 tea-spoon contains about 1 fluid drachm. 

A tea-spoonful (for brevity, tea-spoon is used for tea-spoonful in the recipes 
of this book) is equal in volume to 45 drops of pure water (distilled) at 60 deg. Fall. 
Teaspoons vary so much in size that there is a wide margin of difference in 
containing capacity. 

4 tea-spoonfuls equal 1 table-spoon or % fluid ounce. 
16 table-spoonfuls equal % pint. 

1 wine-glass full (common size) equals 4 table-spoons or 2 fluid oz. 

1 tea-cupful equals 8 fluid oz. or 2 gills. 

4 tea-cupfuls equal 1 qt. 

A common-sized tumbler holds about % pint. 

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 

16 drams (dr.) make 1 ounce (oz.) 25 pounds make 1 quarter 'qr.) 

16 ounces make 1 pound (Ib.) 4 quarters make 1 hundred weight (cwt). 

2000 weight makes 1 ton (T). 

LIQUID MEASURE. 

4 gills (gi.) make 1 pint (pt.) | 2 pints make 1 quart (qt.) 

4 quarts make 1 gallon (gal.) 



Apples, dried, bushel, 
Beef, firkin, 
Pork, barrel, 
Beans, bushel, 
Butter, firkin, 

tub, 

Peaches, dried, bushel 
Fish, barrel, 
" quintal, 
(418) 



WEIGHTS 

25 pounds. 
100 
200 

60 

56 

84 

33 
200 
112 



OF ARTICLES. 

Flour, barrel, net, 1% pounds. 
Honey, gallon, 12 

Molasses, hhd., 130 to 150 gallons. 
Salt, barrel, 3% bushels. 
" bushel, 70 pounds. 
Sugar, barrel, 200 to 250 pounds. 
Soap, barrel, 256 " 

" box, 75 " 

Tea, chest, 60 to 84 " 



WHEN FOOD IS IN SEASON". 

APPLES are in season all the year ; cheapest from August until spring. 

ARTICHOKES (JERUSALEM) are ready for use in September. 

ASPARAGUS from the first of May until middle of June. 

BASS, of which there are a dozen varieties, at all times of the year. 

BEANS, String, June to November; Lima, from July through the year, 

BEE^ is good at all seasons of the year. 

BEETS from June through the year. 

BLACKBERRIES from July to September. 

BLUE FISH, a popular fish on the sea coast, from June to October. 

BRANT, a choice wild fowl, April and May, and September and October. 

BREAM, a fish sometimes known as dace, in the winter months. 

BROCCOLI, a kind of cabbage, from September to November. 

BUCKWHEAT CAKES in cold weather. 

BUTTERNUTS ripen in September. 

CABBAGE, May and June, and lasts through the winter. 

CARROTS come from the South, in May, and last until November. 

CAULIFLOWER from June until spring. 

CELERY from August to April, but is better after being touched by frost. 

CHECKERBERRY in winter andjspring. 

CHEESE all the year round. 

CHERRIES from the south in May, and continue till August. 

CHESTNUTS after the first severe frost. 

CHOCOLATE is best in cold weather on account of its richness. 

CHUB, a fresh-water fish, in fall and winter. 

CLAMS from May until September. 

CONGER EELS from November to April. 

CORN, GREEN, from June to September. 

CRABS from June to January, but are more wholesome in the cold months. 

CRANBERRY from September to April. 

CUCUMBERS in the South, April ; in Middle States, June to November. 

CURRANTS, green, June to July; ripe, July to August. 

DAMSONS, a small.blackplum, July to December. 

DOVES, the turtle, one of the best game birds, in August and September. 

DUCKS, DOMESTIC, are best in June and July. WILD in spring and fall. 

EELS from April till November. 

EGGS are always in season, but are cheap in spring and high in winter. 

ELDERBERRIES August and September. 

FISH, as a rule, are in the best condition just before spawning, 

GEESE, wild, from October to December, tame at four month's old. 

GOOSEBERRIES from June to September. 

GRAPES from September till winter. 

GUINEA FOWL, best in winter when they take the place of partridges. 

HADDOCK, from November and December, and June and July. 

HALIBUT in season all the year. 

HERRING from February to May. 

HERBS for seasoning should be gathered just as they begin to flower. 

HORSERADISH is always in season, 

LAMB in March, but from June to August is best as well as cheapest. 

LEMONS arrive fresh from West Indies in winter. 

LOBSTERS are plentiful in market, except in winter months. 

MACKEREL from May through the summer. 

MUSHROOMS are most plentiful in August and September. 

MUSKMELONS from July to the middle of September. 

MUTTON is in season all the year, but is not so good in the fall, the meat 
being drier and strong flavored. 

ONIONS, new, large, from the Bermudas about May 1st, and from the South 
in June, and those of home raising in the Middle States the middle of July. 

(419) 



WHEN FOOD IS IN SEASON. 

ORANGES from Florida and West Indies are in market from October until 
April ; those from the Mediterranean from January until May. The Florida 
oranges are best and largest 

OYSTERS are in season from September to May ; May, June and July being 
the spawning months. 

PARTRIDGES, Pheasants or Ruffled